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B 3 fifiS Obi 






BIOLOGY Received 

Accessions No. 

Shelf No. 





to ate, ant entirdg t&efontten, untor direction of tfje 








Copyright, 1882, 



IN 1873, shortly after the publication of the author's " Key to North American 
Birds," appeared the original edition of this " Check List," which was almost imme- 
diately reissued in connection with the same writer's " Field Ornithology," in 1874. 
That list reflected the classification and nomenclature of the "Key" with much 
exactitude, although it included, in an Appendix, a few species additional to those 
described in the "Key," and made some slight changes in the names. Excepting 
some little comment in foot-notes and in the Appendix, the original " Check List" 
was a bare catalogue of scientific and vernacular names, printed in thick type on one 
side of the paper. 

Meanwhile, the science of Ornithology has progressed, and our knowledge of 
North American birds has increased, both in extent and in precision, until the orig- 
inal list, faithful as it was at the time, fails now to answer the purpose of adequately 
reflecting the degree of perfection to which the subject has been brought. A new 
edition has therefore become necessary. 

The list has been revised with the utmost care. The gratif} r ing degree of accu- 
racy with which it represented our knowledge of 1873 is exhibited in the fact, that 
it is found necessary to remove no more than ten names. On the other hand, 
the progress of investigation has resulted in adding one hundred and twenty names 
to the list, and in showing the necessity or expedienc}^ of making many changes 
in nomenclature. The exact analysis of the differences between the two lists is 
given beyond. 

In revising the list for the main purpose of determining the ornithological statiis 
of every North American bird, the most scrupulous attention has been paid to 
the matter of nomenclature, not only as a part of scientific classification, deter- 
mining the technical relations of genera, species, and varieties to each other, but 
also as involved in writing and speaking the names of birds correctly. The more 
closely this matter was scrutinized, the more evidences of inconsistency, negligence, 


or ignorance were discovered in our habitual use of names. It was therefore 
determined to submit the current catalogue of North American birds to a rigid 
examination, with reference to the spelling, pronunciation, and derivation of every 
name, in short, to revise the list from a philological as well as an ornithological 

The present "Check List," therefore, differs from the original edition in so far 
as, instead of being a bare catalogue of names, it consists in a treatise on the ety- 
mology, orthography, and orthoepy of all the scientific, and many of the vernacular, 
words employed in the nomenclature of North American birds. Nothing of the sort 
has been done before, to the same extent at any rate ; and it is confidently expected 
that the information given here will prove useful to many who, however familiar 
they may be with the appearance of these names on paper, have comparatively little 
notion of the derivation, signification, and application of the words ; and who 
unwittingly speak them as they usually hear them pronounced, that is to say, with 
glaring impropriety. No one who adds a degree of classical proficiency to his 
scientific acquirements, be the latter never so extensive, can fail to handle the tools 
of thought with an ease and precision so greatly enhanced, that the merit of ornitho- 
logical exactitude may be adorned with the charm of scholarly elegance. 

The purpose of the present l ' Check List " is thus distinctly seen to be twofold : 
First, to present a complete list of the birds now known to inhabit North America, 
north of Mexico, and including Greenland, to classify them systematically, and to 
name them conformably with current rules of nomenclature ; these being ornitho- 
logical matters of science. Secondty, to take each word occurring in such technical 
usage, explain its derivation, significance, and application, spell it correctly, and 
indicate its pronunciation with the usual diacritical marks ; these being purely 
philological matters, affecting not the scientific status of any bird, but the classical 
questions involved in its name. 

In the latter portion of his task, which, as is always the case when thorough work 
of any kind is undertaken, proved to be more difficult and more protracted than had 
been expected, and delayed the appearance of the list for nearly a year after the 
ornithological portion had been practically completed, the author of the original list 
has received invaluable assistance from Mrs. S. OLIVIA WESTON-AIKEN, who cor- 
dially shared with him the labor of the philological investigation, and to whose 
scholarly attainments he is so largely indebted, that it is no less a duty than a 
pleasure to recognize the co-operation of this accomplished lady. 


THE original edition of the "Check List" ostensibly enumerates only 635 species 
of North American Birds. This is owing to the fact that only full species are num- 
bered, the many subspecies being given as , b, &c., and some names being inter- 
polated without corresponding numbers, both in the body of the list and in the- 
Appendix. By actual count there are found to be, in the body of the list, 750 ; to- 
which 28 are added in the Appendix : 750 + 28 = 778. 

First, with regard to subtractions. It is in gratifying evidence of the general! 
accuracy of the original list, that it is found necessary to remove only ten (10) 
names. Four of these are extra-limital ; six are mere synonyms. The following; 
is the 


1 . JEgiothus fuscescens. Summer plumage of JE. linaria. 

2. Centronyx ochrocephalus. Fall plumage of Passercvlus bairdi. 

3. Sphyropicus williamsoni. Male of S. thyrotdes. 

4. Lampornis mango. Extra-limital. 

5. Agyrtria linnaei. Extra-limital. 

6. Momotus cceruleiceps. Extra-limital. 

7. Ibis thalassina. Young of Plegadis yuarauna. 

8. Ardea wuerdemanni. Dichromatism of A. occidentalis. 

9. Sterna " longipennis." Meaning S. pikii Lawr. Young of S. macrura. 
1 0. Podiceps cristatus. Extra-limital, as far as known. 

On the other hand, the numerous accessions to the list are in no less gratifying 
evidence of the progress of our knowledge. There are no fewer than one hundred and' 
twenty additions to be made. The large majority of these are species, and 1 
actual acquisitions to the North American list, being birds discovered since 1873 in 
Texas, Arizona, and Alaska, together with several long known to inhabit Green- 
land. It may be here remarked that although the Greenland Fauna has long been 
usually claimed and conceded to be North American, yet the full list of Greenland 


birds has never before * been formally incorporated with the North American, as is 
done in the present instance. Aside from such additions, the increment is repre- 
sented by species or (chiefly) subspecies named as new to science since 1873 ; by a 
few restored to the list ; and by two imported and now naturalized species. The 
following is the full 

LIST OF ADDEND NAMES. [Continued on p. 10-1 

1. Turdus migratorius propinquus. Since described by Ridgway. Western U. S. 

2. Turdus iliacus. Greenland. 

3. Harporhynchus curvirostris (verus). Restored. Arizona. 

4. Cyanecula suecica. Alaska. 

5. Regulus satrapa olivaceus. Recognized as a subspecies. 

6. Parus rufescens neglectus. Since described by Ridgway. California. 

7. Parus cinctus. Alaska. 

8. Psaltriparus melanotis. Restored. Nevada. Arizona. 

9. Catherpes mexicanus (verus). Restored. Texas. 

1 0. Thryothorus ludovicianus miamensis. Since described by Ridgway. Florida. 

1 1 . Anorthura troglodytes pacificus. Recognized as a subspecies. 

1 2. Telmatodytes palustris paludicola. Recognized as a subspecies. 

13. Alauda arvensis. Greenland; "Alaska;" Bermudas. 

14. Motacilla alba. Greenland. 

15. Mniotilta varia borealis. Recognized as a subspecies. 

1 6. Parula nigrilora. Since described by Coues. Texas. 

1 7. Helminthophaga lawrencii. Since described by Herrick. New Jersey. 

18. Helminthophaga leucobronchialis. Since described by Brewster. Mass. 

1 9. Helminthophaga cincinnatiensis. Since described by Langdon. Ohio. 

20. Peucedramus olivaceus. Arizona. 

21. Dendroeca palmarum hypochrysea. Since described by Ridgway. 

22. Siurus naevius notabilis. Since described by Grinnell. Wyoming. 

23. Cardellina rubrifrons. Arizona. 

24. Vireo flavoviridis. Restored. Texas. 

25. Vireo solitarius cassihi. Recognized as a subspecies. 

26. Passer xnontanus. Naturalized. 

27. Leucosticte atrata. Since described by Ridgway. Colorado. 

28. Leucosticte australis. Recognized as & species. 

29. Leucosticte tephrocotis litoralis. Recognized as a subspecies. 

30. -<Egiothus linaria holboelli. Recognized as a subspecies. 

31. JEgiothus hornemanni. Greenland. 

32. Astragalinus notatus. Restored. Kentucky. 

33. Passerculus sandvicensis alaudinus. Recognized as a subspecies. 

34. Ammodramus caudacutus nelsoni. Since described by Allen. Illinois. 

35. Peucaea sestivalis illinoensis. Since described by Ridgway. Illinois. 

36. Peucaea ruficeps boucardi. Arizona. 

37. Junco hiemalis annectens. Recognized as a subspecies. 

38. Junco hiemalis dorsalis. Recognized as a subspecies. 

39. Junco hiemalis cinereus. Arizona. 

40. Passerella iliaca megarhyncha. Recognized as a subspecies. 

41. Molothrus aeneus. Texas. 

42. Sturnella magna mexicana. Texas. 

* " A Catalogue of the Birds of North America," by Robert Ridgway, in Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, pp. 
163-246, published since the above was written, includes Greenland birds, together with various 
Mexican species not yet found within our limits. 


43. Icterus vulgaris. Restored. South Carolina. 

44. Quiscalus purpureus seneus. Recognized as a subspecies. 

45. Cyanocitta stelleri annectens. Recognized as a subspecies. 

46. Perisoreus canadensis fumifrons. Since described by Ridgway. Alaska. 

47. Sturnus vulgaris. Greenland.' 

48. Pitangus derbianus. Texas. 

49. Myiodynastes luteiventris. Arizona. 

50. Myiarchus erythrocercus. Texas. 

5 1 . Empidonax flaviventris difficilis. Restored. Western U. S. 

52. Ornithium imberbe. Texas. 

53. Nyctidromus albicollis. Texas. 

54. Selasphorus alleni. Since described by Henshaw. California. 

55. Calothorax lucifer. Arizona. 

56. Amazilia fuscicaudata. Texas. 

57. Amazilia yucatanensis. Texas. 

58. lache latirostris. Arizona. 

59. Chordediles popetue minor. Florida. 

60. Crotophaga sulcirostris. Texas. 

61. Picus Strickland!. Arizona. 

62. Scops asio maxwellae. Since described by Ridgway. Colorado. 

63. Scops trichopsis. Inserted on Ridgway 's authority. Arizona. 

64. Strix cinerea lapponica. Recognized by Ridgway. Alaska. 

65. Strix nebulosa alleni. Since described by Ridgway. Florida. 

66. Surnia funerea ulula. Recognized by Ridgway. Alaska. 

67. Speotyto cunicularia floridana. Since described by Ridgway. Florida. 

68. Astur atricapillus striatulus. Recognized as a subspecies. Western N. Am. 

69. Falco sacer obsoletus. Recognized as a subspecies. 

70. -Falco islandicus. Restored. Greenland. 

71. Falco sparverio'ides. Florida. 

72. Buteo albocaudatus. Texas. 

73. Urubitinga anthracina. Arizona. 

74. Thrasyaetus harpy ia. Texas. 

75. Haliaetus albicilla. Greenland. 

76. Engyptila albifrons. Texas. 

77. Coturnix dactylisonans. Naturalized. 

78. Charadrius fulvus (verus). Alaska. 

79. Charadrius pluvialis. Greenland. 

80. JEgialites hiaticula. Greenland. 

81. Vanellus cristatus. Greenland. 

82. Haematopus ostrilegus. Greenland. 

83. Gallinago media. Greenland. 

84. Arquatella couesi. Since described by Ridgway. Alaska. 

85. Pelidna alpina (vera). Greenland. 

86. Actodromas acuminata. Alaska. 

87. Limosa aegocephala. Greenland. 

88. Rhyacophilus ochropus. Nova Scotia. 

89. Numenius phaeopus. Greenland. 

90. Ardea cinerea. Greenland. 

91. G-rus canadensis (vera = fraterculus). Recognized. 

92. Parra gymnostoma. Texas. 

93. Rallus longirostris saturatus. Since described by Henshaw. Louisiana. 

94. Porzana maruetta. Greenland. 

95. Cygnus ferus. Greenland. 

96. Cynus bewicki. Restored. Arctic America. 


97. Anser albifrons (verus). Greenland. 

98. Bernicla brenta nigricans. Recognized as a subspecies. 

99. Somateria mollissima dresseri. Recognized as a subspecies. 

100. Phaethon sethereus. Newfoundland. 

101. Phalacrocorax violaceus resplendens. Recognized as a subspecies. California. 

102. Larus cachinnans. Alaska. 

103. Larus affinis. Greenland. 

104. Larus canus. Labrador. 

105. GEstrelata bulweri. Greenland. 

106. Podicipes auritus (verus). Greenland. 

107. Brachyrhamphus brachypterus. Restored. Pacific Coast. 

108. Brachyrhamphus hypoleucus. California. 

109. Brachyrhamphus craverii. California. 

110. Lomvia troile californica. Recognized as a subspecies. California. 

The original number of names, 778, minus 10, plus 120, gives the total of 888 of 
the present edition of the " Check List." The number seems large, in comparison, 
and I am free to confess that it includes some some twent} r or thirt} r , perhaps 
which my conservatism would not have allowed me to describe as valid, and the 
validity of which I can scarcely endorse. I have nevertheless admitted them to a 
place, because I preferred, in preparing a " Check List "for general purposes, rather 
to present the full number of names in current usage, and let them stand for what 
they may be worth, than to exercise any right of private judgment, or make any 
critical investigation of the merits of disputed cases. Probably, however, there are 
not more than thirty cases of birds retained in this list whose claims to be recog- 
nized by subspecific names can be seriously questioned. 

It should be observed, that the list is not yet to be regarded as finally filled. 
Our southern border has proved so fruitful of Mexican species, that various others 
doubtless remain to be there detected ; and several species described as Texan by 
Giraud in 1841 remain to be confirmed. With the accessions that may reasonably 
be expected, and under current usage in the discrimination of subspecific forms, the 
list will probably in a few years contain about 900 names of birds occurring in 
North America north of Mexico and inclusive of Greenland. 

It is to be added here, that the present southern boundary of " North America" 
is a political one, wholly arbitrary so far as natural Faunal areas are concerned. It 
would be far more satisfactory, from a scientific standpoint, to ignore the present 
political line, and construct the " North American" list upon consideration of the 
limits of the " Nearctic Region " of Sclater and Baird. This would be to extend our 
area along the table-lands and higher region of Mexico to about the Isthmus of 
Tehuantepec, but not so far in the tierras calientes of either coast of that country : 
on an average about to the Tropic of Cancer. Such course would give us the 
natural instead of the political Ornis of our country ; and I have no doubt that it 
will some day be taken. A few Cape St. Lucas birds have been so long in the 
"North American" list, that it is not thought worth while to displace them; but 
with these exceptions, it is not intended to include any species not known to occur 
north of Mexico. 


Aside from those modifications which affect the ornithological or scientific status 
of the " Check List," the changes in nomenclature are numerous and in many cases 
radical. Without counting merely literal changes in the spelling of words, nominal 
changes are made for one or another seeming good reason in upwards of 150 cases. 
In probably not more than 30 of these, however, is the ornithological status of any 
bird modified ; the changes being simply nomenclatural. 

This portion of the subject is concluded with the foUowing table, showing the 
number of birds ascribed to North America by several authors who have published 
complete lists from 1814 to the present year. 


Total of North American Birds given by WILSON in 1814 .... 283* 

" " " " BONAPARTE " 1838 .... 471* 

" " " " BREWER " 1840 .... 491 

" " " "" AUDUBON "1844. . . . 506* 

" " " " BAIRD " 1858 .... 744 f 

" " " " COUES " 1874 .... 778 1 

" " " " RIDGWAY " 1880 .... 924$ 

" " " " COUES " 1882 .... 88811 

* Fide Baird : I hare not made the count myself. 

t The number is ostensibly 738 ; but 5 numbers are duplicated in printing, and 1 species is not 
numbered, making 744 ; of which 22 are admitted to be extra-limital, but enumerated. 

J Total of numbered species in the body of the Check List 635; actual number of species and 
subspecies 750 ; with 28 additional in the Appendix, making 778. 

Total of numbered species in the Catalogue 764 ; actual number of species and subspecies 924 ; 
of which 37 are admitted to be extra-limital, for all that is known to the contrary ; and several 
others do not appear to be fully established as North American. 

IF Being the 778 of the orig. ed., minus 10 subtracted, plus 120 added, = 888. 

NOTE. Mr. Ridgway's Catalogue contains the following 52 names of birds which I do not admit 
in the Check List, for reasons which may be inferred from the remarks set against each of them. 
But the Mexican (not insular) species may all be expected over our border; and the recognition of 
subspecies in some cases depends upon the perspective in which we may elect to view them. 

1. Harporhynchus graysoni. Extra-limital. Socorro Is., NW. Mexico. 

2. Regulus obscurus. Extra-limital. Guadalupe Is., Lower California. 

3. Regulus cuvieri. "Pennsylvania" (Audubon). Not since identified. 

4. Parus meridionalis. Extra-limital. Mexico. Since found in Arizona. 

5. Certhia familiar is mexicana. Extra-limital. Mexico. 

6. Salpinctes obsoletus guadalupensis. Extra-limital. Guadalupe Is. 

7. Thryomanes brevicauda. Extra-limital. Guadalupe Is. 

8. Troglodytes insularis. Extra-limital. Socorro Is. 

9. Parula pitiayumi insularis. Extra-limital. Socorro Is. 

10. Penssoglossa carbonata. "Kentucky " (Audubon). Not since identified. 

11. Dendroeca moniana. "Pennsylvania" (Wilson). Not since identified. 

12. Wilsonia minuta. "New Jersey " (Wilson). Not since identified. 

13. Setophaga miniata. "Texas" (Giraud). Doubtless. 

14. Ergaticus ruber. "Texas" (Giraud). Doubtless. 

15. Basileuterus culicivorus. " Texas" (Giraud). Doubtless. 


16. Basileuterus belli. "Texas" (Giraud). Doubtless. 

17: "Lanius ludovicianus robustus. "California" (Gambel). Doubtful. 

18. Progne subis cryptoleuca. Florida. If recognized as distinct. 

19. Euphonia elegantissima. "Texas" (Giraud). Doubtless. 

20. Carpodacus purpureus californicus. California. If recognized as distinct. 

21. Carpodacus amplus. Extra-limital. Guadalupe Is. 

22. Chondestes grammicus strigatus = grammicus. 

23. Junco insularis. Extra-limital. Guadalupe Is. 

24. Pipilo maculatus consobrinus. Extra-limital. Guadalupe Is. 

25. Pipilo maculatus carmani. Extra-limital. Socorro Is. 

26. Passerina pareUina. Extra-limital. Mexico. (Texas, doubtless.) 

27. Icterus wagkri. Extra-limital. Mexico. 

28. Quiscalus palustris. "California" (Gambel). "Louisiana? " (Ridgway). Dubious. 

29. Aphelocoma ultramarina couchi. Extra-limital. Mexico. 

30. Myiozetetes texensis. " Texas" (Giraud). Doubtless. 

31. Empidonaxfulvifrons(verus). " Texas " (Giraud). Doubtless. 

32. Pachyrhamphus major. Extra-limital. Mexico. 

33. Hadrostomus aglaice. Extra-limital. Mexico. 

34. Picus villosus leucomelas. NE. N. Amer. If recognized as distinct. 

35. Colaptes auratus hybridus. Intermediate specimens of unstable character. 

36. Colaptes nifipileus. Extra-limital. Guadalupe Is. 

37. Momotus cceruleiceps. Extra-limital. Mexico. 

38. Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha. Extra-limital. Mexico. 

39. Conurus holochlorus brevipes. Extra-limital. Socorro Is. 

40. Bubo virgfnianus subarcticus. Wisconsin. If recognized as distinct. 

41. Bubo virginianus saturatus. N. coast of N. A. If r?cognized as distinct. 

42. Falco albiguJaris. Extra-limital. Mexico, and C. and S. Am. 

43. JZsalon regulus. Extra-limital. " At sea, off Greenland, lat. 57 41' N., long. 35 23' W.' 

44. Tinnunculus alaudarius. Extra-limital. " At sea, off Cape Farewell, Greenland." 

45. Polyborus lutosus. Extra-limital. Guadalupe Is. 

46. Buteo vulgaris. Michigan (Maynard). Identification in question. 

47. Buteo boreah's socorroensis. Extra-limital. Socorro Is. 

48. Oreortyx picta plumifera. S. and L. California. If recognized as distinct. 

49. Sula cyanops. Extra-limital. Socorro Is. 
60. Sula piscator. Extra-limital. Socorro Is. 

51. Diomedea culminata. Extra-limital. "Off Columbia River " (Audubon). 

52. Lomvia arra brunnichi. If recognized as distinct. 


During the printing of the List, and since the preceding pages were stereotyped, the following 
additions have been announced. They will be found at the end of the list, raising the addend 
names from 110 to 120, and the whole number from 878 to 888. 

111. Parus meridionalis. Arizona. 

112. Myiarchus crinitus cooperi. Arizona. 

113. vociferus arizonae. Since described by Brewster. Arizona. 

114. Buteo brachyurus. Florida. 

115. Buteo fuliginosus. Florida. 

116. Eurinorhyncrms pygmaeus. Alaska. 

117. Fulica atra. Greenland. 

118. Fuligula rufina. New York. 

119. CEstrelata gularis. New York. 

120. Puffinus borealis. Since described by Cory. Massachusetts. r December> 1881 . 



ETYMOLOGY, the erv/u-oAoyia. of the Greeks, consists in tracing the derivation of a 
word back to the root from which it springs, explaining its formation, inflection, and 
application, thereby more clearly illustrating its virtue or quality than can be done 
by merely considering an} r one of the various meanings it may in time acquire. 
For a good illustration of this definition, see the word Cardinalis. 

The large majority of the scientific names of birds are Latin or Greek words, or 
modern compounds of such, derived conformably to the rules for the construction of 
classic terms. In general, therefore, it is easy to give the exact meaning of the 
names in their original acceptation, and to point out their applicability as terms 
descriptive of the objects designated. On the whole, it has not been our design to 
go beyond a good fair definition of these Greek and Latin words, considering that all 
practical purposes are thus subserved. Many of the classic words being themselves 
derivatives, and the field of philological inquiry being boundless, it was necessary 
to keep within certain limits ; and we have therefore seldom found it advisable, even 
were it practicable, in a case like the present, to trace words back of their recog- 
nized stems. Yet there will be found in the present little treatise, it is believed, 
much philological information of interest and actual value to all who desire to be 
put at their ease in the use of the Greek and Latin names of birds. 

Many pure Greek or Latin names of birds known in classic times have been 
transferred in ornitholog} T , in a wholly arbitrary manner, to totally different species. 
Thus the Trochilus of the ancients was an Egyptian Plover ; in ornithological nomen- 
clature, it is a genus of American Humming-birds. So also, many proper names, 
and many of the epithets which classic writers were so fond of bestowing, have been 
adopted as generic or specific names of birds, with little reason or with none, except 
the will of the namer. The genus lache has no more to do with the Greek battle- 
cry than the name of Smith or Brown has to do with trade or color. 


The remaining names, not classic in origin, are a miscellaneous lot not easy to 
characterize tersely. Many are modern geographical or personal names in Latin 
form ; as, wittoni, genitive case of Alexander Wilson's name, Latinized Wilsonus ; 
or wilsonianus, an adjectival form of the same ; americana for" American ; hudson- 
icus, after the territory named for Henry Hudson ; noveboracensis, which is liter- 
ally, inhabiting New York. Some others are post-classic, or late Latin, though in 
perfectly good form ; and there are more of these, we find, than is generally sup- 
posed. Not a few are wholly barbarous, as Pyranga, Guiraca ; and some of these, as 
cheriway, wurmizusume, are barbarous in form as in fact. Some are monstrous 
combinations, like Embernagra from Emberiza and Tanagra, or Podilymbus from Podi- 
ceps and Colymbus. Some are simply Latin translations of vernacular names ; as, 
Pujfinus anglorum, the puffin of the English. Finally, some are anagrams, like 
Dacelo from Alcedo, or pure nonsense-words, as Dafila, Viralva, Xema. 

The student who confidingly expects to discover erudition, propriety, and perti- 
nence in every technical name of a bird, will have his patieuce sorely tried in dis- 
covering what lack of learning, point, and taste many words imply. Besides the 
barbarisms, anomalies, and absurdities already indicated, he must be prepared to 
find names used with as little regard for precision of meaning, almost, as those of 
Smith, Brown, and Jones. Nothing like the nice distinctions, for example, that the 
Romans made between ater and niger, both meaning u black," or between albus and 
Candidas, t4 white," obtains in modern science, where names are too often mere 
sounds without sense, and where the inflexible rules of technical nomenclature com- 
pel us to recognize and use many terms of slight or obscure or entirely arbitrary 
applicability, if only they be not glaringly false or of express absurdity. Let him 
for example, compare the several birds whose specific name is fuscus, and see what 
color-blindness this word covers. 

The large majority of the names being, as already said, of Greek or Latin deriva- 
tion, we are enabled to give a reasonably full and fair account of their et}*mology, 
and to point out their significance and application. There are, perhaps, not two 
dozen words of the whole list which we are unable to explain and define. 


The literation of the scientific names is fixed and exact in nearly all cases. 
Their derivation being known, and their form having crystallized in a language 
" dead" for centuries, the proportion of cases in which the orthography is unsettled 
is comparatively small. In general, there is no alternative spelling of a Greek or 
Latin word, and the modern derivatives are or can be compounded according to 
rules so fixed as to leave little latitude. In some instances, of course, two or more 
admissible forms of the same word occur: as hyemalis or hiemalis, cceruleus or 
cceruleus, Haliceetus or Haliaetus. But, in general, there remains only one right way 
of spelling, and that wa} T easily ascertained. We say, there remains ; for of course 


there were centuries when the classics were undergoing the incessant changes inci- 
dent to all spoken or living languages, just as our tongue is now. But having, in 
the usual process of evolution, reached that point which we mean when we use the 
term " classic," the Greek and Latin have come down to us in a certain form, so 
measurably fixed as to permit no decided ulterior modification. Our orthography, 
as far as possible, should reflect the purity and lucidity of such crystallization ; and 
a little care will enable us to make such reflection clear. 

In the cases of actual Greek and Latin words employed as names of birds, there 
are probably not in the whole list a dozen instances of words which admit of defen- 
sible alternative spelling. In the modern compounds of Greek and Latin stems, 
there is necessarily some little margin for variability ; but in all cases, perhaps, at 
least a defensible orthography may be attained, though some alternative may not 
be without its claims to consideration. We can only say, that in this matter we 
have endeavored to reach good results according to definite recognized rules. 

In the much- vexed question of forming quasi-Latin genitives from the names of 
persons, we have adopted the following simple and uniform rule : If the word ends 
with a consonant add single i for a man's name, ce for a woman's name ; if ending 
with a vowel, change that vowel to i; as bairdi, cassini, but lawrencti, bonapartii ; 
blackburnce, gracice. There are but few exceptions to this, as anna, costce. The 
letter y gives the most trouble : it is best general!}' to treat it as a consonant, and 
say suckleyi, ridgwayi ; but it must sometimes be rendered b} 7 ', as lucice for Lucy 
(Latin Lucia), derbianus from Derby. It is rarely that a case occurs that such 
practice cannot readily meet. Names of birds derived from those of persons may 
of course be from any language, and consequently offer combinations of letters 
unknown in Latin ; but it is useless to attempt to Latinize them, further than by 
giving them a Latin genitive termination. We should be led into the pedantry of 
brunonis for browni, or even of nigri for blacki, if we attempt any systematic Latini- 
zation of " barbarous" proper names. It is best to apply the above rule even to 
names already Latin in form, and write, for instance, blasiusi, not blasii. The 
desirability of such conventional proceeding may be illustrated in the case of a bird 
named after a Mr. Wikox ; better wilcoxi, and be done with it, than vilcocis. 

Hitherto, we have spoken of Latin and Greek names of birds indiscriminate^. 
It will be remembered, however, that we are supposed to write the names always in 
Latin, be they of that language or actually Greek. This brings up the subject of 
the transliteration of words from the latter into the former. Most of the letters of 
the Greek alphabet have their exact and simple equivalents in Latin ; but some can 
only be represented by two Latin letters, and some combinations of Greek letters 
change in passing into Latin words. 

The following are the simple equivalents : a = a; ft = b; y = g ; 8 = d; e = e ; 
= z; 7) = e ; i i ; \ = 1; /* = m ; v = n ; = x ; = 0; TT = p ; p = r ; <r or 
s = s; r = t; o> = o. 

The following are simple substitutions : K = c ; v = y. 


The following are expressed by two letters : or & th ; $ = ph ; % = c h ; 
\l/ = ps. The letter , though written single z, is double, and equals dz. 

There being no letter h in Greek, the aspirate is expressed by the sign ', preced- 
ing a vowel or written over it ; thus a, e, 6, v = ha, he, ho, hy. The letter p also 
takes the aspirate, in which case p = rh ; and when p is doubled, the second is fol- 
lowed by h ; pp rrh. 

Among other transliterations frequently occurring may be noted : Final -77 may or 
does become -a; final -os or -ov becomes -us or -urn. The diphthong cu becomes ce ; 
, i; 01, oe; ov, u; w,yi. The letter y before itself, and before K and x, becomes n; 
thus yy, 7 K, yx = ng, nc, nch. 

It is needless to give formal examples of these rules here ; for the reader will find 
one or more of them illustrated on any page following the introductory matter. 


Correct pronunciation of Greek and Latin is a lost art. The best we can do now 
is to follow the usage of those scholars who conform most nearly with what the}' show 
reason for supposing to have been the powers of the letters as spoken by the Greeks 
and Romans. Unfortunately for the student, there are three reputable schools who 
pronounce certain letters, especially the vowels a, e, and , so differently that their 
respective methods are irreconcilable. 

I. The English Method. In England, and generally in America, excepting in the 
Jesuit colleges, the letters have nearly or exactly their English powers. This school 
teaches us " how not to do it," that is, to pronounce as the Greeks and Romans never 
did. If we imagine a dialogue between an English Professor of Latin and the Manes 
of Cicero, we are bound to infer that they would not understand each other ; in fact, 
that neither would know that the other was talking Latin ; though they might write 
to each other in identical words. Obviously, therefore, the English method is to be 
shunned. If the student will pronounce any word in the following list as if it were 
English, he will give it a sound the furthest possible removed from the right sound. 
The only excuse for the English method we ever heard is, that, as we do not know 
the right pronunciation, a conventional and consistent substitute is better than any 
doubtful approximation ; but such talk is a mere apology for the English pis utter, 
not a defence of that sorry makeshift. 

II. The Continental Method. This is universal in Europe, excepting in England, 
and has gained much ground in America through the teaching of the Jesuits and 
other learned scholars. It is also known as the Italian school. It may be defined, 
in brief, as a compromise between English Latin and Roman Latin ; the vowels having 
nearly or quite what is believed to have been their sounds as spoken by the Romans, 
while the consonants are heard more nearly in their English powers. Leading 
features of the school are : long a as in father ; long e as English a in fate ; long t 
as in machine; long u as English oo in moon; y, as a vowel, practically like i; j like 


y ; c and g hard or soft as they would be in English, and most other consonants as 
in English, nearly or exactly. 

III. The Roman Method. This way of speaking Latin, if practicable, is obviously 
preferable ; and it is believed that a close approximation to Latin orthoepy is fea- 
sible. u The world over, nearly all the -Latin grammarians of the last quarter of a 
century have urged a return to first principles. The Latin has rights of its own, 
and a demonstrated pronunciation which should be respected." * The credit of lead- 
ing this reform in America has been ascribed to the late Professor S. S. Haldeman, 
of the University of Pennsylvania, whose "Elements of Latin Pronunciation" was 
published at Philadelphia in 1851. 

Nevertheless, the practicability of introducing such radical reform among natural- 
ists, to most of whom the writing and speaking of classical words is but an incident 
of their scientific studies, may be seriously doubted, however desirable it is to do 
so. We question whether ornithologists, of this generation at least, can be induced 
to say Kiki-ronia, Kirke, and Pikicorwus, or Chichernnia, Chirche, and Pichicorvus for 
Ciceronia, Circe, and Picicorvus, or wirraynce for virens. It may be most judicious 
at present, and best on the whole, to pave the way for the final consummation by 
carrying into practice the many points on which scholars agree, without insisting 
upon the extremes respecting which diversity of good authority is admitted. 

Upon such understanding we offer, for pronouncing the Latin names of North 
American birds, a scheme which insists upon the Roman sounds of the vowels and 
diphthongs, but yields the point in the disputed cases of certain consonants ; conced- 
ing, for example, that c may remain soft before e, t, and y, and that v need not be 
turned into w. We do not profess to go into the subtleties, or even all the niceties 
of Latin orthoepy. Much of the end we have in view will be attained, if we can 
succeed in preventing those barbarisms and vulgarisms which constantly come from 
the lips of some persons of great accomplishment in the science of ornitholog3 T . 
Having ourselves heard Oh-nanth and Fully-gewler for (Enanihe and Fuligula, we 
need not affect to conceal our belief that some ornithologists may profitably look a 
little further into the matter than they appear to have hitherto done. 


The difference between a "long" and a "short" vowel is essentially one of 
quantity only, not of quality : it is actually the prolongation of a sound, not neces- 
sarily involving a difference in sound. Thus, if we dwell never so long on the 
" short" a of fat, it does not convert the sound of that letter into that heard in the 
"long" a of fate. The phonetic quality of a vowel should therefore be distin- 
guished from its prosodiac quantity. Practically, however, no such discrimination 
is to be made in the case of the Latin vowels. We only know them as " long " or 
"short;" we determine their quantity by prosodiac rules, and make their qualit}' 

* W. G. Richardson on Latin Pronunciation : In Report of the Commissioner of Education for 
1876. 8vo, Washington, 1878. p. 484. 


correspondent. For all that is known to the contra^, the Romans may have had, 
for example, as many qualities of their a as we have in English ; but as we know 
only their u long" and " short" a, it is simply a matter of more or less of the same 
sound of the letter, not a difference in sound. Our only resource, therefore, is to 
ascertain the natural or acquired quantity of the vowels according to the standard 
authorities, and pronounce them conformably therewith. 

It is the rule, with few exceptions, that a vowel before two consonants, or before 
the double consonants x and z, is long. We are inclined to believe that in man}' 
cases the full length of the vowel itself is not implied, but rather the length of the 
whole s}'llable in which it occurs. For instance, in the word melanorhynchus, the 
vowel y is encased in five consonants ; and the time required to speak the whole 
S3*llable -rhynch-, in metric composition, is what makes the y long. The Romans ma}' 
have had the y as short in quality as the y's in our word pygmy. Nevertheless, we 
have no assurance of this, and can only mark the y long, which means that this syl- 
lable is to be pronounced -rheench-. Take the word fuscescens, again, where each 
vowel is followed by two consonants. In this country we seldom if ever hear any 
thing but sounds of all three of the vowels as short as if they were English. We 
must, however, mark them long, which is equivalent to directing the word to be 
called foosaysaynce. But it does not follow that a naturally short vowel lengthened 
onl}' " b} T position" is to be sounded at full length. Thus, in tiffinis, Insignis, obso- 
letus, from ad-, in-, ob-, the long mark indicates the quantity of the S3'llable rather 
than of the vowel. The chief exceptions above alluded to are furnished b} r the con- 
currence of a mute and a liquid, when the preceding vowel remains short, in prose, 
at least. 

A vowel before a single consonant, or before another vowel, is short, as a rule ; 
but there are so many exceptions to this, that each case of the kind requires to be 
considered on its own merits. An accented vowel is likely to be long from this 
cause alone. Diphthongs are long, except before another vowel. 

In Latin words derived from the Greek, the vowels e and o are likely to be long 
or short, according to whether they stand for Greek eta or epsilon, omicron or 
omega. So, also, the Latin i is long when representing the Greek diphthong , as 
it often does ; and a vowel is likely to be long when in any case it comes by the con- 
traction of two or more vowels into one. Thus, the frequent Latin termination 
-pus, from the Greek pous, is long, or should be, like the proper Latin pes (foot). 

With these slight remarks, we take up the vowels, diphthongs, and consonants in 
alphabetical order. 

A. Orthoepists reckon from four to seven sounds of this vowel in English, the 
four usually recognized being those heard in fate, fat, far, fall. The English sounds 
of a in fate, fat, and fall are unknown in Latin. Long a in Latin is always sounded 
as a in psalm ; it is almost exactl}' the English interjection ah ! the name of the 
letter r without any roll. Short Latin a is the same sound, but with less stress and 
less prolonged, like the a in diadem, or the final a in Maria, Amelia, Hannah. Thus 


in the frequently recurring word americana, all three a's have the same quality, but 
differ in quantity ; the first and the last a being short and the middle a long, simply 
because there is where the accent, or stress of voice, comes to prolong the sound. 
If the accent in this case were on the antepenult, all three a's would have exactly 
the same quantity and quality. 

Long a as in pSalm. 

Short a as in diadem. 

E. Long e has the sound of French e iufete, or English e in they, or English a in 
fate. Short e is like English e in them, not quite so short as in met ; something 
between mate and met. Example of long e : exilipes, pronounced ache-seal-i-pace. 

Long e as in they. 

Short e as in them. 

I. Long i is invariably like the English i in machine, police, oblique, pique ; that is, 
the English ee in feet, ea in feat, &c. ; but never the English i of fight, night. Short t 
is the same sound, but as brief and abrupt as possible, like English i in possible, 
ability, imitate. Short and long i are both heard in intrigue. 

Long i as in machine, pique. 

Short i as in ability, imitate. 

O. This letter, long or short, has always its pure English sound, there being 
no qualities of Latin o to correspond to such anomalies as the English o in move? 
more, come, &c. 

Long o as in old, no. 

Short o as in odd, not. 

U. It is not easy to correctly appreciate the powers of this vowel in Latin. 
Long u never has the sound of English u, eu, or ew, as in fury, feud, few ; but is; 
always broad as well as long, like o in move, oo in moon, fool. Short u is not the 
English u in tub or English o in love, but quite like the English u in bull, full. Take- 
for example the common word rufus, where the first u is long, the second short. 
This word is neither roof-uss, nor rewf-uss, nor rewf-ooce ; but if the consonants per- 
mitted, it would rhyme exactly with rue-ful. If I am asked " How many cats?" I 
may reply " I say ruefully there are a roof-full," and in so saying twice speak both 
the long and the short Latin u. 

Long u as o in move, oo in moon, ue in rue. 

Short u as in bull, full, pull. 

Y. This letter, as a vowel, has practically the sound of i, long or short ; more- 
exactly, that of the German u (ue), as in MuHer, which is nearer Miller than Muller.. 
It is scarcely a Latin letter, and chiefly occurs in words from the Greek, correspond- 
ing to Greek upsilon ; as hyperboreus, uropygialis. 

It is to be remarked, that any vowel is or may be modified in quality as well! 
as in quantity by its consonantal combination, this being especially the case when 
followed by the letter r. It is as if the r were rolling awa} r , and dragging the 
vowel after. Compare fuscus with turtur ; the first with the last syllable of turdus, 


&c. We suspect that some of the less evident powers ascribed by orthoepists to 
various vowels, are not inherent in the vowels themselves, but due to consonantal 
modification of the sound. 

Let us add that orthoepists commonly and with great propriet3 r recognize what 
they call the u neutral" vowel-sound, a qualit}' so slight and obscure, that any one 
of the vowels may express it indifferently. Thus, if we pronounce the word martyr 
as rapidly as possible, it makes scarcely any appreciable difference whether it be 
written martar, marter, martir, martor, martur, or martyr; as we say scarcety any 
thing more than martr, the six " neutral" vowels are phonetically interchangeable. 


In diphthongs, each vowel must be sounded, and the two sounds be smoothly 
combined. Two vowels coming together do not necessarily form a diphthong. For 
example, aer is a word of two syllables, and aedon one of three ; the vowels in 
these cases to be separately and distinctly uttered, as in English aerial. Proper 
diphthongs, i. e., two vowel-sounds combined to make a third different from either, 
are comparatively rare ; and all the following components of diphthongs also come 
together without combining. 

JE consists of ah-ay, which when rapidly spoken becomes so nearly like Latin 
long e (see above) as to be practically the same. It was original^ written ai, and 
is by some directed to be so sounded. 

AI is a very composite sound. * itself is a compound, being ah-ee, the whole 
being therefore ah-ah-ee, which when run together becomes very nearly our English 
eye or the pronoun /. It seems quite like the French naif, naive, or English knife. 

A and O do not combine, and seldom come together. 

ATI is oftenest heard, but wrongly, as in cause, or as aw in awl, law, awful. It 
is like the ow in how, now, owl. It is precisely the German au, as in aucfy. 

E and A do not combine ; they frequently come together, especially at the 
ends of words, but each is separately pronounced. E. g., ^Ene-as Bore-as, Arde-a. 

El is frequent. The analysis is ay-ah-ee, contracted to a drawling sound little 
different from long English a in mate; more exactly, English ei in vein, eight. 

E arid O do not combine. E-os, E-opsaltria, &c. 

EU is equal to ay-oo. Strongly and rapidly uttered, it becomes the long Eng- 
lish u in tube, ue in due, ew in few, eu in feud, ou in you; and especially when initial 
represents the whole word you. For example Eugenes = Tougenes = Ayoogenes. It 
seldom occurs, except in Greek words. 

IA, IE, II, IO, IU do not combine. The very frequent ia, especially ending a 
word, and the ii, so frequent in the genitives of persons' names, are always two full 
syllables. The common iu, in the ending of words makes two syllables: e.g., 
spuri-us. So seri-es, rati-o have each three syllables. Some apparent diphthongs 
of vocal * with a following vowel, are really of consonantal i, which is^, pronounced 
y ; as plebeius, = plebe-jus, pronounced plebe-yus. 


OA and OO and OU do not combine ; bo-ops has two, arcto-us or arcto-a three, 
and o-ology four syllables, ou diphthong very early passed into long u. 

OE, when fully but rapidly said in combination, seems to yield the diphthong <z 
preceded by a slight w sound ; the whole nearly as the English word way. If not 
this, it is indistinguishable from Latin <z. We are inclined to say way-nanthe for 
cenanthe ; if not this, then ay-nanthe, not ee-nanthe nor oi-nanthe. The combination 
is sometimes interchangeable with ce, as cesium or calum. It is to be carefully dis- 
tinguished from o and e uncombined ; as in Arsinoe, Chloephaga. 

OI. These two letters may combine or not. Generally they do not, each being 
a distinct syllable. Thus, Pic-o-i-des is a word of four syllables, the second and 
third of which are o-ee. oi in combination is given by some as in English oil, but is 
perhaps more nearly the French oei in ceil. As ai passed into ce, so oi early became 
ce, and some direct the letter to be sounded as oi. 

U A and UE, in combination, yield sounds like English wok and way ; as suavis, 

UI, equivalent to oo-ah-ee, is like the French oui (yes), very nearly the English 
pronoun we. The rare UU seems to be simply u at extreme length : equus. 

Y making a diphthong with a following vowel gives the sound of such vowel 
preceded by w ; as, Myiarchus = Mweearchus. It only occurs in Greek words, by 
transliteration for upsilon. 

In some cases three or four vowels come together ; but the pronunciation may 
usually be determined by the foregoing rules. Thus : Agelceus, Pooecetes, Haliceetus. 
In these cases respectively ae and oe are combined, and pronounced as above said ; 
the other vowels are distinct. Hal-i-ce-e-tus is a word of five syllables. My-i-o-di- 
oc-tes is one of six syllables, though in practice reduced to five, by slurring the y and 
i together. In trudeaui, again, are four vowels together ; but in this case eau com- 
bine into long o, and the word has but three syllables. 


Most of the consonants have their English powers, pure and simple. Some, 
however, call for remark, especially in certain of their combinations. 

The letters c and g are now said to be " always hard," without qualification. It 
is a much vexed question. As it is not demonstrated that the Romans had no soft 
c and g, we do not see that we may not be permitted to retain these sounds. 

C then is hard, like k, before a consonant or a, o, u, soft before e, i, y, and before 
the diphthongs ce, at, oe, oi. ch is always hard ; there is no sound of ch as in church, 
still less as in chaise, in Latin. 

G- is hard or soft under the same circumstances as c, with the important excep- 
tion, that it is hard before y in words derived from the Greek, when the y 
results from the Greek upsilon (v) . Example : Gymnocitta, not Jymnocitta. 

J is simply t, interchangeable with it, and always pronounced like the y \uyes, or 
as in hallelujah. 


N followed by c hard, &, g, or x has a nasal or twanging sound of ng ; as in 
English ankle, anger, pronounced ang-kle, ang-ger. Preceded by m or g, it does not 
destroy these letters : as Mmotilta, Gnathodon. 

P is not silent before s ; thus in psaltria articulate both. So in the digraph ph, 
some direct to sound both, as in up-hill. It is difficult, if not impossible, to 
articulate both letters, especially when, as often happens, a th succeeds. For 
example, in erythrophthalmus we find that we cannot make four sounds for the 
phth as in up-hill and hot-house. Practically ph becomes something between / and 
t>, just as in Stephen or Steven. So also the original Indo-European aspirates &//, 
dk, yh are not retained in any European language ; there is nothing to correspond 
to log-house. 

Q,U is sometimes followed by another M, as in altiloquus. propinquus. It would 
seem to be rendered by kwooce. 

B is strongly pronounced with a trill. It is heard at the height of its power in 
the combination rrh ; as in catarrhactes, pyrrhorrhoa. 

S invariably retains its sharp hissing sound. Thus essence is a rhyme with 
fuscescens (as far as the s-sound is concerned) ; so also virens = virraynce, not 
vy-renz. Compare hiss or this with his. So particular were the Romans to avoid 
the z sound of s, that they even altered antecedent consonants ; saying, for example, 
urps and pleps for urbs and plebs. 

T always preserves its sound. There is nothing to correspond with the English 
-tion = shun, &c. E.g., gra-ti-a, rat-i-o, init-i-um. 

"V is directed by some to be sounded like English w in we. But this is rarely 

X is always ks or cs, never gz or z, even when initial, as in Xema, Xanthocephalus. 

Z, which only occurs in Latin words of Greek extraction, is a double letter 
equivalent to dz, and the best authorities recommend the d sound to be articulated. 
Thus Aphriza, Spiza, are pronounced Afreedza, Speedza. 

A word in regard to the pronunciation of modern proper names, as of persons and 
places, so often recurring in ornithology. After mature deliberation, we have decided 
to mark them for their pronunciation in the language to which they belong. It seems 
finical and pedantic to attempt to Latinize them ; for to carry out that plan to its 
logical result would be to give b'runonis instead of browni ; and even then some 
names would utterly defy us, unless changed be}*ond all recognition. So we have 
adopted the rule of preserving the orthography and orthoep} 7 of all modern proper 
names, even though containing the letter w. Barbarous geographical words of 
unsettled or no known orthography may, however, be sometimes dressed in quasi- 
Latin ; thus it is perfectly permissible to render aoonalaschkae by unalascce. We 
make this remark to explain what must seem inconsistent in our use of diacritical 
marks in some places ; for we mark the vowels long or short as the syllables are 
pronounced in the language to which the word belongs, not as they would be in 



This is a matter of prime importance. For elegant, even for bearable, pronun- 
ciation, it is essential to place the accent or stress of voice on the right syllable. 
Fortunately the rules are simple, with comparatively few exceptions. 

Accent the penult when it is long. 

Accent the antepenult when the penult is short. 

These two rules will carry us safely across the great majority of Latin words. 
In many cases lengthening the s}'llable, whether penult or antepenult, is actually 
equivalent to accenting it. We can scarcely recall a case of a short accented penult ; 
but many short antepenults take the accent, which is simply because it cannot be 
thrown still further back. Modern proper names of three s}*llables with the accent 
on the first, keep it there after addition of the i of the genitive case ; as, aud'uboni, 

So important is the matter of accent, that were all other diacritical marks dis- 
pensed with, we could still pronounce the words with measurable accuracy, knowing 
where to put the stress of voice. 

The tendency in English is constantly to throw the accent back as far as possi- 
ble ; and there is much of this same practice in the usual pronunciation of Latin. 
For the latter language, and especially for words derived from the Greek, we con- 
sider it vicious and undesirable. It seems to us much more sensible and natural 
in the case of a word compounded of two Greek words, to keep the stress of the 
voice on the stem of each, than to throw it, for sake of glibness, on the most insig- 
nificant S}*llable, often the mere connective vowel, and a short one at that. Take 
for example Troglodytes, Lophophanes, Phylloscopus, or any similar words of four 
syllables, compounds of two words of two S3'llables each. It is glib to accent the 
antepenult, but it is done at the sacrifice of the strength and dignity of the stem 
which stands penult, and which we should prefer to accent, even if short. Where 
we have found it practicable on etj'mological grounds to lengthen and accent 
such penults, we have done so ; in general, however, we have closely conformed 
to routine custom, especially as there is to be strongly set before the inexperienced 
student the necessity of avoiding the glaring impropriety of accenting the penult 
of enjthrocephalus, for example. The tendenc}' of all persons who find it difficult to 
handle a long new word, is to dissect it, with two or even three accents ; and per- 
haps the inclination of the scholar to show his erudition has unconsciously led him 
to the opposite extreme. Any " rule" or custom aside, the natural accent of poly- 
syllabic words is rhetorical as if each syllable were a word. It may be seen in 
those words whose looseness of composition, so to speak, leaves them like sen- 
tences ; as nevertheless", not* with stand" ing. The naturalness of a'naly"tic, ge r omet"ric 
contrasts favorably with the conventionality of analysts, geo'metry ; and there is 
nothing in the qualit} 1 - of the final syllables to account for the differences in accent. 
But we are aware that our views of this matter will not pass current, even if they 
escape adverse criticism. 


1. THE names in the Check List are consecutively numbered from first to last, whether 
they be of species or of subspecies. The latter are sufficiently distinguished by consisting 
of three terms instead of two. 

2. The names in the Dictionary are numbered to correspond, each page containing the 
same numbers of the two series. 

3. The person's name in parentheses immediately after each bird's name is that of the 
original describer of the species or subspecies. The unenclosed name succeeding is that of the 
authority for the particular combination of generic, specific, and subspecific terms adopted. 
When the original describer is also the authority for the combination, a single unenclosed 
name is given. The following are the principal abbreviations: 

All, Allen. Ganib., Gambel. Lawr., Lawrence. Sw., Swainson. 

Aud., Audubon. Gir., Giraud. Licht., Lichtenstein. Temm., Ternminck. 

Bd., Baird. Gm., Gmelin. Nutt., Nuttall. Towns., Townsend. 

Bodd., Boddaert. Gr., Gray. Reich.. Reichenbach. F, Vieillot. 

Bp.j Bonaparte. L., Linnaeus. Eidg., Eidgway. Fip., Vigors. 

Cab., Cabanis. Lafr., Lafresnaye. Scl, Sclater. Wagl, Wagler. 

Cass., Cassin. Lath., Latham. Steph., Stephens. Wils., Wilson. 

4. After these terms come three letters, " B," " C," and "R," each followed by a number. 
These stand respectively for Baird's List, J858. Cones' s Check List, 1874, and Ridgivay's 
Catalogue, 1880. The number following each of these letters is that which the bird bears in 
such lists. Thus, Turdus migratorius was named by Linnaeus, who is also the authority for 
the combination, and is 155 of Baird's list, 1 of Coues's, and 7 of Ridgway's. The dash 
after any one of these letters shows that the species is not contained in B, C, or R, as the 
case may be. 

5. The note of exclamation, in parentheses, indicates that the species is in North America 
only a straggler from the country that the following initial letter denotes: E., Europe, 
A., Asia, M., Mexico, TF. I., West Indies. G. shows the bird to be only North American 
as occurring in Greenland. 

6. The note of interrogation, similarly enclosed, means that the name is considered to be of 
slight or uncertain value, as of a subspecies scarcely distinguished from its stock, or of a 
species not well known. 

7. The Index will be found to contain matter additional to, or corrective of, that in the 
body of the work. See p. 137. 





1. Turdus migratorius L. B 155. c i. R 7. 


2. Turdus migratorius propinquus Riclg. B . c . R 7a. (?) 

Rocky Mountain Robin. 

3. Turdus migratorius confinis (Ed.) Coues. B . c la. R 8. 

St. Lucas Robin. 

4. Turdus iliacus L. B . c . R 6. (G. !E.) 


5. Turdus naevius Gm. B 156. c 2. R 9. 

Varied Thrush. 

6. Turdus mustelinus Gm. B us. c 3. B i. 

Wood Thrush. 

1. Tur'-dus mi-gra-to'-rl-Qs. Lat. turdus, a thrush. Lat. migro, to move from one place to 

another ; migrator, a wanderer, a migrant ; migratorius, migrator}'. 

2. T. m. prd-pin'-qttfis [propeenkwoocej. Lat. propinquus, near, neighboring ; as related to 

T. migratorius. 

3. T. m. con-fi'-nls [confeenis], Lat. confinis, subs, or adj., a neighbor, neighboring; here 

in sense of closely related to T. migratorius. 

4. T. Il-I'-a-cQs. Lat. iliacus, relating to the ilia, or haunches ; also, Lat. Iliacus, Gr. 'IXtamfc, 

relating to Troy, Trojan ; application obvious in neither case. But Aristotle gives a 
kind of thrush, called l\tds, supposed by old ornithologists, as Gesner and Belon, to be 
this species, said to be called by the modern Greeks !\\ds, rv\ds, K/x* 7 ? ibid*, or * ^ a 
i\id8a ; and the actual form, Turdus iliacus, was an old name when Linnaeus adopted it. 

5. T. nae'-vl-us [nayveus]. Lat. ncevius, spotted, from ncevus, a mole (birth-mark). The 

sub-genus Hesperocichla is Gr. eWcpoj, Lat. vesperus, evening, i.e., western, and KX A or 
K(X^, a thrush. 

6. T. mus-te-li'-nus. Lat. mustdinws, weasel-like ; i.e., in this case, tawny. The sub-genus 

Hylocickla is Gr. #Ar?, a wood, and 


7. Turdus fuscescens Steph. B 151. c 6. R 2. 

Wilson's Thrush. 

8. Turdus unalascse Gm. B 150. c 46. R 5. 

Western Hermit Thrush. 

9. Turdus unalascse auduboni (Bd.) Coues. B 149 var. c 4a. R 5a. 

Audubon's Hermit Thrush. 

10. Turdus unalascse nanus (Aud.) Coues. B 149. c 4. R 56. 

Eastern Hermit Thrush. 

11. Turdus ustulatus Nutt. B 152. c 56. R 4. 

Oregon Olive-backed Thrush. 

12. Turdus ustulatus alicise (Bd.) Coues. B 154. c 5. R3. 

Gray-cheeked Thrush. 

13. Turdus ustulatus swainsoni (Cab.) Coues. B 153. c 5. R 4. 

Olive-backed Thrush. 

7. T. fus-ces'-cens [foosaysayncej. Present participle of a supposed Lat. inceptive verb 

fuscesco, I grow dark or swarthy; Lat./sco, of same signification. It means, or should 
mean, less than fuscus ; i.e., somewhat dark ; is not otherwise applicable to the lightest- 
colored thrush of this group. 

8. T. u-na-las'-cae. Of the Island of Unalaska. It is permissible, indeed desirable, to resolve 

Gmelin's barbarous word aonalaschkae into a purer form. With this orthography the 
word is of sufficiently classical aspect, and corresponds with alascensis. See Anorthura, 
No. 78, and Passerella, No. 283. 

This is T. pallasi var. nanus of the orig. ed. of the Check List. For the change, see 
Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, 1880, p. 1. 

9. T. u. aud'-u-bSn-i. To John James Audubon, the "American Backwoodsman," and 

famous author of the " Birds of America." 

This is T. pallasi var. auduboni of the orig. ed. of the Check List. 

10. T. u. na'-ntis. Lat. nanus, from the Gr. v&vvos or vdvos, a dwarf. 

This is T. pallasi of the orig. ed. It is true that nanus has of late been applied exclu- 
sively to the "Western form, the true unalascce Gm. But the name nanus was originally 
based by Audubon on a bird from Pennsylvania, and only later amplified by him to 
include the Western form. The long survival of an error does not justify its continued 
perpetuation after detection. 

11. T. us-tfi-la'-tiis. Lat. ustulatus, perfect participle of ustulo,! scorch, singe; with reference 

to the ashy coloration, as if the bird had been charred. 

This stands as T. swainsoni var. ustulatus in the orig. ed. The case is precisely 
parallel with that of nanus vs. pallasi ; for Nuttall named the Oregon bird ustulatus in 
1840, and Cabanis did not apply the name swainsoni to the Eastern Olive-backed Thrush 
till several years afterward. 

12. T. u. a-ll'-cl-ae. To Miss Alice Kennicott, sister of Robert Kennicott, of Illinois. See 

Scops, No. 466. 

This is T. swainsoni var. alicice of the orig. ed. See No. 11. 

13. T. u. swam'-sbn-i. To William Swainson, the zealous and accomplished English natu- 


This is T. swainsoni of the orig. ed. See No. 11. 


14. Oroscoptes montanus (Towns.) Bd. B 255. c 7. R 10. 

Mountain Mocking-bird. 

15. Mimus polyglottus (L.) Boie. B 253. c 8. R 11. 


16. Mimus carolinensis (L.) Gr. B 254. c 9. R 12. 


17. Harporhynchus rufus (L.) Cab. B 261. c 10. R 13. 

Brown Thrush ; Thrasher. 

18. Harporhynchus nifus longirostris (Lafr.) Coues. B 260. c lOa. R i3a. 

Texas Thrasher. 

19. Harporhynchus curvirostris (Sw.) Cab. B 259. c . R. 15. 

Curve-billed Thrasher. 

20. Harporhynchus curvirostris palmeri Ridg. B . c 11. R isa. 

Bow-billed Thrasher. 

21. Harporhynchus bendirii Coues. B . c n&w. R Ua. 

Arizona Thrasher. 

22. Harporhynchus cinereus Bd. B . c 12. R 14. 

St. Lucas Thrasher. 

14. O-ro-scop'-tes [-tace] mon-ta'-nus. Gr. opos, a mountain, ffK^Trrijs, a mimic; <r/c<forrw, 

I mock, deride, jeer at. The orthography differs; authority may be found for 
either Oroscoptes or Oreoscoptes ; the former was originally written by Baird ; it is 
shortest : and we usually say orology, orography, &c. Lat. montanus, relating to mons, 
a mountain. 

15. Mi'-mfis fmeemus] pol-^-glot'-tus. Lat. mimus, Gr. AU/XOS, a mimic. Gr. iroMyXwrTos, 

polyglot, from iro\vs, many, y\wrra, tongue. 

16. M. ca-rS-Hn-en'-sIs. Lat. for Carolinian, of Carolina; Carolus, Charles, is the modern 

Lat. form of Germ. $arl, or $erl, a peasant ; A. S. ceorl, Scot, carle, Eng. churl. Carolina 
is by some derived from Charles II. of England ; but Ribault, in 1562, built in Port 
Royal a fort he called Charlesfort, and Laudonniere, who came to relieve Ribault's 
colonists in 1564, one which he says, "je nommay la Caroline, en honneur de nostre 
prince le roy Charles [IX., of France]." 

17. Har-pS-rhyn'-chfis [rh very strong; ch as k\ ru'-ffis. Gr. &pirr), a sickle ; pAyxos, a beak; 

i. e., bow-billed. The former word is seen in harpy, so called from its hooked beak. 
Some purists will have the r doubled in this and all such cases, making Harporrhynchus ; 
but the current of modern usage has set too strongly against it to be stemmed without 
liability of seeming pedantic. Lat. rufus, rufous, reddish. 

18. H. r. lon-gl-rSs'-trls [loang-gi-roas-tris]. Lat. longus, long, rostris, beaked, from rostrum, 


19. H. cur-vl-ros'-trfs. Lat. curvus, curved ; and rostris. Not in the orig. ed. 

20. H. c. pal'-mgr-i [sound the /]. Dedicated to one Edward Palmer. 

21. H. bgn-dl'-rf-I. To Capt. Charles Bendire, U. S. Army. 

22. H. cln-gr'-e-Qs. Lat. cinereus, ashy, or ash-colored ; from cinis, genitive cineris, ashes. Gr. 

ictvis, of same meaning, apparently from, icdu, I burn. Related English words are 
incinerate, cinder, &c. 


23. Harporhynchus redivivus (Gamb.) Cab. B 256. c 13. R 16. 

Californian Thrasher. 

24. Harporhynchus redivivus lecontii (Lawr.) Cones. B 257. c I3a. R i6a. 

Yuma Thrasher. 

25. Harporhynchus crissalis Henry. B 258. c 14. R 17. 

Crissal Thrasher. 

26. Saxicola cenanthe (L.) Bechst. B 157. c 15. R 21. (!E.) 

Stone Chat; Wheat-ear. 

27. Sialia sialis (L.) Hald. B 158. c 16. R 22. 

Eastern Blue-bird. 

28. Sialia mexicana Sw. B 159. c 17. R 23. 

Western Blue-bird. 

29. Sialia arctica Sw. B ieo. c is. R 24. 

Arctic Blue-bird. 

30. Cinclus mexicarms Sw. B 164. c 19. R 19. 

Water Ouzel; Dipper. 

31. Cyanecula suecica (L.) Brm. B . c . R 20. (!A.) 

Blue-throated Redstart. 

23. H. rg-dl-vi'-viis. Lat. redivivus, revived, from re-, red-, redi-, in sense of back again, and 

ri'rws, living. Gambel discovered in this bird a long-lost species of an older author. 

24. H. r. l6-c6n'-tl-i. To Dr. John L. Le Conte, of Philadelphia, the famous entomologist. 

25. H. cris-sa'-lls. No such Latin word; there is a verb criso or crisso, used of a certain 

motion of the haunches ; crissum is a technical word lately derived therefrom, signifying 
in ornithology the under tail-coverts, which in this bird are red. Cf. Gr. Kpi<r<r6s, Kipvds. 

26. Sax-I'-cQ-la oe-nan'-the [oo-ay-nanthe, as if way-nanthe]. Lat. saxicola, a rock-inhab- 

itant; saxum, a rock, and incola (in and co/o), an inhabitant. Lat. vhiflora, and Gr. 
olvdvQi), signify precisely the same thing : the bird is prettily named "flower of the vine : " 
Lat. vitis, the vine,y?ora, a flower. The Gr. oivdvOn, whence Lat. cenanthe, is an uncertain 
bird mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny ; the name was definitely applied to this species 
in 1555. The word primarily relates to the grape, ofc/rj, as if the bird were one which 
frequented vineyards, or appeared with the flowering (foeos) of the vine. 

27. SI-aT-I-5 sl'-al-Is. Gr. <ria\ls, a bird, in "Ath. 392 F ; " from <ria\ov, saliva ; verb o-taX/^w, 

I slaver, or make some sibilant noise. To call this Anacreon a slobberer ! 

28. S. mex-T-ca'-na. Latinized from Mexican. The country is called Mexico, Mejico, or 

Mehico, from Mexitli, the Aztec god of war. 

29. S. arc'-tl-cS. Lat. arctica, northern, arctic ; i. e., Gr. & P KTOS, a bear, ap K r^6s, near the bear. 

30. Cin'-clus mex-I-ca'-nfis. Gr. Kl-y^os, Lat. Cinclus, the name of a bird, by some supposed 

to be the European Cinclus aquaticus, by others a kind of Sandpiper ; K iyK\i& is to 
wag the tail. Lat. mexicanus, see No. 28. 

31. C?-an-g'-cfi-la sue'-cl-ca. Cyanecula is a diminutive substantive lately (perhaps not before 

Brisson, 1760) formed from the Lat. adjective cyaneus, Gr. Kvdvfos or Kvavts, blue ; mean- 
ing, as we might say, " bluet/' Rubecula is a word similarly coined. Lat. suecica or 
svecica, Swedish ; Sweden having been called Suecia or Svecia. In that country the bird 
is said to be called " Charles's-bird," Carls-fogel, whence Avis Carolina of some of the 


treatises written in Latin. " Redstart " is a corruption of fto^itera, meaning "redtail, 
and Ruticilla and Phoenicurus are among the translated book-names of the species. 
Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. See Ibis, 1878, p. 422. Alaska. 


32. Phylloscopns borealis (Bias.) Dress. B . c 20. R 34. (!A.) 

Kennicott's Warbler. 

33. Regulus calendula (L.) Licht. B iei. c 21. R so. 

Ruby-cro\vned Kinglet. 

34. Regulus satrapa Licht. B 102. c 22. R 33. 

Golden-crested Kinglet. 

35. Regulus satrapa olivaceus Bd. B . c . R 33a. (?) 

Western Golden-crested Kinglet. 

36. Polioptila ccerulea (L.) Scl. B 282. c 23. R 27. 

Blue-gray Gnat-catcher. 

37. Polioptila melanura Lawr. B 284. c 24. R 29. 

Black-capped Gnat-catcher. 

38. Polioptila plumbea Bd. B 283. c 25. R 28. 

Plumbeous Gnat-catcher. 

39. Chamaea fasciata Gamb. B 274. c 26. R 35. 


40. Lophophanes bicolor (L.) Bp. B 285. c 27. R 36. 

Tufted Titmouse. 

32. Phyl-lo'-scS-pus b6r-g-a'-lls. Gr. <pt\\ov, a leaf ; o-Komfc, a watchman ; <r/co7re', I look 

out, survey, examine ; as these birds peer about hi the foliage. Lat. b&reas, the north- 
wind, h. e., the north ; borealis, northern. 

33. Rgg'-u-liis cal-en/-du-la. Lat. regulus, diminutive of rex, a king ; exactly equivalent to 

"kinglet/' Calendula is a substantive which may be formed from the gerund of the 
verb caleo, I am warm ; figuratively, glowing ; in allusion to the fiery color on the head. 
It was apparently coined by Brisson, 1760, for the European Regulus cristatus, but was in 
1766 appropriated by Linnaeus to the present species. The early ornithologists had a 
great variety of names for these diminutive birds, mostly indicating royalty or other 
high station, in obvious reference to the " crown ; " as Rex, Regulus, Regillus, Tyrannus or 
Tvpawos, Basiliscus or Ba<rt\icrKos, Presbys or Upfa&vs, BaenAeus ; to say nothing of 
Orchilus or 'Opx^os, Trochilus or Tpox^os, Parus, Sylvia, Motacilla, Passerculus, Troglodytes, 
&c. The French Roitelet or Roytelet, and the German $5ntgletn, correspond to " kinglet." 

34. R. sat-ra'-pa. Lat. satraps, satrapes, or satrapa, Gr. o-aTpd-n-rjs, from the Persian kbsbatram, 

meaning a crown or a kingdom : English satrap. Alluding to the bird's golden crown. 

35. R. s. 61-i-va-cg-us. Late Lat. olivaceus, olivaceous, olive-colored. See Vireo, No. 170. 

36. Po-li-Sp'-ti-la coe-rfil'-g-a [sayrulea]. Gr. iro\i6s, hoary, gray; irrl\ov, feather; in allu- 

sion to the whitish edgings of the primaries. Lat. coerulea or ccerulea or cerulea, blue, 
azure. Any of these forms of the word is admissible. We prefer coerulea. 

37. P. mgl-an-u'-ra. Gr. ^\ as , fern, pfratva, black ; ofya, tail. See Index, p. 137. 

38. P. plum'-bg-a. Lat. plumbeus, plumbeous, lead-colored ; from plumbum, lead. 

39. Cham-ae'-a [kam-ay-ah] fas-cl-a'-ta. Gr. xA, adverb, on the ground. Lat. fascis, a. 

bundle of faggots ; hence, fasciatus, striped. The allusion is to the indistinct bands 
across the tail-feathers of the bird that lives in bushes close to the ground. 

40. L6ph-6'-pha-nes [-nace] bl'-c61-6r. Gr. \6(pos, a crest ; and <f>alvu, I appear ; in allusion 

to the conspicuous crest. Lat. bicolor, two-colored. 

N. B. The accentuation of this and many similar words is questionable, and per- 
haps arbitrary. We give the above in deference to technical rule, conformably with 
Aristo'phanes, &c. The actual usage, in this country at least, is LSph-S-pha'-nes ; and 


41. Lophophanes inornatus (Gamb.) Cass. B 287. c 28. R 38. 

Plain Titmouse. 

42. Lophophanes atrocristatus Cass. B 286. c 29. R 37. 

Black-crested Titmouse. 

43. Lophophanes wollweberi Bp. B 288. c 30. R 39. 

Bridled Titmouse. 

44. Parris atricapillus L. B 290. c 31. R 41. 

Black-capped Chickadee. 

45. Parus atricapillus septentrionalis (Harr.) All. B 289. c 3ia. R 4ia. 

Long-tailed Chickadee. 

46. Parus atricapillus occidentals (Bd.) Coues. B 291. c 3ic. R 4i&. 

Western Chickadee. 

47. Parus carolinensis Aud. B 293. c 3i&. R 42. 

Carolina Chickadee. [See Addenda, No. 879. 

48. Parus montanus Gamb. B 294. c 32. R 40. 

Mountain Chickadee. 

49. Parus hudsonicus Forst. B 296. c 33. R 45. 

Hudsonian Chickadee. 

we instinctively incline to the latter, both as throwing the stress of voice on the radical 
syllable, instead of on the connecting vowel, and as the a in -phanes represents two vowels, 
ai or 03 as in phenomenon, phoznogamous. 

41. L. In-5r-na'-tus. Lat. in, negative, and ornatus, ornate, adorned; orno, I ornament. 

42. L. a-trS-cris-ta'-tus. Lat. ater, atra, atrum, black ; and cristatus, crested ; crista, a crest. 

Commonly written atricristatus ; see Parus, No. 44. 

N. B. The tenability of the position taken by Dr. Coues (B. C. V., i, p. 117 ; 1878) 
respecting atro-cristatus has been queried by several correspondents ; among them Mr. 
W. C. Avery, of Greensboro', Ala., who some time since furnished an extensive com- 
mentary on the names of the old Check List, and whose suggestions have often proved 
valuable. Mr. Avery maintains atricristatus, adducing albicerata (sc. ficus) from Pliny, 
15, 18 ; and atri-, albi, magni-, &c., is undoubtedly a correct form of such compounds. 
But we take cristatus to be a perfect participle, and put ater in the ablative of instru- 
ment ; there being no such word as atricristatus, unless we coin it. We consider the word 
equal to cristatus atro, conformably with usage in Picus albo-larvatuf, Tyrannus aurantio-atro- 
cristatus, &c. Compare also the actual Latin auro-davatus, striped with golden. 

43. L. woll-wgb'-6r-i. To Wollweber. 

44. Pa'-rus a-trl-cap-IT-lus. Lat. parus, a titmouse ; etymology in question, but apparently 

parus for parvus, small, petty, like the actual adverb parum, little ; Gr. iravpos, of same 
signification, th. travw ; cf. pau-cus, pau-lus, pau-per, &c. Lat. atricapillus, black-hair(ed) ; 
capillus, hair of the head ; a diminutive, allied to caput , and Gr. /ce<j>aA^, the head. Com- 
pare English capillary, thready, hair-like, i. e., as fine as a hair. Notice atri-, not atro- ; 
cf. Lophophanes, No. 42. If the compound were with capillatus, it would be atrocapillatus. 

45. P. a. sep-ten-trl-o-na'-Hs. Lat. septentrionalis, northern ; septemtriones (septem and trio) 

being the constellation of seven stars near the north pole. 

46. P. a. oc-cld-en-ta'-lls. Lat. occidentalis, western ; occido, I fall ; . e., where the sun sets. 

47. P. ca-rSl-In-en'-sis. See Mimus, No. 16. 

48. P. mon-ta'-nus. Lat. montanus, relating to a mountain ; mons, genitive montis, a mountain. 

49. P. hud-s6n'-I-cus. Latinized from the name of Henry Hudson, discoverer of the region. 


50. Parus mfescens Towns. B 295. c 34. R 46. 

Chestnut-backed Chickadee. 

51. Paras rufescens neglectus Ridg. B . c . R46a. (?) 

Californian Chickadee. 

52. Parus cinctus Bodd. B . c . R 44. (!A.) 

Siberian Chickadee. 

53. Psaltripams minimus (Towns.) Bp. B 298. c 35. R 47. 

Least Bush-tit. 

54. Psaltriparus plumbeus Bd. B 299. c 36. R 48. 

Plumbeous Bush-tit. 

55. Psaltriparus melanotis (Haiti.) Bp. B 297. c . R 49. (!M.) 

Black-eared Bush- tit. 

56. Auriparus flaviceps (Sund.) Bd. B soo. c 37. R so. 

Yellow-headed Verdin. 

57. Sitta carolinensis Gm. B 277. c 38. R 51. 

White-bellied Nut-hatch. 

58. Sitta carolinensis aculeata (Cass.) All. B 278. c 38a. R 5ia. 

Slender-billed Nut-hatch. 

50. P. ru-fes'-cens. Lat. rufescens, present participle of the inceptive verb rufesco, to grow red ; 

be rufous. " Chickadee " is an obvious onomatopoeia, from the bird's note. 

51. P. r. neg-lec'-tiis. Lat. neglectus, neglected ; verbnegligo; equal to nee (won), not, and lectus, 

chosen, picked, taken ; lego, I gather in, select, &c. Neglect is a nearly exact opposite 
of collect. 

52. P. cmc'-tus. Lat. cinctus, girdled; perfect participle of cingo, I surround, encompass, 

encircle. A cingulum is a little something that goes around as a girdle does, whence 
surcingle, cinche. 

53. P-sal-trl-pa'-rfls mln'-I-miis [sound the initial p ; the a in parus is properly long ; some- 

times shortened in composition]. Lat. psaltria, Gr. \^d\rpia, one who plays on the lute; 
from the verb psallo, tyd\\(a, to strike such an instrument ; English psaltery, &c. ; and 
parus, a titmouse. See No. 44. Lat. minimus, least, superlative of parvus, small. 

54. P. plum'-be-Qs. Lat. plumbeus, plumbeous, lead-colored. 

55. P. mfcl-an-o'-tls. Gr. /j.4\as, genitive peXavos, black ; ols, genitive a>r6s, ear. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List, and scarcely established as North American, 
though given by Baird in 1858. Supposed to have been seen by Ridgway in Nevada, 
August, 1868. See Rep. Surv. 40th Par., iv, 1877, p. 415. See Index, p. 137. 

56. Aur-I-pa'-riis [owriparusj fla'-vl-ceps. Lat. aureus, golden, from aurum, gold ; and parus, 

a titmouse. Lat. Jlavus, yellow, forflagvus, fromflagro, to glow; whence English defla- 
grate, flagrant, &c. Ceps is a Lat. termination, from Gr. KfQaX-f), the head; compare 
caput, cephalic, occiput, &c. A more strict method of compounding aure-us with parvs 
would give aureiparus ; but it may be taken direct from aurum, making auriparus admis- 
sible ; as we should say " gold-tit," like " bush-tit," " coal-tit." 

57. Sit'-ta ca-r6-lln-en'-sls. Gr. <rlrra, (rirrti ; Lat. sitta, a nut-hatch ; the word occurs in 

Aristotle. It is related to a-iTrdicri, ^/irraKos, Lat. sittace, psittacns, a parrot ; the implication 
being some sharp sound made by the bird, as English pint ! There is a Greek verb 
tyirrdfa, to make such a noise. Lat. carolinensis, see Mimus, No. 13. 

58. S. c. a-cu-ie-a'-ta. Lat. aculeatus, sharpened, dim. aculeus, sharp, acus, a needle ; from acer, 

sharp. Gr. &K(S, a point ; compare antav, a.K/j.-fi, &fcpos, &c., English acme, acropolis, acer- 
bity, acrimony, and numberless words in many languages, from ^ak. 


59. Sitta canadensis L. B 279. c. 39. R 52. 

Red-bellied Nut-hatch. 

60. Sitta pusilla Lath. B 280. c. 40. R 53. 

Brown-headed Nut-hatch. 

61. Sitta pygmsea Vig. B 281. C4i. R 54. 

Pygmy Nut-hatch. 

62. Certhia familiaris L. B 275. c 42. R 55. 

Brown Creeper. 

63. Campylorhynchus brunneicapiUus (Lafr.) Gr. B 262. c 43. R 56. 

Brown-headed Cactus Wren. 

64. Campylorhynchus affinis Bd. B . c 44. R 57. 

St. Lucas Cactus Wren. 

65. Salpinctes obsoletus (Say) Cab. B 264. c 45. R 58. 

Bock Wren. 

66. Catherpes mexicanus (Sw.) Bd. B 263. c . R 59. (IM) 

Canon Wren. 

59. S. ca-nad-en'-sls. Latinized from Canadian. Nut-hatch is nut-hatcher or nut-hacker (Fr. 

hacher, Swed. hacka), the bird that hacks, pecks, nuts; also called nut-jobber, to job 
being to peck, or thrust at. 

60. S. pu-sil'-la [puceellah, not pewzillerj. Lat. pusillus, petty, puerile; directly formed from 

pwr,pusus, or pusio (Gr. ), a boy; here and commonly used simply as signifying 
small. The Sanskrit root reappears in endless forms of kindred meaning. 

61. S. pyg-mae'-a. Gr. irvy^, the fist; hence irvy polos, Lat. pygmceus, a pygmy, fistling, or 

torn-thumb. As a measure of length, from elbow to clenched fist, a irvyp.^ was about 
13| inches ; the original Pygmies were a race of African dwarfs at war with the Cranes ; 
pygmceus came afterward to mean any thing pygmy, dwarfed, and is here applied to a 
very small nut-hatch. Compare Machetes pugnax, No. 639. 

62. Cer'-thl-a fam-fl-I-a'-rls. Gr. KfpQios, Lat. cert/iius, become later certhia. The name 

occurs in Aristotle, who apparently uses it for this very species, which he also calls 
Kvnro\6yos, cnipologus ; that is to say, a gatherer of insects ; nvfy, a bug, and \4ya>, I col- 
lect. Lat. familiaris, familiar, domestic, hence common ; familia, or older familias, the 
family, the household. 

63. Cam-p3r-16-rhyn'-chus brun-nei-c3p-flMus [broonaycapeellus]. Gr. Ko/iTruAos, bent, from 

KO/UTTTW, I bend ; and ftyxos (rhynchus), beak. Lat. brunneus, brown ; capillus, hair. The 
adjective brunneus is post-classic, Latinized from It. bruno, Fr. brun, Germ, braun ; A. S. 
bt/rnan, to burn ; related are brand, brunt, and many similar words, among them brant ; see 
Bernida, No. 700. 

64. C. af-fin'-Is [affeen'is]. Lat. affinis, L e., ad and finis, at the end of, hence bordering on, 

neighboring ; here in the sense of related to, resembling, having affinity with,, No. 63. 

65. Sal-pinc'-tes ob-sS-le'-tus. Gr. ffaXmyKriis, a trumpeter, becoming in Latin salpinctes, from 

adXiriy^ (salpigx = salpinx), a trumpet ; in allusion to the bird's loud, ringing song. 
Lat. obsoletus, unaccustomed, from ob, against, and soleo, I am wont ; hence obsolete, in 
sense of effaced, all the colors of the bird being dull. Wren is A. S. wrenna. 

66. Cath-er'-pes mex-T-ca'-nus. Gr. /coffees, a creeper; /ca0e/>ira>, I creep down, from icard, 

down, and e/wrw, I creep, crawl. The stem of the word is seen in herpes, the disease 
which creeps over the skin ; herpetology, the science of creeping things, reptiles ; repto or 
repo, I creep, in Latin, simply altered from epirta. Lat. mexicanus, see No. 28. 


67. Catherpes mexicamis conspersiis Kidg. B . c 46. R 59a. 

Speckled Canon Wren. 

68. Thryothonis ludoviciamis (Gin.) Bp. B 265. c 47. R 60. 

Carolina Wren. 

69. Thryothoras hidovicianiis miamiensis Ridg. B . c . R 606. 

Floridan Wren. 

70. Thryothonis ludovicianus berlandieri (Couch) Coues. B 266. c 47a. R 60a. 

Texan Wren. 

71. Thryothonis bewicki (Aud.) Bp. B 267. c 48. R 61. 

Bewick's Wren. 

72. Thryothonis bewicki leucogaster Bd. B . c 48a. R ei&. 

White-bellied Wren. 

73. Thryothonis bewicki spilunis (Vig.) Bd. B . c 486. R 6i. (?) 

Speckled-tailed Wren. 

74. Troglodytes domesticus (Bartr.) Coues. B 270, 272. c 49. R 63. 

House Wren. 

75. Troglodytes domesticus parkmani (Aud.) Coues. B271. C49a. R63a. 

Western House Wren. 

67. C. m. con-sper'-sus. Lat. conspersus, speckled; perfect participle of conspergo, from con 

and spargo (Gr. a-irelpca), I strew, scatter, sprinkle ; whence English sparse, scattered, and 
many other words, as disperse, aspersion. The Span, canon, brutalized as Eng. canyon, is 
constantly used in the West for a rocky gorge or mountain-pass. 

68. Thry-6-tho'-rus lu-do-vl-cl-a'-niis. Gr. Bpvov, a reed, rush, and 6ovpos, a leaping, spring- 

ing, from (e6pca), epdxrica), I run or rush through. The penult is marked long, as equiva- 
lent to Gr. ov. Lat. Ludoviciana, Louisiana, of or relating to Ludovicus, Louis (XIV., 
of France). The old Territory was vastly more extensive than the present State is. 

69. T. 1. ml-a-ml-en'-sls. Latinized from the name of the Miami river in Florida. 

70. T. 1. be'r-lan'-di-e'r-i. To Dr. Louis Berlandier, a naturalist, sometime resident in Mexico. 

71. T. be'-wlck-i. To Thomas Bewick, "the father of wood-engraving." 

72. T. b. Ieu-c6-gas'-ter [lewco-J. Gr. \evit6s, white, and yourr-hp, stomach, belly; whence 

English gastric, gastronomy. 

73. T. b. spll-u'-rus. Gr. a-irl\os, spotted ; odpa, tail. 

74. Tr5g-15'-dy-tes [-tace] ddm-es'-tl-cus. Gr. rpwy\o^vr-rjs, a cave-dweller, from rp&yK-n, a 

cave (literally, a hole made by gnawing rp&yw, I gnaw), and Svrrjs, an inhabitant, 
from SiW or Svu, I go in or under. The TpwyKoMrai or Troglodyte were a cave-dwelling 
people of ^Ethiopia. The name was later applied to a kind of wren. Lat. domesticus, 
domestic, from domus, a house. The specific name aedon, applied by Vieillot to this 
bird, is the Gr. arjScav, a songster, par excellence the nightingale; from de^Saj, I sing. The 
pronunciation of Troglodytes wavers ; we mark it as commonly heard, and also as seems to 
be defensible, in Latin, the penult being indubitably short ; though to do so violates one 
of the leading principles of Greek accentuation, that no word with the ultimate long 
is a proparoxytone. Many persons say Trog'lody"tes, conformably with English Trog r - 
lodyte". The case is precisely parallel with that of Lopho'phanes, g. v., No. 40; and the 
analogy of Aristo'phancs is not decisive, the Greek being 'ApurroQdisris or 'Apio-ro^av^s, 
not 'Api<rr6<(>avris. 

75. T. d. park'-man-i. To Dr. George Parkman, of Boston, murdered by Professor John W. 

Webster, in 1849. 


76. Anorthura troglodytes hiemalis (Wils.) Coues. B 273. c 50. R 65. 

Winter Wren. 

77. Anortlmra troglodytes pacificus (Bd.) Riclg. B . c . R 65a. (?) 

Western Winter Wren. 

78. Anortlmra troglodytes alascensis (Bd.) Coues. B . c 50a. R 66. 

Alaskan Winter Wren. 

79. Telmatodytes pamstris (Bartr.) Cab. B 268. c 51. R 67. 

Long-billed Marsh Wren. 

80. Telmatodytes pamstris pamdicola Bd. B . c . R 67a. (?) 

Tule Marsh Wren. 

81. Cistothoms stellaris (Licht.) Cab. B 269. c 52. R 68. 

Short-billed Marsh Wren. 

82. Eremophila alpestris (L.) Boie. B 302. c 53. R 300. 

Horned Lark; Shore Lark. 

83. Eremophila alpestris leucolaema Coues. B . c 535. R 300a. (?) 

Western Shore Lark. 

84. Eremophila alpestris chrysolsema (Wagl.) Bd. B . c 53a. R soo<?. 

Southern Shore Lark. 

76. An-or-thu'-ra trog-lS'-dy-tes hl-gm-a'-lls. Gr. d or kv, privative, 6 P e6s, straight, olpa, 

tail. The name was invented by Rennie, because he considered Troglodytes etymologi- 
cally inapplicable to a wren. Lat. hiemalis or hyemalis, of or pertaining to winter ; from 
(hiemps) hiems or hyems, winter, a weakened form of the Gr. x 6 */*") a gushing, a torrent, 
or x* i/*^ the rainy, tempestuous, or winter season ; Skr. hlma, snow. We of tener use 
the y than the i, but the latter is correct. 

77. A. t. pa-cl'-fl-cus. Lat. pacificus, pacific, peaceful, literally peace-making, from pax, geni- 

tive pads, peace, smdfacio, I make, do. The application is to the occurrence of the bird 
on the west coast of the United States. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. (Baird, Rev. Am. B., i, 1864, p. 145.) 

78. A. t. a-las-cen'-sls. Alascensis, relating to Alaska. 

79. Tel-ma-tS'-dy-tes pal-us'-trfs. Gr. reA/ut, genitive rf\p.aros, a marsh or swamp ; 8rfn?s, an 

inhabitant, from 86a>, I go in or under. Lat. palustris, adjective from palus, a marsh, 
whence palustrine, like lacustrine from lacus, marine from mare. 

80. T. p. pal-u-dl'-cS-la. Lat. palus, genitive paludis, a marsh; and (in)cola, an inhabitant. 

See No. 79. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. (Baird, Rev. Am. B., i, 1864, p. 148.) 

81. Cis-tS-tho'-rus stel-la'-rls. Gr. icio-ros, a shrub, and dovpos, from (66po>) QP&GKW, I run or 

rush through ; compare Thryothorus, No. 68. Cabanis, who coined the word in 1850, gives 
dtfiScfytupfer as the German translation. Lat. stellaris, stellar, starry, adjective from Stella, 
a star, like aster, Gr. aa-r-fip ; here in the sense of speckled. 

82. Er-e-mS'-phl-la al-pes'-trls. Gr. tyy/tos, a desert; <pi\w, I love. Lat. Alpestris (not 

classic), from AJpes, Alps ; perhaps from a\<j>6s, albus, white ; that is, snowy. 

83. E. a. Ieu-c6-lae'-ma. Gr. \cvx4s, white ; \aifi6s, the throat. 

This is a slight variety, lately described by Coues from the high central plains ; it is 
the bleached form of that region. (B. N. W., 1874, p. 38.) 

84. E. a. chry-sS-lae'-ma. Gr. xp^o-eos, golden ; that is, of a golden color, from xpvffAs, gold ; 

and \atp.6s, the throat. A. S. laferc, Scot, laverock, Germ. Ier$e, Eng. lark. 


85. Alaiida arvensis L. B . c . R 299. (!E.) 

European Skylark. 

86. Motacilla alba L. B . c . R 69. (G.) 

White Wagtail. 

87. Budytes flavus (L,) Gr. B . c 54. R 70. 

Yellow Wagtail. 

88. Anthiis pratensis (L.) Bechst. B . c 55Ms. R 72. (IE.) 

Meadow Pipit. 

89. Anthus ludoviciamis (Cm.) Licht. B 165. c 55. R 71. 

Louisiana Pipit; American Titlark. 

90. Neocorys spraguii (Aud.) Scl. B 166. c 56. R 73. 

Missouri Skylark; Sprague's Pipit. 

85. A-lau'-da ar-ven'-sls. Lat. alauda, a lark, said to be literally " a great songstress," or one 

who sings on high; from the Celtic al, great, high, and aud, song. Some say from Gr. 
&\ij, roaming, and uS-fj, song ; t. e. the bird that sings as she soars. The form of the 
word might suggest ala, wing, and laus, genitive laudis, praise ; as if the bird sang praises 
on wing. But the Celtic is the only tenable etymon. Lat. arvensis, relating to a 
ploughed field; arvum, arable land; arvus for aruus, ploughed; aro, I plough. 
Not in the orig. ed. Said to occur in Greenland, Alaska, and the Bermudas. 

86. Mo-ta-cilMa al'-ba. Lat. motadlla = wagtail, "quod semper caudam movet," early applied 

to some small bird; Lat. moveo, motus, I move, motion, and Gr. Ki\\w of similar 
signification. There is a Greek word Ki\\ovpos, for the wagtail ; on the contrary there 
are the Lat. albicilla, atricilla, meaning white-tail, black-tail, &c. The implication in 
either case seems to be tail, considered as a movable part. Compare Fr. hochequeue. 

Not in the orig. ed. The species is North American only as occurring in Greenland. 

87. Bu'-dy-tes fla'-vus. Budytes is an unknown word to us, unless conjectured to be SVTTJS, 

with the augmentative particle 0ov-. See Troglodytes, No. 74. The particle /Sou, however, 
is from flows, a bull, ox, cow, and becomes " augmentative," just as we say " horse-laugh," 
" bull-finch," " elephant-folio," &c., being therefore of obvious inapplicability to this deli- 
cate little bird. 

Since the above was written, Mr. Henry T. Wharton, of London, has kindly replied 
to queries respecting various words of which we were in doubt. In this case, his MS. 
confirms the above etymology, but in a different application ; the actual form, povSvrris, 
being found in " Opp., Ix. 3. 2," for some small bird ; qu., one that goes among cattle ? 

There is some question whether the yellow wagtail of Alaska be the true B.flavus. 

88. An'-thus pra-ten'-sls. Lat. anthus, Gr. &v6os, a kind of bird. Lat. pratensis, adjective from 

pratum, a meadow. For anthus, compare omanthe vitiflora, under Saxicola, No. 26. 
This is North American as found in Greenland, and said to also occur in Alaska. 

89. A. lu-do-vl-cl-a'-niis. Lat. Ludovicus, nom. prop. See Thryothorus, No. 68. Pipit, little 

used in this country, though always said for these birds in England, is an onomatopoeia 
(ovofjutToirotia, word-making to express the sense by the sound), like the Lat. pipio, I pip, 
peep, chirp ; see Pipilo, No. 301. Titlark is good English for a small kind of lark, like 
tit-mouse, torn-tit ; tit in all its forms, and with numerous related words, conveying the 
sense of something little or otherwise insignificant. 

90. N6-8'-cS-rys spra'-gul-i [three syllables]. Gr. v4os, new; teopvs, primarily a helmet; 

hence applied to the crested lark. To Isaac Sprague, companion of Audubon on the 


91. Mniotilta varia (L.) V. B 167. c 57. R 74. 

Black-and-white Creeper. 

92. Mniotilta varia borealis (Nutt.) Ridg. B . c . R 74a. (?) 

Small-billed Creeper. 

93. Parula anaericana (L.) Bp. B 168. c 58. R 88. 

Blue Yellow-backed Warbler. 

94. Parula nigrilora Coues. B . c . R 89a. 

Sennett's Warbler. 

95. Protonotaria citrea (Gm.) Bd. B 169. c 59. R 75. 

Prothonotary Warbler. 

96. Helminthenis vermivorus (Gm.) Bp. B 178. c 60. R 77. 

Worm-eating Warbler. 

91. MnI-6-tIF-ta var'-I-a. Gr. pviov, moss, and ri\\u, I pluck, or ri\r6s, plucked. Neither 

the orthography nor the applicability of the word is obvious. Vieillot wrote sometimes 
mniotilta, sometimes mniotilla. The conjectured application is to the weaving of moss into 
a nest. Lat. varia, variegated, as this bird is with black and white. 

92. M. v. bSr-e-aMIs. Lat. borealis, northern. See Phyttoscopus, No. 32. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. 

93. Pa'-rfi-la am-gr-I-ca'-na. Lat. panda, diminutive from parus, a titmouse, q. v., No. 44. 

Lat. americana, American. America is generally supposed to derive its name from 
Amerigo Vespucci, Latinized Americus Vespucius ; and is said to have first appeared in 
the form of America Provincia, on a map published at Basle in 1522. The counter-argu- 
ment is : (1) The name if from the Italian navigator's would have been from his surname. 
(2) His name was Alberico Vespuzio. (3) Americ, or Amerique, is the native name of 
a range of mountains in Nicaragua. " It is most plausible that the State of Central 
America, where we find the name Americ signifying great mountain, gave the continent 
its name." (Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, i, p. 692.) The author cited seeks to establish a 
connection with the Hindu Meni, or Meruah, of similar signification. 

94. P. nIg-rMo'-r&. Lat. niger, black; and forum, a thong, strap, a bridle-rein; hence the 

cheeks, along which the bridle passes. The " lore " has become in ornithology a techni- 
cal name for a small space on the side of a bird's head between the eye and the bill. 

Not in the first ed. of the Check List. Lately discovered in Texas by Mr. George B. 
Sennett. See Coues, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, p. 11. 

95. Pro-tS-n8-ta'-rI-a cit'-rg-a. Low Latin for prothonotary ; from Gr. irpwros, first, and Lat. 

notarius, a scribe, a notary-public. The bird is le Protonotaire of Buffon, Latinized by 
Gmelin as protonotarius in 1788 ; but for the name, as Pennant observed in 1785, " the 
reason has not reached us." Lat. citrea, of or pertaining to the citron, in allusion to the 
yellow color. 

96. Hel-min-the'-nis ver-ml'-vSr-iis. Gr. \fiivs, genitive eA/x</0oy, and e-fipiov, from efy, an 

animal. The word is very incorrectly compounded. Its full form is helminthotherium ; 
we may perhaps reduce it by elision to helmintherus, but helmitherus, as originally written 
by Rafinesque, is inadmissible. This is the accepted derivation ; but we may suggest a 
short cut to the same etymon, 6-f)p, an animal; \fj.iv6o6^pas, a worm-hunter, like the 
actual bpviOoe-fipas, a fowler, in Aristoph., Av. 62 ; being c\/j.ivs and 6-fipa, the chase, from 
etp; though we hesitate to act upon this by writing Helmintheras. 'Lat. vermivorus^ 
worm-eating, from vermis, a worm (verto, I turn, in the sense of squirming or wriggling) 
and voro, I eat. 


97. Helmintherus swainsoni (Aud.) Bp. B 179. c 61. R 76. 

Swainson's Warbler. 

98. Helminthophaga pinus (L.) Bd. B iso. c 62. R 79. 

Blue-winged Yellow Warbler. 

99. Helminthophaga lawrencii Herrick. B . c . R so. (?) 

Lawrence's Warbler. 

100. Helminthophaga leucobronchialis Brewster. B . G . R 82. (?) 

White-throated Warbler. 

101. Helminthophaga cincinnatiensis Langdon. B . c . R . (?) 

Cincinnati Warbler. 

102. Helminthophaga chrysoptera (L.) Bd. B isi. c 63. R si. 

Blue Golden-winged Warbler. 

103. Helminthophaga bachmani (Aud.) Cab. B 182. c 64. R 78. 

Bachman's Warbler. 

104. Helminthophaga lucise Coop. B . c 65. R 83. 

Lucy's Warbler. 

105. Helminthophaga virginiae Bd. B . c 66. R 84. 

Virginia's Warbler. 

106. Helminthophaga ruficapilla (Wils.) Bd. B 183. c 67. R 85. 

Nashville Warbler. 

97. H. swain'-s8n-i. To Wm. Swainson, Esq., the celebrated English naturalist. Notice 

that this word, like others containing the letter w, cannot be Latinized without change ; 
the nearest Latin would be sud-ln'-sdn-i, in four syllables. See also lawrencii, next but 
one below ; this should be lau-ren'-cl-i or lav-ren'-cl-i. But it is futile, finical, and pedantic 
to undertake such transliterations in the cases of modern proper names. 

98. Hel-mm-thS'-pha-ga pi'-niis. Gr. cA/us, a worm, and QaycTir, to eat. Lat. pinus, Gr. 

irirvs, a pine-tree. Notice that pinus is a substantive, not an adjective ; it may be put in 
the genitive, pinus, of a pine, but is just as well left nominative. 

99. H. law-rSn'-d-i. To George N. Lawrence, Esq., of New York, long time one of the lead- 

ing ornithologists of America. 

Not in orig. ed. Since described, Pr. Phila. Acad., 1874, p. 220, pi xv. 

100. H. leu-cS-bron-chi-aMls. Gr. \evic6s, white, and &p6yxos, the throat; this becomes in 

Latin bronchus, whence the adjective bronchialis, English bronchial, bronchitis, &c. 
Not in orig. ed. Since described, Bull. Nutt. Club, i, 1876, p. 1, pi. 

101. H. cin-cin-na-tl-en'-sls. Of Cincinnati, Ohio, where discovered. 

Not in the orig. ed. Lately described by F. W. Langdon, in Journ. Cine. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., ii, July, 1880, p. 119, and Bull. Nuttall Club, v, October, 1880, p. 208, pi. iv. 

102. H. chry-sop'-tg-ra. Gr. xp^ffowrepos, golden- winged, from xp v(r 6s, gold, and irrtptv, wing. 

103. H. bach'-man-i. To Kev. John Bachman, D.D., of Charleston, S. C., collaborator with 

Audubon in the " Quadrupeds of North America." 

1 04. H. lu'-cl-ae. To Miss Lucy Baird, daughter of Professor S. F. Baird. 

105. H. vlr-glnM-ae. To Mrs. Virginia Anderson, wife of Dr. W. W. Anderson, who discov- 

ered the bird. 

106. H. ru-fi-cap-Il'-la. Lat. rufus, reddish, and capillus, hair of the head. See Parus, No. 44. 


107. Helminthophaga celata (Say) Bd. B 184. c 68. R 86. 

Orange-crowned Warbler. 

108. Helminthophaga celata lutescens Ridg. B . c 68a. R 8Ga. 

Pacific Orange-crowned Warbler. 

109. Helminthophaga peregrina (Wils.) Cab. B 185. c 69. R 87. 

Tennessee Warbler. 

110. Peucedramus olivaceus (Gir.) Coues. B . c . R 92. 

Olive Warbler. 

111. Dendrceca aestiva (Gm.) Bd. B 203. c 70. R 93. 

Summer Warbler. 

112. Dendroeca virens (Gm.) Bd. B 189. c 71. R 107. 

Black-throated Green Warbler. 

113. Dendroeca occidentalis (Towns.) Bd. B 190. c 72. R 109. 

Western Warbler. 

114. Dendroeca townsendi (Nutt.) Bd. B 191. c 73. R ios. 

Townsend's Warbler. 

107. H. ce-la'-ta. Lat. celatus, concealed, from celo ; the orange color of the crown being hidden. 

108. H. c. lu-tes'-cens. Lat. inceptive verb lutesco, present participle lutescens, from luteus, 

yellow ; from lutum, an herb used in dyeing yellow. There is actually no such verb as 
Jutesco, the describer of the species having apparently mistaken lutesco, I grow muddy, 
become miry, for a supposed lutesco, I grow yellow, by some confounding of luteus, 
muddy, loamy (hence possibly clay-colored or yellowish) with luteus, golden-yellow. The 
bright yellowness of the bird in comparison with H. celata being its prime characteristic, 
the propriety of assuming the derivation to be from lutum, and hence writing lutescens, 
from a supposed lutesco, is obvious. 

A form lately distinguished by Ridgway, Am. Journ. Sci., 3d ser., iv, 1872, p. 457. 

109. H. pSr-g-gri'-na. Lat. peregrinus, wandering, alien, exotic, that comes from foreign parts; 

from per, through, and ager, a field or land ; literally, " across country." 

110. Peu-cS'-dra-mus 81-I-va'-c6-us. Gr. irevitr), a pine-tree, and Spa/j.f7v, 2d aorist infinitive, 

from rpexv, I run - The allusion is to the pine creeping habits of the bird. N. B. Many 
genera are compounded from the same root, and spelled either -dranms or -dromus. Either 
is correct. Lat. olivaceus, pertaining to the olive ; in this case, in color, olivaceous. 
Not in the orig. ed. Since discovered in Arizona by H. W. Henshaw. 

111. Den-droe'-ca aes-ti'-va [dayndrwaykah aysteevah]. Gr. Mrfpov, a tree, and ot'irc'u, I 

inhabit ; dittos, a habitation. The word was originally compounded Dendroica by G. R. 
Gray: later emended as above. The full form would be Dendraecetes, like. Pooecetes, 
Nephcecetes (OIK^T^S, an inhabitant). Lat. cestiva, adjective from cestas, the summer 
season ; cestus, heat, ardor (Gr. aWta, I burn). Notice the long accented penult. 

112. D. vir'-ens [pronounced virraynce]. Lat. virens, participle present of vireo, I grow green. 

113. D. oc-cl-den-ta'-lls. Lat. occidentalis, occidental, western; that is, in the place where the 

sun sets ; from occido, I fall down. 

114. D. town'-send-i. To J. K. Townsend, Esq., companion of Nuttall during his travels. 

The first syllable of this word represents the exact pronunciation of Latin au diphthong 
like English ow ; as if we made it ta-un-. 


115. Dendrceca chrysoparia Scl. & Salv. B . c 74. R IOG. 

Golden-cheeked Warbler. 

116. Dendrceca nigrescens (Towns.) Bd. B 192. c 75. R 105. 

Black-throated Gray Warbler. 

117. Dendrceca ccerulescens (L.) Bd. B 193. c 76. R 94. 

Black-throated Blue Warbler. 

118. Dendrceca ccerulea (Wils.) Bd. B 201. c 77 R 98 

Coerulean Warbler. 

119. Dendrceca coronata (L.) Gr. B 194. c 78. R 95. 

Yellow-rumped Warbler. 

120. Dendrceca auduboni (Towns.) Bd. B 195. c 79. R 96. 

Audubon's Warbler. 

121. Dendrceca blackburnse (Gm.) Bd. B 196. c so. R 102. 

Blackburn's Warbler. 

122. Dendrceca striata (Forst.) Bd. B 202. c si. R 101. 

Black-poll Warbler. 

123. Dendrceca castanea (Wils.) Bd. B 197. c 82. R 100. 

Bay-breasted Warbler. 

115. D. chry-s8-par-i'-a. Gr. xp vff os, gold, and irapetd, cheek. Greek diphthong ft becomes 

long i in Latin : Jience, -parla, not -pareia ; see also beyond, among the names of pigeons 
ending in -pella. 

116. D. nlg-res'-cens. Lat. nigresco, I grow black; an inceptive verb, present participle 

nigrescens, equivalent to being blackish, or partly black. See No. 126. 

117. D. coe-rul-es'-cens [pronounced sayrullaysaynce]. Lat. cceiidesco, I grow blue; a coined 

inceptive verb from cceruleus, blue; this from ccelum, the (blue) sky; compare Gr. KO"I\OS, 
hollow, i. e., the vault of heaven, and ccelare or celare, to conceal, as if in a hollow place, 
&c. N. B. There is constant difference of orthography : either coe- or cce- is defensible ; 
the former seems preferable. In English we may write indifferently coendean, ccerulean, 
or cerulean. 

118. D. coe-rul'-g-a. See last word. 

119. D. c5r-o-na'-ta. Lat. coronatus, crowned, from corona, a crown, garland, or wreath. Gr. 

120. D. aud'-u-bSn-i. To John James Audubon, "the American backwoodsman," as he liked 

to be called. 

121. D. black'-burn-ae. To Mrs. Blackburn, an English lady. Commonly written blackburnice, 

in four syllables, with accent on the antepenult ; more correctly as above. Diacritical 
marks are futile in such a case as this ; the English name is never pronounced blark- 
boorn, as it would be according to rule for the quantity of the vowels in Latin. 

1 22. D. strl-a'-ta. Lat. participial adjective from strio, I furrow, channel, flute, groove, striate, 
stripe ; stria, substantive, a furrow, stripe, &c. 

1 23. D. cas-tan'-e-a. Lat. castanea, a chestnut ; in allusion to the bay or chestnut color. The 
word is a noun, but is constantly used adjectivally. Gr. Kd.ara.vov, the nut of Castana, a 
city of Thessaly. 


124. Dendrceca pennsylvanica (L.) Bd. B 200. c 83. K 99. 

Chestnut-sided Warbler. 

125. Dendrceca maculosa (Gm.) Bd. B 204. c 84. n 97. 

Black-and-Yellow Warbler. 

126. Dendrceca tigrina (Gm.) Bd. B 206. c 85. R 90. 

Cape May Warbler. 

127. Dendrceca discolor (V.) Bd. B 210. c 86. R 114. 

Prairie Warbler. 

128. Dendrceca graciae Coues. B . c 87. R 104. 

Grace's Warbler. 

129. Dendrceca dominica (L.) Bd. B 209. c 88. R 103. 

Yellow-throated Warbler. 

130. Dendrceca dominica albilora Bd. B . c 88a. R iosa. 

White-cheeked Warbler. 

131. Dendrceca kirtlandi Bd. B 205. c 89. R no. 

Kirtland's Warbler. 

132. Dendrceca palmamm (Gm.) Bd. B 208. c 90. R 113. 

Yellow Red-poll Warbler. 

1 24. D. pSnn-syl-va'-nl-ca. An adjective coined from sylvanus, sylvan, this from syha, which 

is sibilated and digammated from Gr. V\i)=(<r)v\Fri, a wood ; preceded by the name of 
William Penn; "Penn's woods." The modern use of the y is less correct than i would 
be. The whole word would preferably be written pensilvanica, as it is in some ornitho- 
logical works of the last century. 

125. D. ma-cul-o'-sa. Lat. maculosus, spotted or full of spots ; macula, a spot. 

126. D. tlg-ri'-na. Lat. tigrinus, striped (like a tiger, ticjris, Gr. riypis). The quantity of the 

antepenult is doubtful, perhaps common. By ordinary rule, it is long, and Tigris makes 
the final spondee of some hexameter lines. On the other hand, the combination of a 
mute or f and a liquid does not necessarily lengthen a preceding vowel in prose ; and 
some other combinations of consonants also permit the vowel to remain short, in cases 
of Greek words, as Cycnus or Cygnus. We leave it short, as usually heard. Perisso- 
glossa, a generic name now often used for this species, is the Gr. Trepia-o-os and yXua-cra, in 
allusion to the peculiarity of the laciniate tongue. 

127. D. dis'-cSl-Sr. Lat. discolor (post-classic), party-colored; opposed to concolor, whole-colored. 

128. D. gra'-cl-ae. To Mrs. Charles A. Page, nee Grace Darling Coues, the author's sister. 

Would more strictly be written gratice (Lat. gratia, grace, favor, thanks). 

1 29. D. dSm-In'-I-ca. Lat. dominicus, relating to the lord or master of the household, dominus ; 

domus, a house. So, to dominate, to have dominion. The application is here to the West 
Indian island named originally Hayti, then San Domingo. The bird was early described 
from that locality. 

130. D. d. al-bl-15'-ra. Lat. albus, white, and lorum, the lore or cheek. See Panda, No. 94. 

131. D. kirt'-land-i. To Dr. Jared P. Kirtland, of Ohio. See remarks under D. blackburnce. 

132. D. pal-ma'-rum. Lat. palmarum, of the palms, genitive plural of palma, a palm. 


1 33. Dendrceca palmarum hypochrysea Ridg. B . c . R H3a. (?) 

Yellow-bellied Red-poll Warbler. 

134. Dendrceca pimis (Bartr.) Bd. B 198. c 91. R in. 

Pine-creeping Warbler. 

135. Siurus auricapillus (L.) Sw. B 186. c 92. R 115. 

Golden-crowned Thrush. 

136. Siurus nsevius (Bodd.) Coues. B 187. c 93. R 116. 

Water Thrush. 

1 37. Siurus nsevius notabilis Grinnell. B . c . R H6a. (?) 

Wyoming Water Thrush. 

138. Siurus motacilla (Y.) Bp. B 188. c 94. R 117. 

Large-billed Water Thrush. 

139. Oporornis agilis (Wils.) Bd. B 174. c 95. R us. 

Connecticut Warbler. 

140. Oporornis formosa (Wils.) Bd. B 175. c 96. R 119. 

Kentucky Warbler. 

1 33. D. p. h^-po-chry'-se-a. Gr. inr6, becoming Lat. hypo-, under, below, beneath, and 

golden ; referring to the under parts of this variety, which are yellower than those of 
palmarum. Properly, hypo- in such connection simply diminishes the force of the adjec- 
tive ; hypoleucus, hypochryseus, meaning whitish, yellowish ; but the present is an estab- 
lished usage in ornithology. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since described by Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Club, i, 1876, p. 84. 

1 34. D. pi'-nus. See Helminthophaga pinus, No. 98. 

135. Si-u'-riis aur-I-cap-fl'-lfis. Gr. creta, I wave or brandish, and ofya, tail. The word is pre- 

cisely equivalent to Lat. motacilla, French hochequeue, English wagtail. It was originally 
and has since commonly been written Seiurus. (See Coues, Bull. Nuttall Club, ii, no. 2, 
1877, p. 29. ) We keep the t long as representing Gr. e*. Lat. aurum, gold, and capillus, hair ; 
golden-haired. ( See Coues, ibid., p. 30. ) See also Lophophanes, No. 42, and Parus, No. 44. 

136. S. nae'-vT-Gs. Lat. navus, a birth-mark, nevus, or spot; whence ncevius, so marked, or, in 

general, spotted in any way. 

137. S. n. nS-ta'-bl-Hs. Lat. notabilis, notable, from nota, a note, and the termination -bilis. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. Later described by R. Ridgway, from Grin- 
nell's MS., in Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, 1880, p. 12. Very doubtful. 

138. S. m5-ta-cfl'-la. See Motacilla, No. 86. 

139. 6p-or-6r'-nls a'-gl-lls. Gr. 6ir6pa, the autumn, and Spvis, a bird ; in allusion to the abun- 

dance of the species in the fall, in comparison with its scarcity in the spring. Lat. agilis, 
agile, from ago, I act ; literally, do-able, that is, act-ive ; the adjectival termination being 
simply applied to the root of the verb, both in Latin and English. 

140. O. for-mo'-sa. Lat. formosa, beautiful; primitively, in the sense of shapely, well-formed, 

in good or full proportion; forma, form. So said of Juno, in whose "lofty mind" 
remained judicium Paridis, spretceque injuria format, h. e., of her slighted beauty. Verg., 
JEn., i, 27. 


141. G-eothlypis trichas (L.) Cab. B 170. c 97. R 122. 

Maryland Yellow- throat. 

142. G-eothlypis Philadelphia (Wils.) Bd. B 172. c 98. R 120. 

Mourning Warbler. 

143. Geothlypis macgillivrayi (Aud.) Bd. B 173. c 99. R 121. 

Macgillivray's Warbler. 

144. Icteria virens (L.) Bd. B 176. c 100. R 123. 

Yellow-breasted Chat. 

145. Icteria virens longicauda (Lawr.) Coues. B 177. c iooa. R i23a. 

Long-tailed Chat. 

146. Myiodioctes mitratiis (Gm.) Aud. B 211. c 101. R 124. 

Hooded Flycatching Warbler. 

141 . Gg-othMy-pIs trlch'-Ss. Gr. 77) or y4a, the earth, and \virls, " a proper name." Gr. epl, 

genitive rpix^s, hair; there is also the actual word rpixds, for some kind of a thrush, 
occurring in Aristotle. Some take the rpixds of Aristotle to be the bird named by 
Linnaeus Turdus pilaris, i. e., the hairy thrush ; but Sundevall reasonably identifies it 
with T. musicus. Of course it had originally nothing to do with the present species, to 
which Linnaeus applied the term trichas in 1766. Cabanis coined Geothlypis in 1847, 
simply explaining \wis as a "proper name." The meaning of the term is obscure, 
but we think it may be explained, considering that 6\viris is the same as 6paviris, which 
latter occurs in Aristotle as the name of some conirostral granivorous bird never satis- 
factorily identified. Sundevall says epaviris ,,witrbe in eintgen codices &\vrris (Thlypis) 
Qefcfyrieben" ; and the identity of the two words appears to be established, seeing that 
6\du, I break, bruise, crush, whence d\aviris, has the same meaning as 6pav<a, whence 
Qpaviris. (See Aristoph., Av. 466.) In each case the name is that of a bird considered 
as granivorous as a seed-eater, i. e., seed-breaker, famenfreffenber, coccothraustes, a-iropo- 
6\d<rTi)s, K.T.A.. But the name, though thus perfectly explicable, is very badly chosen 
to designate a strictly insectivorous species, its only pertinence being in geo-, signifying 
the humility of this bird of brake and briar. 

142. G. phfl-a-del'-phl-a. Named for the "city of brotherly love." Gr. <f>i\cw, I love, elSeA^y, 

brother ; the latter from d connective (for a/j.a) and SeXtyts, the womb, that is, having 
one mother. But the compound itself, Philadelphia, is classic, as the name of a city, and 
there are the actual words 0iA.a5eA.0eta, <iAa8eA<ia, amorfraternus, charitas fraterna. The 
Lat. is marked for quantity as above in the authority consulted ; but some contend for 
the Greek accent, philadelphl'-a. 

143. G. mac-gll-llv-ray'-i. To William Macgillivray, Esq., of Edinburgh, author of much of 

Audubon's scientific work, besides several other important treatises. 

144. Ic-teV-I-a vlr'-ens. A dialectic form, invented by Vieillot, of Gr. fcn-epos or Lat. icterus ; 

primarily, the disease jaundice ; also a certain yellow bird, probably the golden oriole of 
Europe, by the sight of which jaundiced patients were fancied to be cured. The name 
was in 1760 by Brisson applied to the American orioles as a generic term, Icterus ; and 
by Vieillot later, in the form Icteria, to the present genus. Lat. virens, present parti- 
ciple of vireo, I grow green. 

145. I. v. lon-gl-caud'-a [-cowda]. Lat. longus, long, and cauda, tail. 

146. MyI-5-dI-5c'-tes mi-tra'-tfis. Gr. jui/Ta, a fly, and SIC^KTIJS, a pursuer. Lat. mitratus, 

wearing a turban ; Gr. nirpa, a turban or other head-dress, cf. mr6<a, I weave. The 
word is sometimes six-syllabled, but properly reducible to five, the yl, from Gr. vt, being 
slurred ; the sound is that of mwee-, not ml- or me-. 


147. Myiodioctes pusillus (Wils.) Bp. B 213. c 102. R 125. 

Green Black-capped Flycatching Warbler. 

148. Myiodioctes pusillus pileolatus (Pall.) Ridg. B . c I02a. R I25a. 

Pacific Black-capped Flycatching Warbler. 

149. Myiodioctes canadensis (L.) Aud. B 214, 215. c 103. R 127. 

Canadian Flycatching Warbler. 

150. Cardellina rubrifrons (Gir.) Scl. B . c . R 131. 

Red-fronted Flycatching Warbler. 

151. Setophaga picta Sw. B218. c 105. R 129. 

Painted Flycatching Warbler. 

152. Setophaga ruticilla (L.) Sw. B 217. c 104. R 128. 

American Redstart. 

153. Certhiola bahamensis Reich. B 301. c 106. R 159. (!W. I.) 

Bahaman Honey Creeper. 

147. M. pu-sfl'-lus. See Sitta, No. 60. 

143. M. p. pi-16-6-la'-tus. Lat. pileum or pileolum, Gr. TnXos, a kind of cap, a skull-cap; pileo- 
latus, capped. In late days, pileum has become a technical word in ornithology, meaning 
the top of the head. 

149. M. can-a-den'-sls. Latinized from Canada, with the termination -ensis. Canada is said to 

be the Iroquois word Kanata, a village or collection of huts. 

150. Car-del-li'-na rub-ri'-frons. Apparently an arbitrary variation from Lat. carduelis, a 

kind of finch, from carduus, a thistle. Lat. ruber, red, and frons, the forehead. The pro- 
nunciation of rubrifrons is in question; everybody says roo'bryfrdnz ; as it is not a classic 
word, we can only mark it by analogy with such words as rubrlco, &c. But see above, 
Dendrozca, No. 126, in favor of rub'nfrons, as the i here comes before /"and a liquid. 
Not in the orig. ed. of the List ; since discovered by H. W. Henshaw in New Mexico. 

151. Se-tS'-pha-ga pic'-ta. Gr. afc, genitive a-nros, an insect; and ^oyeu/, to eat. The con- 

necting vowel o need not lengthen before ph, as this is only equivalent in force to/ 
Lat. pictus, painted, pictured, here in the sense of brightly or highly colored ; pingo, I 
paint, depict. 

1 52. S. rut-I-cHMa. Lat. rutilus, reddish ; for the rest see Motacilla, No. 86. The word is exactly 

equal to redstart, which is Anglicized from the Germ. $otf)ftert or 3ftott)fter$, all three words 
meaning simply redtail. 

153. Cer-thl'-S-la ba-ha-men'-sls. Certhiola is a coined diminutive of Certhia, which see, 

No. 62 ; we usually hear it accented on a long penult, which is certainly vicious. Baha- 
mensis is Latinized from Bahama. 

In the first ed. of the Check List, this species stands as C.Jlaveola, corrected in the 
Appendix. If we were to use the latter, it would be flavuld, notfldveola. Certhiola is 
correctly formed as a diminutive from Certhia, like lineola from linea ; for the general rule, 
however, in cases when the stem ends in a consonant, we may recall the exquisite lines 
attributed to the death-bed of Hadrian : 

Animula vagula blandula, 

Hospes comesque corporis, 

Quae nunc abibis in loca, 

Pallidula rigida nudula, 

Nee, ut soles, dabis jocos ? 


154. Pyranga rubra (L.) V. B 220. c 107. R iei. 

Scarlet Tanager. 

155. Pyranga sestiva (L.) V. B 221. c ios. R 164. 

Summer Tanager. 

156. Pyranga sestiva cooperi (Ridg.) Coues. B . c I08a. R i64a. 

Cooper's Tanager. 

157. Pyranga hepatica Sw. B 222. c 109. R 163. 

Hepatic Tanager. 

158. Pyranga ludoviciana (Wils.) Bp. B 223. c no. R 162. 

Louisiana Tanager. 

159. Hirundo erythrogastra horreorum (Bartr.) Coues. B225. c in. R154. 

Barn Swallow. 

160. Iridoprocne bicolor (V.) Coues. B 227. c 112. R 155. 

White-bellied Swallow. 

161. Tachycineta thalassina (Sw.) Cab. B 228. c 113. R 156. 

Violet-green Swallow. 

1 54. Py-ran'-ga rub'-ra. The word Pyranga has a classic twang, as if formed in part from the 

Gr. irvp, fire ; but it is a barbarous word, taken from some South American dialect. 
Several similar combinations of letters occur in Marcgrave. Vieillot wrote it Piranqa 
in 1807, and Pyranga in 1816. The latter has come into general use. The English 
tanager is simply altered from the South American tanagra or tangara, both of which 
words occur in the older authors, the latter being in general use until Linnaeus, perhaps 
by a misprint, gave the former currency. 

155. P. aes-ti'-va. See Dendrceca, No. 111. 

156. P. a. co5p'-gr-i. To Dr. J. G. Cooper, of California. 

157. P. he-pat'-I-ca. Gr. faap, genitive tfiraros, the liver, or Lat. hepar, hepatis, the same; 

whence f)iraTiK6s or hepaticus, the direct adjective. The allusion is to the liver-colored 

158. P. lu-do-vl-cl-a'-na. See Thryothorus, No. 68. 

159. HIr-un'-do gr-y-thrS-gas'-tra hor-r6-5'-rum. Lat. hirundo, a swallow, from the Gr. 

XcAtScfr', of same meaning. Gr. tyvOpts, red or ruddy, and yao-rrip, the belly. Lat. 
horreum, a barn, in the genitive plural. (On the etymology of hirundo, and various 
other, including the English, names of swallows, see Birds Col. Vail., i, 1878, p. 369.) 

1 60. Ir-I-d5-proc'-ne bl'-c51-5r. Gr. T Ipty, genitive "Iptfos, Lat. 7m, Iridis, Iris, the messenger 

of the gods; also the rainbow; from efyw or fy<3, to announce. The allusion is to 
the sheen of the plumage. Gr. nptwri, or Lat. Procne or Progne, a proper name, the 
daughter of Pandion, fabled to have been transformed into a swallow. Lat. bicolor, 

161. Tcb.-y-cln-e'-ta thal-as'-sl-n5. Gr. raxvwnros, moving rapidly, i.e., a swift runner; 

rax^s, swift (0eo>, to run); Kivnr-fip, from Ktvew, to move. Gr. 6a\do-ffivos, sea-green, 
ed\aff<ra, the sea, from &\s, the sea, or salt. Observe accentuation of thalassina. We keep 
the penult of Tachycine'ta long as being Gr. rj, but are not sure that it should not be 
transliterated Tachycineta. 


162. Petrochelidon lunifrons (Say) Cab. B 226. c 114. R 153. 

Cliff or Eave Swallow. 

163. Cotile riparia (L.) Boie. B 229. c 115. R 157. 

Bank Swallow. 

164. Stelgidopteryx serripennis (Aud.) Bd. B 230. c us. R 158. 

Rough-winged Swallow. 

165. Progne subis (L.) Bd. B 231. c m. R 152. 

Purple Martin. 

166. Ampelis garmhis L. B 232. c us. R iso. 

Bohemian Waxwing. 

167. Ampelis cedromm (V.) Bd. B 233. c 119. R 151. 

Cedar Waxwing. 

168. Phainopepla nitens (Sw.) Scl. B 234. c 120. R 26. 

Black Ptilogonys. 

162. Pet-ro-chei-I'-don lu'-nl-frons. Gr. vfrpa, a rock, and x^'Scoi/, a swallow; alluding to 

the places where the nests are often built. Lat. luna, the moon, that is, a crescent, and 
frons, the forehead or front ; referring to the white frontal crescent. Luna is contracted 
from Lucina, a proper name, epithet of Juno, from luceo, I shine ; lux, light. 

163. C5'-tI-le ri-par'-I-a. The generic name was originally written Cotile by Boie, afterward 

by him Cot.yle. The latter orthography came into general use, the alleged etymology 
being KOTV\IJ, a cup, in supposed allusion to the excavations in which the bird nests. 
The proper orthography is Cotile, from KwnAtfc, the swallow; literally, the twitterer, 
babbler, prattler, from /com'AAw, I prate. (See Wharton, Ibis, October, 1879, p. 451 ; and 
Coues, Bull. Nuttall Club, April, 1880, p. 96.) Lat. riparia, riparian: ripa, the bank of 
a stream. 

1 64. Stel-gl-dop'-tg-ryx ser-rl-pen'-nls. Gr. <rrf\yis or ffrteyyts, a scraper ; and nrepvf , wing. 

Lat. serripennis, saw-feathered ; serra, a saw, penna, a feather. Both words mean sub- 
stantially the same thing, having reference to the peculiar structure of the outer web of 
the first primary. 

165. Prog'-ne siib'-Is. Lat. Progne ; see Iridoprocne, No. 160. Lat. subis, a word not known 

except as applied by Pliny to a bird said to break eagles' eggs ; application in this case 

166. Am'-pg-lls gar'-ru-lus. Gr. djUTcAi's, or fytireAos, the grapevine; also, a small bird which 

frequented vineyards, by some conjectured to be the present species; d/tTreAW also 

occurs as the name of a bird. Lat. garrulus, garrulous, loquacious, from garrio, I 

chatter (Gr. yypta) or yapvo), I speak, yypvs or yapvs, voice) ; also, as substantive, a 
jay-bird, which is the implication in this case. 

167. A. ced-r5'-rum. Lat. cedrus, genitive plural cedrorum, the cedar ; Gr. KfSpos. 

168. Pha-I-nS-pepMa nlt'-ens. Dr. Sclater says (Ibis, 1879, p. 223) that he formed the word 

from <f>aiv6s, shining, and that it should be written as above, as he originally did. 
This, however, is merely a poetic form, from <j>aeii/a>, itself poetic for Qaivoo. It would 
appear to be most naturally written Phcenopepla, like phcenomenon, phcenogamous, &c., from 
the same source ; but if the orthography Phainopepla, in five syllables, be preserved, it 
can be easily defended. Gr. ircVAa, poetic plural of ircirAos, a robe. Lat. nitens, present 
participle from niteo, I shine. 


169. Myiadestes townsendi (Aud.) Cab. B 235. c 121. R 25. 

Townsend's Flycatching Thrush. 

170. Vireo olivaceus (L.) V. B 240. c 122. R 135. 

Red-eyed Greenlet. 

171. Vireo flaviviridis Cass. B 211. c . R 136. 

Yellow-green Greenlet. 

172. Vireo altiloquus barbatulus (Cab.) Coues. B 243. c 123. R 137. 

Black-whiskered Greenlet. 

173. Yireo philadelphicus Cass. B 244. c 124. R iss. 

Brotherly-love Greenlet. 

174. Vireo gilvus (V.) Bp. B 245. c 125. R 139. 

Warbling Greenlet. 

175. Vireo gilvus swainsoni Bd. B . c I25a. R i39a. 

Western Warbling Greenlet. 

176. Vireo flavifrons V. B 252. c 126. R 140. 

Yellow-throated Greenlet. 

177. Vireo solitarius V. B 250. c 127. R 141. 

Blue-headed Greenlet. 

178. Vireo solitarms cassini (Xantus) Ridg. B 251. c . R I4ia. (?) 

Cassin's Greenlet. 

169. Myl-a-des'-tes [mweeadaystace] town'-send-i. Gr. /j.v?a, a fly, and ^Seo-rfc, an eater; 
fSoj, or fSojuot, I eat; see Myiodioctes, No. 146. (Not to be written Myiadectes, as if fly- 
" taker," Muscicapa, from /tuTo and Se/cr^s, from Se'xo/iat). To J. K. Townsend, from 
whom Audubon received many new birds, and to whom he dedicated several. 

1 70. VIr'-g-o [vir'ryoh, not vi'reo] 61-i-va'-cg-us. Lat. vireo, a kind of bird, from vireo, I am 
green or flourishing. Late Lat. olivaceus, olive-like, olive-colored ; green obscured witli 
neutral tint ; oliva, the olive, from olea, Gr. Aa/a, the olive-tree ; whence oleum, Gr. 
Aajoj>, Eng. oil, oleaginous, &c. 

171. V. fla-vl-vlr'-l-dls. Lat. flavus, yellow, and viridis, green, from vireo. See Auriparus, 

No. 56. Commonly but wrongly written flavoviridis. 

This species is not in the first ed. of the Check List ; it has only recently been dis- 
covered in the United States, in Texas, by J. C. Merrill. 

172. V. al-tl'-18-qufis bar-ba'-tu-lus. Lat. altus, high, from do, I bear up, sustain, and 

loquus, an adjective from loquor, I speak ; pronounced ahlty'lockwooce, like ventri'loquist, 
grandi'loquent, &c. Lat. barbatulus, having a small beard; barbatus, bearded; barba, a 
beard. The allusion is to the dusky maxillary streaks. 

173. V. phil-a-del'-phl-cus. See Geothlypis Philadelphia, No. 142. 

174. V. gil'-vus [g hard]. Lat. gilvus, gilbus, galbus, helvus, yellowish, greenish-yellow ; German 

gelfc, Ital. giallo, A. S. gelew, geoluwe ; related tofulvus,Jlavus, &c. 
1 75. V. g. swam'-sSn-I. To William Swainson. 
176. V. fla'-vl-frons. Lat. flavus, yellow ; frons, forehead. See Auriparus, No. 56. 

OBS. It would appear from B. C.V., i, 1878, p. 494, that the proper name of this species 

is V. och-rS-leQ'-cus (Gm.) Coues. Gr. uxpos, ochraceous, yellowish, and Aeu/ctfc, white. 
1 77. V. so-ll-ta ; -rl-us-, Lat. solitarius, solitary ; solus, alone. 
178. V. cas'-sin-I. To John Cassin, of Philadelphia, sometime the "Nestor of American 

ornithology " ; the only ornithologist America ever produced who knew any consider- 

able number of Old World birds. Not in the orig. ed. ; since recognized. 


179. Vireo solitarms plumbeus (Coues) Allen. B . c ma. R 1416. 

Plumbeous Greenlet. 

180. Vireo vicinior Coues. B . c 128. R 147. 

Gray Greenlet. 

181. Vireo noveboracensis (Gm.) Bp. B 248. c 129. R 143. 

White-eyed Greenlet. 

182. Vireo huttoni Cass. B 249. c 130. R 144. 

Button's Greenlet. 

183. Vireo belli Aud. B 246. c 131. R 145. 

Bell's Greenlet. 

184. Vireo pusillus Coues. B . c 132. R 146. 

Least Greenlet. 

185. Vireo atricapillus Woodh. B 247. c 133. R 142. 

Black-capped Greenlet. 

186. Lanius borealis V. B 236. c 134. R 148. 

Great Northern Shrike; Butcherbird. 

187. Lanius hidovicianus L. B 237. c 135. R 149. 

Loggerhead Shrike. 

188. Lanius ludovicianus (Sw.) Coues. B238. ci35a. Ri49. 

White-rumped Shrike. 

179. V. s. plum'-bS-us. Lat. plumbeus, plumbeous, lead-colored ; plumbum, lead. 

180. V. vi-ci'-nl-or. Lat. comparative degree of vicinus, neighboring ; vicinia, a neighborhood 

or vicinity ; this from vicus, digammated from Gr. O?KOS, a house. The allusion is to the 
close resemblance of the species to others. 

181. V. n6v-6-b6r-a-cen/-sIs. Very late Latin for of, or pertaining to, New York; novus, new, 

and eboracensis, pertaining to Eboracum, the old name of York, England ; Noveboracum is 
literally New York. 

1 82. V. hut'-teSn-i. To William Button, of Monterey, California. 

183. V. bei'-li. To J. G. Bell, of New York, for many years the most skilful and most distin- 

guished taxidermist of America. 

184. V. pu-sil'-lus. See Sitta pusilla, No. 60. 

1 85. V. a-trl-cap-Il'-lus. Lat. ater, atra, black ; the opposite of albus. It properly means dead 

black, as niger does glossy black, which latter would have been better in this case. 
Capillus, hair of the head, from caput, head ; whence English capillary, thready. 

186. Lan'-I-us b6r-g-a'-lls. Lat. lanius, a butcher; from lanio, I rend, lacerate. See Falco, 

No. 502. Lat. boreas, the north wind, h. e., the north ; whence borealis, northern. 

For reason of the generic change from Collurio of the orig. ed. of the Check List, and 
for Shrikes' names in general, see Birds Colorado Valley, i, 1878, p. 537 et seq. 

187. L. lu-do-vl-cl-a'-nus. Lat. Ludovicus, Louis, a proper name. The application here is to 

the Territory of Louisiana, formerly of great extent. See Thryothorus, No. 68. 

188. L. ex-cub-T-to-rl'-des. Lat. excubitor, a watchman, sentinel, from ex, out of, and cubitor, 

one who lies down, from cubo ; i. e., an out-lier. The termination of the word is the Gr. 
(ISos, appearance or resemblance (e?5o>, I see). There is a difference in the orthography 
of the word : it has oftenest been written exculitoroldes, and pronounced in six syllables, 
with the accent on the penult. But if this spelling is used, it should be excubiloro'ides, 


189. Hesperophona vespertina (Coop.) Bp. B 303. c ISG. R 165. 

Evening Grosbeak. 

190. Pinicola enucleator (L.) V. B 304. c 137. R 166. 

Pine Grosbeak. 

191. Pyrrhiila cassini (Bd.) Tristr. B . c 138. R 167. (!A.) 

Cassin's Bullfinch. 

192. Passer domesticus (L.) Koch. B . c 187. R . [imp. and Nat] 

Philip Sparrow. 

with the diaeresis over the i, and consequently making seven syllables. So long a word 
is therefore preferably shortened by omitting the connecting vowel o; which, with the 
usual change of Gr. el to long i in Latin, gives the above spelling and pronunciation. 
The full number of letters in the compound is excubitorieides. 

189. Hes-pgr-8-pho'-na ves-per-ti'-na. Gr. lo-irtpa, Hesperus, the west, the place of sunset 

(X<fy>, region, being understood); hence, the evening; and <j>wf), the voice; qxoveu, I 
speak; <pdw, <pr)(j.i, related to tyaivta, &c. Lat. Vespertinus, pertaining to the evening, 
Vesperus being the same as Hesperus. The genus-name is universally written Hesperi- 
phona, as Bonaparte originally spelled it, but the above is certainly correct, as it is pure 
Greek for what Vesperisona would be the Latin of. The pleonastic name signalizes a 
belief, formerly entertained, that the bird sings chiefly at evening. Grosbeak or grossbeak 
is corrupted from the Fr. grosbec, thick-bill. 

190. Pi-nl'-c6-la e-nu-clg-a'-tor. Lat. pinus, a pine, and incola, an inhabitant, from colo, I 

cultivate ; formed like many other words in -cola, as saxicoJa, agricola, &c. Lat. enucleator, 
one who " shells out," or enucleates ; from enucleo, I take out the kernel ; nucleus, the 
nucleus or kernel, this from nux, a nut. The two words indicate the characteristic 
habitat and habit of the bird. 

191. Pyr'-rhu-la cas'-sin-i. Lat. pyrrlmla, a bullfinch; a diminutive of Pyrrhus, a proper 

name ; Gr. irvppos, fiery -red, from trvp, fire ; in allusion to the bright color of the bird. 
To John Cassin. 

It is still uncertain what relation this bird may best be considered to bear to the Old 
World form P. coccinea, as no Alaskan specimens, since the type, have been forthcoming. 
We give it as it stands in the body of the orig. ed. of the Check List. 

NOTE. Another species of this genus has lately been reported from Greenland by 
Kumlein (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 15, p. 74; 1879) ; but the case remains very dubious. 

192. Pas'-s6r ddm-es'-tl-cus. Many interesting words are grouped about this ubiquitous bird, 

which has been named in nearly or quite all civilized languages ; some of them may be 
here noticed. 1. Passer domesticus, literally " house sparrow," is itself a very old Latin 
biblionym, though used for less than a century as a technical term. Passer is good 
Latin for sparrow, and particularly for this very species, which is said to have been 
noted, if not named, for its salacity ; but the etymology of this word is unknown to us, 
as it also appears to be to the authors of several lexicons ; one says passer for padser, 
from pando, I spread. Passer seems to have become of general signification, almost as 
broad as English " bird " or " fowl." The Ital. is passera, passere, passara, and this lan- 
guage also had passer domesticus in passara cazarenga. The word passes directly into the 
Fr. passerat, passereau, and to the Eng. technical adjective passerine, sparrow-like ; while 
the Span, paxaro (as if pacsaro) or pajaro is apparently the same. 2. The Gr. name 
for this species was a-rpovOos, in Aristotle ; which in modern technic has become, in the 
form struthio, the name of the ostrich, Struthio camelus L., and has given our Eng. adjec- 
tive slruthious, ostrich-like. The actual application to the ostrich, however, dates back to 
Aristotle, whose <rrpov86s 6 *V AL&VT), or Libyan fowl, was the ostrich like the Lat. 
passer marinus, i. o., the bird brought from over the sea. 3. The Gr. word -irvpyiTiis, from 
vvpyos, a tower, and meaning a dweller in the tower, has been of late years used to some 


193. Passer montanus (L.). B . c . R . [imp. and Nat] 

European Tree Sparrow. 

194. Carpodacus purpureus (Gm.) Gr. B 305. c 139. R 168. 

Purple Finch. 

195. Carpodacus cassini Bd. B 307. c 140. R 169. 

Cassin's Purple Finch. 

196. Carpodacus frontalis (Say) Gr. B 308. c 141. R no. 

Crimson-fronted Finch ; House Finch ; Burion. 

extent as the generic name, under the form Pyrgita: though having originally no refer- 
ence to the species whatever, it is a very apt designation of a bird which nests so habit- 
ually about buildings. 4. The word Fringilla, one of a large group, giving name to the 
Finch family, FringUlidte, and to the English adjective fringilline, is the origin of the 
word finch itself ; though it is only for about a century that it has had any thing to do 
with the present species. Fringilla is the Latin name of the same bird that the Greeks 
called ffirifa or o-irifa, spiza, the F. ccdebs L., English Chaffinch. Fringilla orfringuiUa haa 
been derived by some from frango, I break, as the bird does seeds (just as we have in 
Gr. 0\viris or Bpavjris}. But its etymology appears when we regard the non-nasalized 
form friqi/la, from frigutio or frigidtio (= fringutio or fringultio, formed like singultio, I 
hiccup), I twitter, chirp, stammer; these words being themselves lengthened from 
frigulo, I croak, as a crow, and this fromfriyo, I squeak, squeal. (Cf. Gr. (ppvyw, and the 
actual <f>pvyi\os, the name of a bird in Aristophanes, and source of the modern genus 
Fregilus, a jackdaw. The idea seems to be some short sharp sound, as the hissing, 
sizzling of something cooking, frigo or <f>p6yw, I cook.) Fringilla reappears in several 
Italian forms, from two of which two series of words branch off; from such Sisfringuello, 
frinco, are derived, with loss of the r, Germ, find, ftnf, and Eng. finch ; while from such 
as frinsone we pass through grinson, quinson, pinson, or later Fr. pinion to Eng. spink, a 
name of F. ccelebs. 5. An entirely different set of words gives the pedigree of modern 
Eng. sparrow, back from which we pass to sparrowe, or sparowe, or sparwe, Gothic sparwa 
or sparva, A. S. spearwa ; related forms being spSrr, spar, sper, spurr, spurv, sparf, spatz, sperg, 
sperfc, sperlingk, round again to the present Germ, fperltng or $au3fperttng, housesparrow, passer 
domesticus. 6. Eng. sparrow also curiously leads us back again to Latin, through such 
a form as sparva, Latinized as sparvius ; so, also, Falco sparverius, i. q. fringillarius, 
arirttfas, Fr. espervier or fpervier, anglice sparrow-hawk. 7. There is said to be an old 
Flemish name mousche for this bird, which may not improbably connect with O. Fr. 
moucft, moisson. 8. The present Fr. is moineau, or moineau franc, or moineau de mile. 
9. Several languages have applied cant names to this sturdy vulgarian ; Span, gorrion, 
thief, rogue, scamp ; Fr. gamin ; American tramp, hoodlum. 10. An onomatopoeia as 
interesting as Fringilla itself has arisen from the sharp, abrupt, dissyllabic note. This is 
represented by the syllables yellop (cf. Gr. AAtfar-os), yellup, or phyllup, easily becoming 
Philip. Early in the sixteenth century appear the " Boke of Phyllup Sparrowe " and the 
"Praise of Philip Sparrow"; and this name is Shakspearian. 
Introduced, but now thoroughly naturalized everywhere. 

193. P. mon-ta'-nus. Lat. montanus, of mountains. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since introduced from Europe, and naturalized in some places. 

1 94. Car-pS'-da-ciis pur-pilr'-g-us. Gr. K apir6s, a fruit, and UKOS, from MKVW, I bite ; 2d aorist 

or Sditov. Lat. purpureus, purple; Gr. iropQvpfos, English porphyry, &c. ; cf. 
(irup, 0<r'pw) the fire-bearer, an epithet of Prometheus. The quantity of the 
penult is in question ; we usually hear carpodd'-cus in this country ; but carpO'-dacus is. 

195. C. cas'-sln-i. To John Cassin. 

196. C. fron-taMls. Lat. frontalis, relating to the forehead ; frons, forehead, front. 


197. Carpodacus frontalis rhodocolpus (Cab.) Ridg. B . c I4ia. R i70a. 

Rose-breasted Finch. 

198. Loxia leucoptera Gm. B 319. c 142. R ITS. 

White-winged Crossbill. 

199. Loxia curvirostra americana (Wils.) Coues. B 318. c 143. R 172. 

Common American Crossbill. 

200. Loxia curvirostra mexicana (Strickl.) Coues. B . c I43a. R i72a. 

Mexican Crossbill. 

201. Leucosticte atrata Ridg. B . c . R 176. 

Ridgway's Rosy Finch. 

202. Lencosticte australis Allen. B . c . R m. 

Allen's Rosy Finch. 

203. Leucosticte tephrocotis Sw. B 322. c 144. R 175. 

Swainson's Rosy Finch. 

204. Leucosticte teplirocotis litoralis (Bd.) Coues. B . c R I75a. 

Baird's Rosy Finch. 

197. C. f. rh8-d6-c61'-pus. Gr. p6Sov, the rose, and KoXiros, the breast; in allusion to the rose- 

red color of that part. 

The form C.f. hcemorrhous, given in the orig. ed. of the Check List, is the Mexican 
race ; the above should replace No. 141a. 

198. Lox'-T-a leu-cop'-tg-ra. Gr. Ao|ms, an epithet of Apollo, whose oracles were sometimes 

obscure or equivocal ; from Ao|o's, oblique, devious, deviating from a straight line ; very 
pertinent to the Crossbill. Gr. \evit6s, white, and irrepov, wing. 

199. L. cur-vl-ros'-tra. Lat. curvus, curved ; and rostrum, bill. In this and numberless similar 

cases of a noun compounded with an antecedent adjective, the whole word is treated as 
an adjective, capable of inflection according to gender. Thus curvirostra is as if curviros- 
ter or curvirostr-us, -a, -um. So we even find lontjicaud-us, -a, -urn, like auricom-us, -a, -urn, 
and the Vergilian centiman-us, -a, -urn. In such a case as the present, the adjectival form 
curvirostris (like -ventris) might be more elegant. But curvirostra has the sanction of 
several centuries' use as a noun, having apparently been invented as a Latin synonym 
of Loxia ; it is not, however, classic. Other synonyms are crucirostra, crucifera, cruclata ; 
Fr. Bec-croisf, Germ. $reitfcfyna&e(, &c. 

200. L. c. mex-I-ca'-na. Lat. mexicana, of Mexico. See Sialia, No. 28. 

201. Leu-co-stlc'-te a-tra'-ta. Gr. Aeimk, white, and O-TIKT^, variegated; from <rrifa, I punc- 

ture, brand, or mark. Lat. atrata, blackened; a participial adjective, from an obsolete 
or rather hypothetical verb atro. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List ; described from Colorado by Ridgway, Amer. 
Sportsm., iv, No. 16, p. 241, July 18, 1874. 

202. L. aus-tra'-lls. Lat. australis, southern; from auster, the south wind, hot and dry; this 

from Gr. otfw, I dry up or parch. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List, as then not supposed valid. 

203. L. teph-rS-co'-tis. Gr. rc^pos, gray, ashy, from T*>pa, ashes ; and o5s, genitive ur6s, the 

ear ; the connective consonant c being introduced for euphony. 

204. L. t. H-t5r-a'-Hs. Lat. litoralis, littoral ; from litus, the shore, of sea, lake, or river. The 

word is commonly written littoralis, but preferably as above. 

Not in the first ed. of the Check List, as not then supposed to be valid. 


205. Leucosticte griseinucha (Brandt) Bd. B 323. c I44a. R 174. 

Brandt's Rosy Finch. 

206. Leucosticte arctoa (Pall.) Bp. B 324. c 145. R . 

Pallas's Rosy Finch. 

207. jEgiothus linaria (L.) Cab. B 320. c 146, I46a. R 179. 

Common Red-poll. 

208. JEgiothus linaria holboelli (Brehm) Coues. B . c . R I79a. (?) 

Holboll's Red-poll. 

209. JEgiothus hornemanni (Holb.) Coues. B 321. c . R 178. (G.) 

Greenland Mealy Red-poll. 

210. -SSgiothus exilipes Coues. B . c 1466. R I78a. 

American Mealy Red-poll. 

211. Linota flavirostris brewsteri (Ridg.) Coues. B . c 147. R 180. (?) 

Brewster's Linnet. 

205. L. grls-gl-nu'-cha. Lat. griseus, gray, and nucha, the nape or scruff of the neck. Neither 

part of the word is classic ; griseus is Latinized from such a word as seen in Fr. gris r 
Ital. griso, English grisly ; and nucha, a technical word in ornithology, is Latinized from 
Fr. nuque, the nape (A. S. cncep, a knob, knoll), which is the same as Gaelic cnoc, Welsh 
cnwc. Nape is thus closely related to neck itself ; A. S. hnecca, Dan. nakke, Dutch nak 
or nek, Germ, natfen, &c. 

206. L. arc-to'-a. Gr. #/>KTOS, a bear; also, the constellation; hence, the north; adjective 

apitrcpos, same as apicriKos, northern, whence Lat. arctous and arcticus, of same signi- 

207. Aeg-I'-8-thus li-na'-rl-a. Gr. AlyioOos, given by Cabanis as a proper name: supposably 

derived from cuyls, a goat-skin, or aegis, and rlerj/jn, to put or place, as if the shield- 
bearer, like ^Egisthus. The application is far from being evident. The word is 
probably only another form of at-yiOos, the name of an unknown bird, occurring in 
Aristotle, Hist. ix. 1, conjectured by some to be this very species. Lat. linaria; 
from linum (Gr. \ivov), flax; the root is seen in many words, as line, linear, linen, lint, 
linnet, &c. 

208. A. 1. h61'-boe"l-li. To Carl v. Holboll, a Danish naturalist, chiefly known in ornithology 

for his researches in Greenland. 

Not recognized in the first ed. of the Check List. 

209. A. horn'-g-man-m. To Hornemann, who had to do with Greenland birds. 

This species is not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. It is only American inasmuch 
as it is found in Greenland. It is absolutely confined to that country, and is the bird 
usually quoted as Greenlandic " canescens." 

210. A. ex-fl'-I-pes. Lat. exilis (for exigilis, from exigo), small, slender, &c., and joes, foot. See 

Ardetta, No. 667. 

211. Li-no'-ta fla-vl-ros'-trls brews'-tgr-i. See Linaria, above : the word is not classic, being 

directly Latinized from the Fr. linotte, one of the numberless words from linum, linea, 
&c. Lat. flavirostris, yellow-billed. To William Brewster, of Cambridge, Mass., an 
excellent ornithologist. 

This is questionably North American, and questionably a good species. 


212. Chrysomitris piims (Bartr.) Bp. B 317. c 148. R 185. 

Pine Linnet; American Siskin. 

213. Astragalinns tristis (L.) Cab. B sis. c 149. R isi. 

American Goldfinch. 

214. Astragalinus lawrencii (Cass.) Coues. B 316. c 150. R 183. 

Lawrence's Goldfinch. 

215. Astragalinns psaltria (Say) Coues. B 314. c 151. R 182. 

Arkansaw Goldfinch. 

216. Astragalinus psaltria arizonse Coues. B . c i5ia. R i82a. 

Arizona Goldfinch. 

212. Chry-s6-ml'-trls pl'-nus. Gr. xpuo-o/tirpts, having a golden head-dress or girdle ; 

golden, and nirpa, a mitre. There are other forms of the word, varying in the vowels, as 
Xpvo-opirpris and x/>wo"o/*^Tpty. The latter, which occurs in Aristotle, is translated uurivittis 
by Gaza ; as Sundwall remarks, heightening the probability that it is the same word as* 
Xpv(rofji.lTpijs, and is based upon the bright appearance of the European Goldfinch, F. 
carduelis L. Some other names of classic origin for the Goldfinch and its relatives may 
be here conveniently noted. Aristotle had three species of " Acanthophaga" as he called 
them ; i. e., birds living upon prickly plants ; as we should say, " th'stle-birds." 1. One 
of these was the Opavrrls or 8\vir(s, concerning which see Geothlypis, No. 141. 2. The 
Xpvffofj.riTpis, as just said. 3. His anavdls, which was undoubtedly the Fringitta canna- 
bina L. This in Latin becomes spinus, of late years taken as the specific name of F, 
spinus L. The exact Latin of " thistle-bird " is carduelis, occurring in Pliny ; it is from 
carduus, a thistle, and reappears in numerous shapes ; as Ital. carduello, cardello ; carduelino, 
cardellino (compare Cardellina, No. 150), and also gardello and gardellino ; Fr. chardonneret, 
&c. Aristotle speaks of the sharp voice of his a.Kav6is \iyvpd ; whence ligurinus, another 
of the many names for birds of this kind. So have we later derived siskin from the 
sharp note ; Swedish siska, Dutch sijsken, Germ, gteftg, Polish czyz, &c. Another Greek 
name for some kind of thistle-bird, perhaps the European Goldfinch, is ao-Tpaya\wos, in 
1850 applied by Cabanis to the American Goldfinch, as a generic term : see next word. 
Lat. pinus, a pine-tree. 

213. As-tra-ga-H'-nus tris'-tls. Gr. affTpayaXwos is given by Cabanis as the word, and as a 

name of a thistle-bird ; it is evidently an adjectival form from avrpdyaXos, a die, one 
of the ankle-bones, and also, in Dioscorides, the name of some kind of plant ; whence 
the modern botanical genus Astragalus. The original application of aa-rpayaXTvos is 
undoubtedly to some bird that lived upon, or frequented, the plant in mention, its recent 
transference to an American Goldfinch being of course arbitrary. When the present 
species was first described it was called chardonneret de I'Ame'nque, i. e., carduelis ameri- 
cana: see No. 212. Lat. tristis, sad, in allusion to the plaintive cry of the bird. 

214. A. law-rgn'-cl-i. To George N. Lawrence, of New York, the eminent ornithologist. 

215. A. psal'-trl-a. See explanation of Psctltriparus, No. 53. Psaltria is not a Lat. adj. 

to be made agreeable in gender with Astragalinus, but a Greek noun, tya\rpia, signifying 
a female lutist. " Arkansaw " is not, as it would seem to be, " Kansas " with a prefix, 
nor is it the name by which the aborigines of that country knew themselves ; nor is 
" Kansas " the right name of any tribe of Indians. The meaning of neither of these 
words is known. "Arkansaw" is preferable to Arkansas, as nearer the original 
" Arkanso." 

216. A. p. a-rf-zo'-nae. Named after the Territory of Arizona, where discovered in 1864. 

See Peuccea, No. 253. 


217. Astragalinus psaltria mexicanus (Sw.) Coues. B 315. c 151&. R 182&. 

Mexican Goldfinch. 

218. Astragalinus notatus (Du Bus) Coues. B 310. c . R 184. (!M.) 

Black-headed Goldfinch. 

219. Plectrophanes nivalis (L.) Mej-er. B325. c 152. R 186. 

Snow Bunting; Snowflake. 

220. Centrophanes lapponicus (L.) Kaup. B 326. c 153. R IST. 

Lapland Longspur. 

221. Centrophanes pictus (Sw.) Cab. B 327. c 154. R 188. 

Painted Longspur. 

222. Centrophanes ornatus (Towns.) Cab. B 328, 329. c 155. R 189. 

Chestnut-collared Longspur. 

223. Rhynchophanes maccowni (Lawr.) Bd. B 330. c 156. R 190. 

Maccown's Longspur. 

224. Passerculus bairdi (Aud.) Coues. B 331. c 157, I57&w. R 191. 

Baird's Savanna Sparrow. 

217. A. p. mex-I-ca'-na. Lat. mexicanus, of Mexico. See Sialia, No. 28. 

218. A. nSt-a'-tus. Lat. notatus, noted, marked ; noto, I make note of. In allusion to the dis- 

tinction between this species and C. magellanicus. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. Said by Audubon to have been actually 
taken in Kentucky. (?) 

219. Plec-trS'-pha-nes nlv-a'-lls. The Gr. irK^Krpov, or Lat. plectrum, was an instrument for 

striking the lyre, from 7rA^<r<ro>, I strike ; also used for a quill, a spur, &c. ; the meaning 
in this case is the hind claw of the bird, which is remarkably long and straight. The 
rest of the word is from (paivw, to appear, to seem, &c., the claw in mention being likened 
to the instrument spoken of. Obs. There is continual difference in opinion respecting 
the pronunciation of this and similar words, according to whether we consider them as 
Greek or as Latin. The rule in Greek would retain the accent upon the root of each word 
entering into the composition, giving Plec f -tro-pha"-nes. But in Latinizing it is allowable, 
and indeed preferable, to accent as above ; as we have also done in the cases of Helmin- 
tho'phaga, Lopho'phanes, &c. The gender of the many coined words ending in -phanes is 
practically in question among ornithologists ; we make them masculine. 

220. Cen-tro'-pha-nes lap-p6n'-I-cus. Gr. Kevrpov, a prick, nail, claw, &c., from Kevrtw, I 

prick or goad. The reference, as in the case of Plectrophanes, is to the long hind claw. 
See Plectrophanes. Lat. lapponicus, pertaining to Lapland, formerly Lapponia. 

221. C. pic'-tus. Lat. pictus, painted, from pingo, I paint or ornament; in allusion to th* 

variegated colors. 

222. C. Sr-na'-tus. Lat. ornatus, adorned, decorated, from orno, I ornament. 

223. Rhyn-ch8'-pha-nes mac-c8wn'-i. Gr. f>vyx*> snout, muzzle, beak, and <f>alvw ; in allu- 

sion to the large bill. See Plectrophanes. To Capt. J. P. McCown, then of the U. S. 

224. Pas-ser'-cu-lus baird'-i. Lat. passerculus, a little sparrow; diminutive of passer. To 

Spencer F. Baird, long time the leader in North American ornithology. 

Centronyx ochrocephalus, No. 157 bis of the first ed., is this species in fall plumage. 


225. Passerculus princeps Mayn. B . c 158. R 192. 

Ipswich Savanna Sparrow. 

226. Passerculus sandvicensis (Gm.) Bd. B 333. c 1596. R 193. 

Sandwich Savanna Sparrow. 

227. Passerculus sandvicensis savana (Wils.) Ridg. B332. c 159. R 193. 

Common Savanna Sparrow. 

228. Passerculus sandvicensis anthinus (Bp.) Coues. BSS*. c I59a. R 194. 

Pipit Savanna Sparrow. 

229. Passerculus sandvicensis alaudinus (Bp.) Ridg. B 335. c . R 1936. 

Lark Savanna Sparrow. 

230. Passerculus rostratus (Cass.) Bd. B 336. c IGO. R 196. 

Beaked Savanna Sparrow. 

231. Passerculus guttatus Lawr. B . c 160. R 195. 

St. Lucas Savanna Sparrow. 

232. Pocecetes gramineus (Gm.) Bd. B 337. c 161. R 197. 

Bay- winged Bunting; Grass Finch. 

233. Pocecetes gramineus confinis Bd. B . c ieia. R 197. 

Western Grass Finch. 

234. Coturniculus passerinus (Wils.) Bp. B 338. c 162. R 198. 

Yellow-winged Sparrow. 

225. P. prin'-ceps. Lat. princeps, first, principal ; from primus, first, and -ceps. 

226. P. sand-vl-cen'-sis. Named after Sandwich Island, one of the Kurile or Aleutian Archi- 


227. P. s. sa-va'-na. Properly Span, sabana or savana, anglicized savanna or savannah, a 

meadow. As a quasi-Latin word, it should have but one n, as in the Spanish. The 
quantity of the penult is marked by the general rule for accentuation in Spanish, that 
words ending in a vowel have the accent on the penult. 

228. P. s. an-thi'-nus. Arbitrarily formed from anthus, a pipit, which see, No. 89. 

229. P. s. al-aud-I'-nus. Arbitrarily formed from Lat. alauda, a lark ; this from the Celtic al, 

high, and aud, song. 

Not in the orig. ed., as then not recognized as valid. 

230. P. ros-tra'-tiis. Lat. rostratus, beaked, t. e., having a large beak ; rostrum, a beak; this from 

rodo, to gnaw, corrode, &c. 

231. P. gut-ta'-tus. Lat. guttatus, spotted, speckled; from gutta, a drop; as if marked with 


232. PS-oe'-ce"-tes gra-mln'-g-us. Gr. ir6a, vola, ir6rj, irolrj, grass, herbage; and oiKeTtjs, an 

inhabitant ; from ohos, a dwelling. The orthography of this word has been unsettled : 
it was first written Pooccetes by Baird in 1858, and has since been variously spelled. 
The stem of the first word is iro, giving po-; and oiKeTrjs becomes in Latin oecetes; the 
above form seems eligible, as first emended by Sclater in 1859. It may be susceptible, 
but not preferably, of further contraction into Pcecetes. Lat. gramineus, grassy, figura- 
tively applied to a bird that lives much in the grass ; gramen, grass. 

233. P. g. cSn-fi'-nls. Lat. confinis, like affinis, allied to, &c. ; con, with, and^nz's, the boundary, 

limit, edge, or end of a thing. 

234. Co-tur-nl'-cu-lus pas-sgr-i'-nQs. Arbitrary diminutive of coturnix, a quail; said to be 

so called from the resemblance of the sound of its voice to the sound of the word. 
Passerinus, an arbitrary adjective from passer, a sparrow ; sparrowlike. 


235. Coturniculus passerimis perpallidus Ridg. B . c i62a. R i98a. 

Bleached Yellow-winged Sparrow. 

236. Coturniculus henslowi (Aud.) Bp. B 339. c 163. R 199. 

Henslow's Sparrow. 

237. Coturniculus lecontii (Aud.) Bp. B 340. c 164. R 200. 

Le Conte's Sparrow. 

238. Ammodramus maritimus (Wils.) Sw. B 342. c 165. R 202. 

Seaside Finch. 

239. Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens Ridg. B . c i65a. R 203. 

Floridan Seaside Finch. 

240. Ammodramus caudacutus (Wils.) Sw. B 341. c 166. R 201. 

Sharp-tailed Finch. 

241. Ammodramus caudacutus nelsoni Allen. B . c . R 20ia. 

Nelson's Sharp-tailed Finch. 

242. Melospiza lincomi (Aud.) Bd. B 368. c 167. R 234. 

Lincoln's Song Sparrow. 

243. Melospiza palustris (Bartr.) Bd. B 369. c 168. R 233. 

Swamp Song Sparrow. 

244. Melospiza fasciata (Gin.) Scott. B 363. c 169. R 231. 

Song Sparrow. 

235. C. p. per-palMl-dus. Lat. pallidus, pallid, pale, and the intensive particle per. 

236. C. hen'-slow-i. To Prof. J. S. Henslow, of Cambridge, Eng. 

237. C. le-cdn'-tl-i. To Dr. John L. Le Conte, of Philadelphia. 

238. Am-mS'-dra-mus mar-It'-I-mus. Gr. &/j./j.os, sand, sea-sand ; for the rest of the word, see 

under Peucedramus, No. 110. The name was originally written as above by Swainson, 
and we see no necessity of changing it to Ammodromus. It is commonly accented on the 
penult. Lat. maritimus, maritime ; mare, the sea. 

239. A. m. nTg-res'-cens. Lat. nigrescens, present participle of nigresco, I grow black; niger, 


240. A. caud-a-cu'-tGs fkowdakootus not cordakewtusl- Lat. cauda, tail, and acutus, acute, 

sharp ; acus, a pin or point, Gr. aic-f] or aids, whence the Lat. verb acuo, of which acutus 
is the perfect participle. 

241. A. c. neT-s5n-i. To E. W. Nelson, of Illinois, who discovered it near Chicago. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since described by Allen, Pr. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist,, xvii, 1875, p. 03. 

242. Mgl-S-spi'-za lln'-cfil-m. Gr. /te'Aos, a song, melody, and o-irifa or <nrifr, some small bird ; 

from <nrifa, I chirp. Not to be confounded, as some writers have done, with tnri&as, a 
kind of hawk. The cnri'fa of Aristotle is supposed to be Fringflla coelebs. To Robert 
Lincoln, sometime a companion of Audubon. In strictness, the above generic name 
should be pronounced melospeedzah ; and the / in lincolni be heard. 

243. M. pal-us'-trls. Lat. palustris, pertaining to a swamp; from palus, a swamp. 

244. M. fas-cT-a'-ta. Lat. fasciatus, striped ; /asm, a bundle of fagots. The allusion is to the 

indistinct bands upon the tail feathers ; so obsolete are they, in most cases, that it is 
only recently that it has been admitted that this is the species described by Gmelin. 
But the markings are as obvious, in some cases, as those on the tail of Chamcea fasciata. 
The species is given as M. melodia in the orig. ed. of the Check List. 


245. Melospiza fasciata fallax (Bd.) Ridg. B 367. c iG9a. R 23ia. 

Gray Song Sparrow. 

246. Melospiza fasciata gnttata (Nutt.) Ridg. B . c 1696. R 23i<*. 

Oregon Song Sparrow. 

247. Melospiza fasciata mfina (Brandt) Ridg. B 366. c I69c. R 23ie. 

Rufous Song Sparrow. 

248. Melospiza fasciata heermanni (Bd.) Ridg. B 364. c i69rf. R 23i&. 

Heermaim's Song Sparrow. 

249. Melospiza fasciata sanmelis ( Bd.) Ridg. B 343, 365. c i69e. R 23ic. 

Samuels' Song Sparrow. 

250. Melospiza cinerea (Gm.) Ridg. B . c ico/. R 232. 

Bischoff's Song Sparrow. 

251. Peucsea aestivalis (Licht.) Cab. B 370. c 170. R 226. 

Bachman's Summer Finch. 

252. Pencsea aestivalis illinoensis Ridg. B . c . R 226a. 

Illinois Summer Finch. 

253. Peucaea sestivalis arizonae Ridg. B . c noa. R 227. 

Arizona Summer Finch. 

245. M. f. faF-lax. Lat./a//aar, false, fallacious, deceitful ; in allusion to the perplexity attend- 

ing the attempt to distinguish it specifically from M. fasciata. 

246. M. f. gut-ta'-ta. Lat. guttatus, spotted ; gutta, a drop. 

247. M. f. ru-fi'-na. Lat. rufus, reddish, of which rttfinus is an arbitrary form. 

248. M. f. heer'-man-ni. To Dr. A. L. Heermann, of Philadelphia, sometime naturalist of the 

Pacific R. R. Survey. 

249. M. f. sam-u-eMls. To E. Samuels. Samuelis is more euphonic than the usual form 

samuelsi would be. 

This is M. goiddii of the first ed. of the Check List, the name now adopted having 

250. M. cin-eV-g-us. Lat. cinereus, ashy (-colored) : from cinis, genitive cineris, ash. So cin- 

der, in-cm-erate, &c. 

This is M. insignis Bd. of the first ed. of the Check List. As Ridgway has shown 
(Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, 1880, p. 3) the "Cinereus Finch" of Pennant, on which Gmelin named 
a Fringilla cinerea, from Unalashka, is this bird. 

251. Peu-cae'-a aes-tl-va'-lls. Gr. irevirfi, a pine; supposed to be from VVKU, to prick, in allu- 

sion to the " needles " of this tree. Lat. cestivalis = cestivus, pertaining to summer ; 
cestas, summer. 

252. P. a. H-lI-nS-en'-sIs. To the State of Illinois, with the termination -ensis, indicating 

locality. Illinois is the French corruption of the name by which the aborigines called 
themselves Ittini, " the men." 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List ; since described by Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Club, 
iv, 1879, p. 219. 

253. P. a. a-rl-zo'-nae. To the Territory of Arizona. Arizona is probably a corruption of 

Orazona, the significance of which is unknown ; but it may be observed that zona is the 
word in the Opata language for the fruit of the mezcal, a characteristic product of the 


254. Peucsea cassini (Woodh.) Bd. B 371. c ITO&W. R 228. 

Cassin's Summer Finch. 

255. Peucsea mficeps (Cass.) Bd. B 372/0 m. R 230. 

Rufous-crowned Summer Finch. 

256. Peucaea ruficeps boucardi (Scl.) Ridg. B . c . R 230a. 

Boucard's Summer Finch. 

257. Peucsea carpalis Coues. B . c nibis. R 229. 

Bendire's Summer Finch. 

258. Amphispiza bilineata (Cass.) Coues. B 355. c 172. R 224. 

Black-throated Finch. 

259. Amphispiza belli (Cass.) Coues. B 356. c 173. R 225. 

Bell's Finch. 

260. Amphispiza belli nevadensis Ridg. B . c I73a. R 225a. 

Nevada Finch. 

261. Junco hiemalis (L.) Scl. B 354. c 174. R 217. 

Common Snowbird. 

262. Junco hiemalis aikeni Ridg. B . c I74a. R 216. 

White-winged Snowbird. 

254. P. cas'-sln-i. To John Cassin, of Philadelphia. 

255. P. ru'-fl-ceps. Lat. rufus, reddish, and -ceps, a termination denoting the head; from 

256. P. r. bou-car'-dl. To Adolphe Boucard, a French naturalist, who collected in Mexico and 

Central America. 

257. P. car-pa'-Hs. Gr. Kapwos, fruit, berry, grain ; also, the wrist ; Latinized as carpus. The 

derivation supposed to be icdpQw, I gather, as fruit ; Lat. carpo, I take, seize. The quasi- 
Latin carpus is only used as signifying the wrist ; the adjective carpalis is an arbitrary 
form, denoting of or pertaining to the wrist ; carpus and carpal are common terms in 
anatomy. The allusion is to the bright color on the carpal-joint of the bird's wing. 

258. Am-phl-spl'-za bl-lm-g-a'-ta. Gr. d/*</>{, on both sides, and enrffa, a finch ; in allusion to 

the close relation of the genus to those about it. See Afelospiza, No. 242. Lat. bilineata, 
two-lined ; bis, twice, and lineatus, striped ; linea, a line : see Linaria, No. 207. 
This is the Poospiza bilineata of the first ed. of the Check List. 

259. A. belMI. To J. G. Bell, of New York. 

260. A. b. ngv-a-den'-sis. To the Territory of Nevada. It were better written nivadensis,'m 

Latin, but is directly from the Spanish adjective nevada, snowy, white as snow ; Lat. 
niveus, snowy, from nix, genitive, nh-is, snow. The Territory was named for the snow- 
capped peaks of its Sierras Nevadas. 

261. Jun'-co [pronounced yooncoj hl-e-ma'-lls. Lat. juncus, a reed or rush; cf. jungo, I join, 

junctus, joined; either, reeds growing densely together, or used as withes to bind with 1 ? 
For hiemalis, see Anorthura, No. 76. 

262. J. h. ai'-kgn-i. To Charles E. Aiken, of Colorado, its discoverer. 

This and several other connecting forms of Junco (Nos. 264, 266, 267) are not in 
the orig. ed. of the Check List. 


263. Junco hiemalis oregomis (Towns.) Coues. B 352. c 175. R 218. 

Oregon Snowbird. 

264. Junco hiemalis annectens (Bd.) Coues. B . c . R 219. 

Pink-sided Snowbird. 

265. Junco hiemalis caniceps (Woodh.) Coues. B 353. c 176. R 220. 

Gray-headed Snowbird. 

266. Junco hiemalis dorsalis (Henry) Coues. B 351. c . R 221. 

Red-backed Snowbird. 

267. Junco hiemalis cinereus (Sw.) Coues. B 350. c . R 222. 

Cinereous Snowbird. 

268. Spizella monticola (Gm.) Bd. B 357. c 177. R 210. 

Tree Chipping Sparrow. 

269. Spizella domestica (Bartr.) Coues. B 359. c 178. R 211. 

Chipping Sparrow; Hairbird. 

270. Spizella domestica arizonae Coues. B . c i78a. R 2ii. 

Arizona Chipping Sparrow. 

271. Spizella agrestis (Bartr.) Coues. B 358. c 179. R 214. 

Field Chipping Sparrow. 

272. Spizella pallida (Sw.) Bp. B 360. c iso. R 212. 

Clay-colored Chipping Sparrow. 

263. J. h. Sr-g'-gS-ntis. To the Territory of the Oregon. The name is much in dispute; by 

some derived from the name of a plant (origanum) growing there. It is probably, how- 
ever, the Algonkin name of the " great river," the Columbia. 

264. J. h. an-nec'-tens. Present participle of annecto,! join together, connect, annex; ad, to, 

and necto, I fasten, join. The bird is very closely related to several others. 

265. J. h. ca'-m-ceps. Lat. canus, hoary, grayish white, and -ceps, the termination indicating 

head, from KeepaA^. 

266. J. h. dor-sa'-lls. Lat. dorsum, the back, whence the late Latin adjective, dorsalis. 

267. J. h. cln-eV-g-Gs. Lat. cinereus, ashy (-colored) ; cinis, ash. 

The true Mexican cinereus has been found in the United States (Arizona) since the 
orig. ed. of the Check List appeared. 

268. Spiz-el'-la [pronounced speedzaylla] mon-ti'-cft-la. An arbitrary diminutive, in Latin 

form, from Gr. <nria, a finch. Lat. monticola, a mountain-dweller, from mons, genitive 
montis, a mountain, and colo, I dwell. Mons is from a root min, whence emineo, for exam- 
ple, I project ; eminent, imminent, prominent, and also the deponent verb minor, to threaten, 
whence minatory, &c., are all allied. 

269. S. dSm-es'-tl-ca. Lat. domestica, from domus, a house. 

This is -S. socialis of the orig. ed. of the Check List. 

270. S. d. a-rt-zo'-nae. To the Territory of Arizona. See Peuccea, No. 253. 

271. S. ag-res-tls. Lat. agrestis, of or pertaining to a field ; ager, a field, supposed by some to be 

related to ago, as something that may be worked ; others say from the Gr. aypos, land. 
This is S. pusilla of the orig. ed. of the Check List. 

272. S. pal'-ll-da. Lat. pallidus, pale, pallid. 


273. Spizella breweri Cass. B SGI. c isoa. R 212. 

Brewer's Chipping Sparrow. 

274. Spizella atrigularis (Cab.) Bd. B 362. c isi. R 215. 

Black-chinned Chipping Sparrow. 

275. Zonotrichia albicollis (Gm.) Bp. B 349. c 182. R 209. 

White-throated Crown Sparrow. 

276. Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forst.) Sw. B 345. c 183. R 206. 

White-browed Crown Sparrow. 

277. Zonotrichia leucophrys intermedia Ridg. B 346. c 1836. R 207a. 

Intermediate Crown Sparrow. 

278. Zonotrichia gambeli Nutt. B 346. c I83a. R 207. 

GambePs Crown Sparrow. 

279. Zonotrichia coronata (Pall.) Bd. B 347. c 184. R 208. 

Golden Crown Sparrow. 

280. Zonotrichia querula (Nutt.) Gamb. B 348. c 185. R 205. 

Harris's Crown Sparrow. 

281. Chondestes grammicus (Say) Bp. B 344. c 186. R 204, 204a. 

Lark Finch. 

273. S. brew'-gr-I. To Thomas Mayo Brewer, of Boston, long the leading oologist of the 

United States. 

This is given in the first ed. of the Check List as a var. of pallida. 

274. S. a-trl-gul-a r -rls. Lat. ater, atra, atrum, black ; and gularis, pertaining to the throat ; gula, 

the throat, gullet. 

275. Zo-no-trich'-I-a [pronounced Dzonotreekeya] al-bl-col'-lls. Gr. &vi\, a girdle, band, 

zone, and rpixois or rpixids, some kind of bird ; in allusion to the conspicuously banded 
heads of sparrows of this group. Or, the latter part of the word may be directly from 
rpixias (Qpi, genitive rpixos), hairy; i.e., having the head striped. Lat. albicollis, 
white-throated ; albus, white, and collum, the collar, neck. 

276. Z. leu-co'-phrys. Gr. \evit6s, white, and o<ppvs, eyebrow. 

277. Z. 1. In-ter-me'd'-I-a. Lat. intermedius, intermediate, between two things ; inter, between. 

among, and medius, middle ; related to Gr. /icVoy, of same meaning. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since discriminated both from leucophrys and from gambeli. 

278. Z. gam'-bel-i. To William Gambel, of Philadelphia, one of the pioneers in Californian 


In the orig. ed. this is given as a var. of leucophrys ; since decided to be distinct. 

279. Z. c6r-o-na'-ta. Lat. coronatus, crowned, participle of corono, I crown; corona, a crown. 

Coronis or Kopcavis was the name of a Thessalian princess ; also, a scroll with which 
writers marked the end of a piece of writing "finis coronat opus." Corone or Kop<avi\ 
was also a crow or raven, into which the princess was fabled to have been transformed 
by her spouse Apollo, and survives in ornithology in the term Corvus corone L. 

280. Z. queV-u-la. Lat. querulus or querulosus, plaintive, querulous ; from queror, to complain, 


281. Chon-des'-tes gram'-ml-cQs. Gr. x^pos, cartilage ; also, a kind of grain; -estes is from 

the root e5a>, I eat. Is not the word more properly to be written chondrestes ? We suppose 
it to be masculine. Lat. grammicus, from gramma, a line, word, mark, in allusion to the 


282. Passerella iliaca (Merr.) Sw. B 374. c 188. R 235. 

Fox Sparrow. 

283. Passerella iliaca unalascensis (Gm.) Ridg. B 375. c iso. R 235a. 

Townsend's Fox Sparrow. 

284. Passerella iliaca schistacea ( Bd.) All. B 376. c I89a. R 235c. 

Slate-colored Fox Sparrow. 

285. Passerella iliaca megarhyncha (Bd.) Hensh. B . c . R 2356. 

Large-billed Fox Sparrow. 

286. Calamospiza bicolor (Towns.) Bp. B 377. c 100. R 256. 

Lark Bunting. 

287. Spiza americana (Gm.) Bp. B 378. c 101. R 254. 

Black-throated Bunting. 

288. Spiza townsendi (Aud.) Ridg. B 379. c 192. R 255. (?) 

Townsend's Bunting. 

stripes on the head ; Gr. ypdpfjia, ypaftfjuitSs. Usually written grammaca or grammacus, for 
which there is no authority. And even the corrected form is bad enough ; for grammicus 
does not mean lineatus, striped, marked with lines, but linearis, linear, having the quality 
of a line. 

282. Pas-sgr-el'-lS I-H'-a-ca. An arbitrary diminutive of Lat. passer, like spizella from spiza. 

For iliaca, see Turdus iliacus, No. 4. Applicability of the name inobvious ; it may be 
intended to note some resemblance to the thrush in mention, or refer to the conspicuous 
markings of the flanks. 

283. P. i. u-na-las-cen'-sls. The name of the Aleutian Island for which this species is named, 

has no settled orthography : Unalashka, Unalaschka, Unalascha, Ouna-, Oona-, Aoona-, 
Aona-, &c. In the present case, Pennant wrote Unalascha Bunting, of which Gmelin 
made Emberiza unalaschcensis, and was nearly followed by Ridgway ; but the word may 
be euphonized as above, just as we have alascensis as the name of a wren, No. 78. 
This stands as Passerella townsendii in the orig. ed. 

284. P. i. schls-ta'-cS-a. Lat. (late) schistaceus, slaty, relating to slate; in this case, in color; 

schistos or <rxurr6s, split, cleft, or fissile, capable of easy cleavage, as slate-stone is. The 
same stem is seen in schism, schismatic. 

This stands as P. townsendii var. schistacea in the orig. ed. 

285. P. i. mgg-a-rhyn'-cha. Gr. jueya, great, large, and fiyx os > Lat. rhynchus, snout, muzzle, 

beak. More exactly to be written megalorhyncha. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List ; since revived by H. W. Henshaw. 

286. Cal-a-mo-spiz'-a bi'-c61-8r. Lat. calamus or Gr. Kd\afj.os, a reed, rush, cane, flag; and 

spiza. See under Passer, No. 192, and Melospiza, No. 242. Lat. ticolor, two-colored ; Us, 
twice ; in allusion to the black-and-white of the male. 

287. Spiz'-a [pronounced Speedzah] am-gr-T-ca'-na. See under Melospiza, No. 242. 

This stands as Euspiza amer. in the orig. ed. For the change, see Ridg., Pr. Nat. 
Mus., ii, 1880, p. 3. 

288. S. town'-sSnd-i. To J. K. Townsend. 

Given as Euspiza towns, in the orig. ed. No second specimen of this alleged species is 
known, and it is not improbable that the type came from an egg laid by S. americana. 
But even such immediate ancestry would not forbid recognition of "specific characters;** 
the solitary bird having been killed, it represents a species which died at its birth. 


289. Zamelodia ludoviciana (L.) Coues. B 380. c 193. R 244. 

Rose-breasted Song Grosbeak. 

290. Zamelodia melanocephala (Sw.) Coues. B 381. c 194. R 245. 

Black-headed Song Grosbeak. 

291. G-uiraca ccerulea (L.) Sw. B 382. c 195. R 246. 

Blue Grosbeak. 

292. Passerina ciris (L.) Gray. B 384. c 196. R 251. 

Painted Finch ; Nonpareil. 

293. Passerina versicolor (Bp.) Gray. B 385. c 197. R 250. 

Versicolor Painted Finch. 

294. Passerina amcena (Say) Gray. B 386. c 198. R 249. 

Lazuli Painted Finch. 

295. Passerina cyanea (L.) Gray. B 387. c 199. R 248. 

Indigo Painted Finch; Indigo-bird. 

296. Spermophila moreleti Pucheran. B 388. c 200. R 252. 

Morelet's Seed-eater. 

297. Phonipara zena (L., 1758) Bryant. B . c 201. R 253. (!W.i.) 

Black-faced Finch. 

289. Za-mgl-o'-dl-a lu-do-vl-cl-a'-na. Gr. fa an intensive particle, and peKyMa, singing, 

melody ; in allusion to the strikingly rich song. To Louisiana ; see Thryothorus, No. 68. 
This is given as Goniaphea lud. in the orig. ed. For the change, see Coues, Bull. 
Nutt. Club, v, 1880, p. 98. 

290. Z. m61-an-6-c6ph'-a-la. Gr. jueAas, feminine /xeAoivo, neuter /te'Acw, black ; KcQaX-fi, the head. 

291. Guir'-a-ca [pronounced Gweerahcah] coe-rGF-g-a. The generic word is barbarous, from 

some South American vernacular, and of uncertain meaning. It occurs, with several 
similar words, as guira, in Marcgrave. We mark the accent (for which there is no author- 
ity) as usually heard. For ccerulea, see Polioptila, No. 36. 

292. Pas-sgr-i'-na ci'-rls. Passerina, formed from Passer, as Passerella and Passerculus also are. 

Ciris, Gr. Kftpis, a kind of bird, into which Scylla, daughter of Nisus, is fabled to have 
been changed. Nonpareil = " the incomparable." 

For use of Passerina, instead of Cyanospiza of the orig. ed., see Coues, Bull. Nutt. 
Club, v, 1880, p. 96. 

293. P. ver-sl r -c61-8r. Lat. versicolor, of changing or versatile colors, many-colored, party-col- 

ored ; verso, I turn about, change, am occupied with, versed in, &c.; color, color. 

294. P. a-moe'-na [ahmwaynahj. Lat. amcena, delightful, charming, dressy. 

295. P. cy-an'-g-a. Lat cyaneus, Gr. Kvdveos or KVO.VOS, dark blue. 

296. Sper-m6'-phl-la mSre-lgt'-I. Gr. erW^ua, genitive a-Wp^a-ros, a seed ; from arirfipw, equal 

to the Lat. spargo, I sow seed : and $l\os, from <f>i\ew, I love. The word is contracted ; 
the full form is spermatophila. To - Morelet, a French naturalist. 

297. Pho-nl'-pa-ra ze'-na. Gr. tfxav-fi, a sound, the voice ; ^/i/, I speak ; the English " phonetic " 

is from the same. The rest of the word appears to be from Lat. pario, I bring forth, beget, 
produce, having the same root as is seen in primi-para, par-turient, vivi-par-ous, &c. ; if 
so, the word is a hybrid which would be better written sonipara or vocipara. The mean- 
ing of zena we do not know ; we suppose it not to be of Greek or Latin derivation. 

This is given as P. bicolor in the orig. ed. of the Check List, after Frinyilla bicolor L., 
1766; but it seems that F. zena L., 1758, is the prior tenable name. 


298. Pyrrhnloxia sinuata Bp. B 389. c 202. R 243. 

Texas Cardinal Grosbeak. 

299. Cardinalis virginiana Bp. B 390. c 203. n 242. 

Cardinal Grosbeak; Virginia Redbird. 

300. Cardinalis virginiana ignea (Bd.) Coues. B . c 203a. R 242a. 

Fiery-red Cardinal Grosbeak. 

301. Pipilo erythrophthalmus (L.) V. B 391. c 204. R 237. 

Towhee Bunting; Chewink. 

302. Pipilo erythrophthalmus alleni Coues. B . c 204a. R 237a. 

White-eyed Towhee Bunting. 

303. Pipilo maculatus oregonus (Bell) Coues. B 392. c 205. R 2G8&. 

Oregon Towhee Bunting. 

304. Pipilo maculatus arcticus (Sw.) Coues. B 393. c 205a. R 238. 

Arctic Towhee Bunting. 

305. Pipilo maculatus megalonyx (Bd.) Coues. B 394. c 2056. R 238a. 

Spurred Towhee Bunting. 

298. Pyr-rhu-lox'-I-a sln-ii-a'-ta. A forcible combination of Pyrrhula and Loxia : see these 

words, Nos. 190 and 199 ; or may be said to be more properly compounded of pyrrhus, 
irvfyos, fiery-red, and Ao|/as; in which event, it should be written pyrrholoxia. Lat sinua- 
tus, bent, bowed, curved, as the bill of the bird is ; from sinuo, the verb ; sinus, the noun, 
a curve, bending, bay. 

299. Car-dln-a'-Hs vir-gln-I-a'-na. Lat. cardinalis, pertaining to a door-hinge ; cardo, genitive 

cardinis, a door-hinge ; hence, that upon which something turns or depends ; as, cardinal 
points of the compass ; hence, any important thing or person ; applied with obvious sig- 
nification to the chief officials of the Pope. These ecclesiastical dignitaries wear red ; 
hence the phrase " cardinal-red." The term is applied to the bird as descriptive of its 
rich red color. As a Latin word, cardinalis is only an adjective ; used substantively, its 
gender is either masculine or feminine. We take the latter, because most words ending in 
is- are feminine. Lat. virginiana, of Virginia, euphemistically named for Elizabeth, 
daughter of Henry VIII. 

300. C. v. Ig'-ne-a. Lat. igneus, fiery, flaming ; said of color as well as of other properties ; 

ignis, fire. 

30 1 . PI r -pfl-5 g-ryth-roph-thal'-mfis. Vieillot, in forming the word, wrote both pipilo and 

pipillo. It is a Latin verb, meaning, like pipio, I pip, peep, chirp. Notice the accentua- 
tion and quantity of the vowels. Gr. tyvepos, red or reddish; e>ev0, I redden ; o<0aA- 
p.6s, the eye, from &rro/iai, a verb obsolete in the present, or opdca, I see ; we find both 
words in " ophthalmic," " optic." The species is red-eyed. The curious English words 
" towhee " and " chewink " are onomatopoeic : that is, coined to imitate the sound of 
the bird's voice. 

302. P. e. al'-lSn-I. To Joel Asaph Allen, of Cambridge, Mass., one of the leading naturalists 

of the United States. 

303. P. ma-cfil-a'-tus 6r-6-go f -nus. Lat. maculatus, spotted ; macula, a spot. To the Oregon 

River. Quantity of the penult in question, perhaps better ore'gOnus. 
The stock species, P. maculatus, is not North American. 

304. P. m. arc'-tl-ca. See Sialia, No. 29. 

305. P. m. mg-gal'-6-n~x. Gr. neydkij (feminine of fjteyas), large, great, and ovv, Lat. onyx, a 

nail, claw, talon. The word is commonly accented on a long penult; a practice perhaps 
defensible on the ground that megalti-onyx = megalonyx. 


306. Pipilo fuscTis mesoleucus (Bd.) Ridg. B 397. c 206. R 240. 

Brown Towhee Bunting ; Canon Bunting. 

307. Pipilo fuscus albigula (Bd.) Coues. B . c 206a. R 240a. 

White- throated Towhee Bunting. 

308. Pipilo fuscus crissalis (Vig.) Coues. B 396. c 2066. R 2406. 

Crissal Towhee Bunting. 

309. Pipilo aberti Bd. B 395. c 207. R 241. 

Abert's Towhee Bunting. 

310. Pipilo chlorurus (Towns.) Bd. B 398. C 208. R 239. 

Green-tailed Towhee Bunting. 

311. Embernagra rufovirgata Lawr. B 373. c 209. R 236. 

Green Finch. 

312. Dolichonyx oryzivorus (L.) Sw. B 399. c 210. R 257. 

Bobolink; Reed-bird; Rice-bird. 

306. P. fus'-ciis mSs-S-leu'-cfis. Lat./wscws, fuscous, dark, dusky, like furvus ; both allied to 

Gr. op<f>6s, of same meaning, from opQvfi, night or darkness 1 Gr. /tcVos, middle, Aeu/c<fc, 
white ; in allusion to the color of the middle under parts. This word is derived from 
Aeuo-o-w or y\av<ro-<i>, I shine ; this from ayXaia, splendor, the name of one of the Muses. 

This is given as P. fuscus in the orig. ed. ; but the bird of Arizona is said to be dis- 
tinguishable from the Mexican stock species. 

307. P. f. al-bl'-gu-la. [Not albigew'ler.] Lat. albus, white; gula, throat. This is one of num- 

berless cases where the termination of the word is in question, Albigula may be taken 
as a feminine noun, and left in this form, whatever the gender of the word with which 
it is associated ; or it may be considered an adjective in -us, -a, -urn, and made masculine 
to agree with P. fuscus. There is ample authority and precedent for the latter course, 
which our taste disinclines us to take. English affords a parallel latitude of construc- 
tion, as when we say indifferently "yellow-rump warbler" or "yellow-rumped warbler," 
" Carolina chickadee " or " Carolinian chickadee." A better form than either albigulus 
or albigula would be albigularis. 

308. P. f. cris-saMls. Late Lat. crissalis, pertaining to the crissum, or under-tail coverts, which 

in this bird are highly colored. There are no such classic words, they having been in- 
vented by Illiger in 1811 ; but, there is a verb crisso, expressing a certain action of the parts. 

309. P. a'-bgrt-i. To Lieutenant J. W. Abert, of the U. S. Army, who discovered it. 

310. P. chl5-ru'-rus. Gr. x^-vpds, green, from x\6a, green grass ; olpa, tail. 

311. Em-ber-na'-gra ru-fS-vir-ga'-ta. Embernagra is a villanous word, concocted by Lesson 

out of Emberiza and Tanagra. Emberiza, a bunting, is a word the derivation of which 
is not classic. It is said, doubtless correctly, to be Latinized from the O. H. G. Embritz ; 
"Charleton (1668) has Embryza" (Wharton's MS.) ; and we may add that there were 
various other forms of the word before it settled into the present one. There are Latin 
words Tanager and Tanagra ; but these are geographical proper names, having nothing 
to do with the present case. Tangara or Tanagra is a South American vernacular 
word. Lat. rufus, rufous, reddish, and virgatus, literally, made of twigs; from virga, a 
rod, switch, the application being the stripes with which the bird is marked. Commonly 
written nifivirgata : see Lophopkanes, No. 42. 

312. D6Mch'-6-nyx 6-ry-zI'-v6-rfis. Gr. So\ixos, long, and &/u, a nail, claw, talon. The gender 

is in question ; but the Greek 6w, Lat-onyx, is masculine, though Latin words in -yx are 
usually feminine. The usual pronunciation is dolicho'nyx: but see Pipilo, No. 305. Gr. 
, or Lat. oryza, rice, and voro, I devour. 


313. Molothrus ater (Bodd.) Gray. B 400. c 211. R 258. 


314. Molothrus ater obscurus (Gm.) Coues. B . c 2iia. R 258a. 

Dwarf Cow-bird. 

315. Molothrus seneus Cab. B . c . R 259. 

Bronzed Cowbird. 

316. Agelaeus phceniceus (L.) V. B 401. c 212. R 261. 

Bed-winged Marsh Blackbird. 

317. Agelaeus phoeniceus gubernator (Wagl.) Coues. B402. C2i2a. R2Gia. 

Bed-shouldered Marsh Blackbird. 

318. Agelseus tricolor Nutt. B 403. c 2126. R 262. 

Bed-and-white-shouldered Marsh Blackbird. 

313. MS-lS'-thriis a'-tgr. Unde derivaturl The orthography and etymology of molothrus are 

alike in dispute. Swainson himself says, " fjio\oOpos, qui non vocatus alienas aedes intrat ; " 
that is, an uninvited guest. There being no such Greek word as yuoAofyos, but there being 
a good Greek word /xoAo/>o's, meaning one who roams in quest of food, a vagabond, a 
beggar, a parasite, a " tramp" (as we should say now), and therefore exactly answering 
to Swainson's explanation of his molothrus, it has been supposed by Cabanis that Swain- 
son meant to say molobrus, and the word has consequently been changed. Though this 
is very true, it is also to be observed that Swainson wrote molothrus more than once, 
showing it not to be a misprint or other mistake, and that, further, it is quite possible to 
construct the word molothrus from fiu\os and 0pc6<r/fo> (0opetV, 66pw, 6va>], and answer all 
the conditions of Swainson's definition ; molothrus being, in this case, a bird which takes 
uninvited possession of other birds' nests, and there leaves an alien egg in mockery of 
the rightful owners. We therefore see no necessity to replace molothrus by molobrus. The 
first o is marked long as being Gr. ta, the second as lengthened by position. 
This stands in the orig. ed. as M. pecoris, corrected in a footnote. 

314. M. a. ob-scu'-rus. Lat. obscurus, obscure, dark; obscuro, I darken; Gr. triad, shadow, 


This stands as M. pecoris var. obscurus in the orig. ed. 

315. M. a. ae'-nS-us. Lat. ceneus, of brass, brassy, brazen, bronzed; from ces, genitive cms, brass. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since discovered by J. C. Merrill, in Texas. 

316. A-ggl-ae'-us pboe-m'-c6-tis. Gr. &ye\aios, pertaining to flocks and herds, from ftyeAi?, a 

flock : this from ayetpca, I assemble, from &ya>, I lead ; in allusion to the gregariousness 
of these Blackbirds. Gr. Qoiviiceos, or Lat. phoeniceus, deep red ; " a color first intro- 
duced into Greece by the Phoenicians." The fabulous bird Phoenix, and the name of 
Phoenician, and the word for flame-color, are all the same, (polvij;. This itself is a radi- 
cal word, but related through (froivos, <f>6vos, with fyeva), <f>aa, I kill, slay, as if the idea of 
the whole set of words were that of murder, from its traditional color of blood. The 
obvious application is to the scarlet on the wings. 

317. A. p. gub-er-na'-t5r. Lat. gubernator, Gr. Kv&epvfiTys (cybernetes), a pilot, helmsman; 

gubernum or gubernaculum, a rudder, tiller ; guberno, Gr. /cuj8epi/oo> or Kvficpv>, I steer a ship ; 
hence, to direct or govern in general. Govern, governor, are directly from guberno, and 
the actual Latin lingers in gubernatorial. The implication is the red shoulder-knots or 
epaulettes of the bird, as if signs of rank or command. 

318. A. trl'-c61-8r. Lat. tricolor, three-colored; tres, three, becoming in composition tri-. 

This stands as A. phoeniceus var. tricolor in the first ed., but proves to be sufficiently 


319. Xanthocephahis icterocephalus (Bp.) Bd. B 404. c 213. R 260. 

Yellow-headed Swamp Blackbird. 

320. Sturnella magna (L.) Sw. B 406. c 214. R 263. 

Meadow Starling; Field-lark. 

321. Sturnella magna mexicana (Scl.) Eidg. B . c . R 263a. 

Mexican Meadow Starling. 

322. Sturnella magna neglecta (Aud.) Allen. B 407. c 2i4a. R 264. 

Western Meadow Starling. 

323. Icterus vulgaris Daud. B 408. c . R 265. (! w.i.) 


324. Icterus spurius (L.) Bp. B 414. c 215. R 270. 

Orchard Oriole. 

325. Icterus spurius affinis (Lawr.) Coues. B . c 215. R . (?) 

Texas Orchard Oriole. 

326. Icterus galbula (L., 1758) Coues. B 415. c 216. R 271. 

Baltimore Oriole. 

319. Xan-thS-ceph'-al-Qs ic-tgr-8-ceph'-al-fis. Gr. fr v 66s, bright yellow. Gr. r/crepos, or Lat. 

icterus, see Icteria, No. 144. Related apparently to ficw, I attack, as disease does. 

320. Stur-nel r -la mag'-na. Diminutive of Lat. sturnus, a starling ; as spizella from spiza. Lat. 

magnus, great, large ; root mag, as seen in Gr. pfyas ; whence also mactus, magnified, glo- 
rified : magi, magician, magic, are all allied. 

321. S. m. mex-I-ca'-na. Latinized Mexican. See Sialia, No. 28. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since discovered in Texas by J. C. Merrill. 

322. S. m. neg-lec'-ta. Lat. neglecta, neglected, that is, not chosen, not heeded; from nee, not, 

and lego, I choose, select, &c. See Parus, No. 61. 

323. Ic'-ter-us vul-ga'-rls. See Sturnus, No. 363. Troupial or troopial, from the Fr. trouper, is 

simply trooper, the bird that goes in troops. 

Not in the orig. ed. Said to straggle to Southern States. No late case of its so doing. 

324. I. spu'-rl-us. For Icterus, see Icteria, No. 144, and Xanthocephalus, No. 319. Lat. spurius, 

illegitimate, bastard, spurious; related to the Gr. triropd, seed, generation, birth, &c., 
aveipw, I sow seed. The bird was formerly called " Bastard Baltimore Oriole," whence 
the undeserved Linnaean name. 

325. I. s. af-fi'-nls [accent the penult]. Lat. affinis, ad, and finis, allied, affined. 

This subspecies is very slightly distinguished from its stock. 

326. I. gal'-bu-la. Lat. galbula or galgula, some small yellow bird of the ancients ; doubtless 

derived from some word signifying yellow ; there are Latin words galbus, galbanus, Germ. 
gelb, &c., of such meaning. The curious English word oriole, for which no derivation 
is given in some standard works, has evidently a similar reference to the color yellow, 
being equivalent to aureole ; Lat. aurum or Gr. adpov, gold : such form of the word for 
gold, with or- instead of aur-, is seen in the Fr. or. "Baltimore," the former specific 
name of the bird, is not directly from the city of that name, but from the name of Sir 
George Calvert, first Baron of Baltimore, the colors of the bird being chosen by him for 
his livery, or, as Catesby has it (N. H. Car., i, 1731, p. 48), the bird being named from its 
resemblance in color to the Lord's coat of arms " which are Paly of six Topaz and 
Diamond, a Bend, interchang'd." The name baltimore, L., 1766, as given in the orig. ed. 
of the Check List, is antedated by Coracias galbula L., 1758 ; see Coues, Bull. Nutt. Club, 
April, 1880, p. 98. 


327. Icterus bullocki (Sw.) Bp. B 416. c 217. K 272. 

Bullock's Oriole. 

328. Icterus cucullatus Sw. B 413. c 218. K 269. 

Hooded Oriole. 

329. Icterus parisiorurn Bp. B 411. c 219. K 268. 

Scott's Oriole. 

330. Icterus melanocephalus auduboni (Gir.) Coues. B 409. c 220. R 266. 

Audubon's Black-headed Oriole. 

331. Scolecophagus ferrugineus (Gm.) Sw. B 417. c 221. R 273. 

Rusty Grackle. 

332. Scolecophagus cyanocephalus (Wagl.) Cab. B 418. c 222. R 274. 

Blue-headed Grackle. 

333. Quiscalus macrurus Sw. B 419. c 223. R 275. 

Great-tailed Crow Blackbird. 

327. I. buT-16ck-i. To William Bullock, sometime a collector in Mexico, and proprietor of a 

famous museum in London. 

328. I. cu-cul-la'-tus. Lat. cucullatus, hooded; cuculla, a kind of hood or cowl fastened to a gar- 

ment, to be drawn over the head. 

329. I. par-is-I-o'-run. Lat. Parisiorurn, of the Parisians. The Parisii were a people of Gaul, 

settled on the river Senones, now the Seine ; their chief city, Lutetia, called also Lutetia 
Parisiorum and Parisii, is now Paris. There is no applicability of the name to the bird : 
Bonaparte probably so called it from national vanity, or because he found a specimen 
in a museum in Paris. The name is commonly but wrongly written parisorum. 

330. I. mei-an-6-ceph'-al-us aud'-u-btin-i. Gr. /t&os, feminine n4\aiva, black; and /ce^aA^, 

head. To J. J. Audubon. 

331. Sco-le-cd'-pha-gus fer-ru-gln'-g-us. Gf. o-K(a\r)ito<t><iyos, a worm-eater ; <ric6\ri, genitive 

o-fcciJArj/cos, a worm, and <f>dy<a, I eat. It is also a Latin word, scolex, worm. Lat. ferrugi- 
neus, rusty-red, color of iron-rust; from ferrugo, iron-rust; ferrum, iron. The curious Eng- 
lish word gracJcle or grakle is anglicized from Lat. graculus or gracculus, a very uncertain 
bird, by some supposed to be the jackdaw, by others the cormorant or sea-crow ; and 
the Latin word itself is supposed to be merely in imitation of a hoarse croak, gra, gra. 
See what is said under Querquedula, No. 714. 

332. S. cy-an-S-cSph'-al-us. Gr. icvavos, or Lat. cyaneus, blue; and K(f>a\-fi, head. 

333. Quis'-ca-lus mac-ru'-rus. Unde derivator quiscalus J We have no proof whence it comes 

or what it means : it varies in form, as quiscala, quiscula. Mr. W. C. Avery asks : " Is 
quiscalus an onomatopceon ? I can find no Latin or Greek word like it." Mr. H. T. 
Wharton observes : " Quiscalus seems a native name ; if it is, the termination -us only 
obscures its origin without Latinizing it." Professor A. Newton remarks at greater 
length : " Quiscalus was doubtless taken by Vieillot from the Gracula quiscula of Linnaeus 
(S. N., ed. 10, p. 109). I cannot find this word or any thing like it in any older author; 
but I have an instinctive conviction that it must occur somewhere ; for, as far as my 
studies of Linnaeus's work go, they show me that he did not invent names. From his 
printing the word in both eds. (10th and 12th) with a capital initial letter, it is obvious 
that he regarded it as a substantive, and I should think he must have found it in some 
book of travels as the local name of a bird. The word seems to me Spanish or quasi- 
Spanish say Creole and the regular Castilian quisquilla, which dictionaries explain 
to be a trifling dispute, suggests a meaning, especially when one reads of the noisy and 
fussy bickerings of your Boat-tails." If, as seems highly probable, we are here on the 


334. Quiscalus major V. B 420. c 224. R 277. 

Boat-tailed Crow Blackbird ; Jackdaw. 

335. Quiscalus purpureus (Bartr.) Licht. B 421. c 225. R 278. 

Purple Crow Blackbird ; Purple Grackle. 

336. Quiscalus purpureus aeneus Ridg. B . c . R 2786. 

Bronzed Crow Blackbird. 

337. Quiscalus purpureus aglaeus (Bd.) Coues. B 422. c 225a. R 278a. 

Florida Crow Blackbird. 

338. CorVUS COraX L. B 423. 424. C 226. R 280. 


339. Corvus cryptoleucus Couch. B 425. c 227. R 281. 

White-necked Raven. 

340. Corvus frugivorus Bartr. B 426. c 228. R 282. 

Common American Crow. 

341. Corvus frugivorus noridanus (Bd.) Coues. B 427. c 228a. R 282a. 

Florida Crow. 

342. CorVUS CaurinUS Bd. B 428. C 2286. R 2826. 

Northwestern Crow. 

right track of the word, we may perhaps go a step further, and trace the undoubtedly 
barbarous word quisculus through quisquilla to the similar Lat. quisguilice, which the lexi- 
cons give as meaning refuse, dregs, or other trifling worthless matters ; as we might say,. 
riff-raff, rag-tag ; and such would not be wholly inappropriate to these vagabond troopers,, 
so common everywhere as to come under the contempt of familiarity. Gr. paitpSs, long,, 
large, and o3/>a, tail. 

334. Q. ma'-j8r. Lat. major, greater, comparative of magnus. 

335. Q. pur-pur'-6-us. See Carpodacus, No. 194. 

336. Q. p. ae'-ng-us. See Molothrus, No. 315. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List : since recognized. 

337 Q. p. ag-lae'-fls. Gr. ay\aios or Ity\a6s, shining, from ct-yAo/a, splendor; also the name of 
one of the Muses. Obs. Not to be confounded with agelceus, which see, No. 316. 

338. Cor'-viis c5r'-ax. Lat. corvus, a crow. Lat. corax or Gr. icrfpof, a raven. Corvus is by 

some considered an onomatopoeon, and referred through the Gr. icpdfy, Kpcafa, to croak, 
back to a Sanscrit root of same signification. Corax is more obviously a word of 
similar formation, as may also be the English crow. 

339. C. cryp-tS-leu'-cus. Gr. itpwirrds, hidden (with which compare Eng. crypt), and \fvx6s, 

white ; the allusion being to the concealed white at the bases of the feathers of the neck. 

340. C. fru-gl'-v6-rus. Lat. Jrugivorus, fruit-eating; frux, genitive frugis, fruit, and voro, I 

devour. Frux is from fruor, fruitus, fructus, as it is something that may be enjoyed. 
Voro is rooted in &op, as seen in &opd, food, and pdcrKw (&6<a), I eat. 
This is given as C. americanus in the orig. ed. of the Check List. 

341. C. f. fl5-rl-da'-nus. To Florida. Flora, Goddess of flowers ; flos, a flower. 

342. C. cau-ri'-nus. There is no such Latin word. Caurinus has been supposed to be equiva- 

lent to corvinus, crow-like, but is directly derived from caurus, the North-west wind, the 
species having been discovered on the North-west coast of the United States. 

This stands as C. americanus var. caurinus in the orig. ed. : it has been redetermined to 
be distinct, as originally described by Baird. 


343. Corvns maritinms Bartr. B 429. c 220. E 283. 

Fish Crow. 

344. Piciconms cohimbiamis (Wils.) Bp. B 430. c 230. R 284. 

Clarke's Nutcracker. 

345. Gymnocitta cyanocephala Maxim. B 431. c 231. R 285. 

Blue Nutcracker. 

346. Psilorhiims morio (Wagl.) Cab. B 444. c 232. R 288. 

Brown Jay. 

347. Pica rustica hiidsonica (Cab.) Ridg. B 432. c 233. R 286. 

American Magpie. 

348. Pica rustica nuttalli (Aud.) Coues. B 433. c 233a. R287. 

Yellow-billed Magpie. 

349. Cyanocitta cristata (L.) Strickl. B 434. c 234. R 289. 

Blue Jay. 

350. Cyanocitta stelleri (Gm.) Strickl. B 435. c 235. R 290. 

Steller's Jay. 

351. Cyanocitta stelleri annectens (Bd.) Ridg. B . c . R 290&. (?) 

Connective Jay. 

343. C. mar-It'-T-mfis. See Ammodramus, No. 238. 

This stands as C. ossifragus in the orig. ed. 

344. Pi-cl-cor'-vus cS-lum-bl-a'-nus. The generic name is compounded of pica and corvus : 

see these words, Nos. 347 and 338. The specific name refers to the Columbia River, 
whence Lewis and Clarke first brought specimens. 

345. Gym-no'-cit'-ta cy-an-6"-cph'-a-la. Gr. yv/j.v6s, naked ; in allusion to the nostrils being 

exposed, as is unusual in this family ; Klrra or tdvaa., a jay. See Scokcophagus, No. 332. 


' 346. PsI-lS-rhi'-nus m6r'-I-5. Gr. tyi\6s, smooth, bare, bald, in allusion to the uncovered nos- 
trils, from ^Iw ; and fits, genitive f>iv6s, the nose. The specific name is morio, " a dark 
brown gem," in allusion to the color, which is remarkable in this group of birds. 

347. Pi'-ca ruV-tl-ca hud-s8nM-ca. Lat. pica, a magpie. It is supposed by some to be for 

piga, that equivalent to pigta or picta, from pingo, I paint; hence signifying painted, 
speckled, pied. The same dubious etymology is ascribed to the masculine form of the 
word, picus, which see, No. 433. Lat. rusticus, rustic, rural, from rus, the country as dis- 
tinguished from the city. To Hudson's Bay, named after Henry Hudson, the explorer. 
This stands as P. melanoleuca hudsonica in the orig. ed. ; but rustica has long priority. 

348. P. r. nfit'-tal-li. To Thomas Nuttall, the botanist and ornithologist. 

This stands as P. melanoleuca nuttalli in the orig. ed. 

349. Cy-an-6"-cit'-ta cris-ta'-ta. Gr. KvavSs, cyaneus, blue, and Kirra, a jay. Lat. cristatus, 

crested ; crista, a crest ; related to cresco, I grow, and crinis, hair, through a common root. 
For use of Cyanocitta instead of Cyanurus, as in the orig. ed., see Coues, Bull. Nutt. 
Club, v, 1880, p. 98. 

350. C. stei'-lr-I. To G. W. Steller, surgeon and naturalist. 

351. C. s. an-nec'-teris. Lat. annectens (ad and necto, to bind), annexing, annectant, connecting, 

tying together ; because this subspecies is intermediate between others of the same stock, 
serving to link them to each other. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. 


352. Cyanocitta stelleri macrolopha (Bd.) Coues. B 435. c 235a. R 290c. 

Long-crested Jay. 

353. Cyanocitta stelleri frontalis (Ridg.) Coues. B . c 2356. R 290a. 

Blue-fronted Jay. 

354. Aphelocoma floridana (Bartr.) Cab. B 439. c 236. R 291. 

Florida Jay. 

355. Aphelocoma floridana woodhousii (Bd.) Allen. B 438. c 236a. R 292. 

Woodhouse's Jay. 

356. Aphelocoma floridana californica (Vig.) Coues. B437. c 2366. R 293. 

Californian Jay. 

357. Aphelocoma ultramarina arizonse Ridg. B 440. c 237. R 295. 

Arizona Jay. 

358. Xanthura luxiiriosa (Less.) Bp. B 442. c 238. R 296. 

Rio Grande Jay. 

359. Perisoreus canadensis (L.) Bp. B 443. c 239. R 297. 

Canada Jay. 

360. Perisoreus canadensis fumifrons Ridg. B . c . R 2976. 

Alaskan Jay. 

352. C. s. maorS'-lS-pha. Gr. fuucp6s, long, and \6(pos, a mane, crest, comb, from AeVw, as is 

also ACTT&, AeTros, a scale, and many similar words. Usually pronounced macrolo'pha. 

353. C. s. fron-ta'-lls. Lat./rontafo, relating tofrons, the forehead, front. 

354. A-phg-lS'-cfi-ma flS-rl-da'-na. Gr. d^eA^js, smooth, sleek, and KOM, Lat. coma, hair ; in 

allusion to the lack of crest. The word primarily means smooth, even in the sense of 
free from stones ; a privative, and <J>eAos or </>eAAo's, a stone ; <f>AAeus, rocky soil, &c. 

355. A. f. wo6d-hous'-I-i. To S. W. Woodhouse, M. D., of Philadelphia, who explored in*. 

New Mexico and Arizona. 

356. A. f. cal-I-for'-nl-ca. To the State of California. 

357. A. ul-tra-mar-i'-na a-rl-zS'-nae. Lat. ultra, beyond, from the adverb uls, beyond, opposed 

to cis, on this side ; and marina, marine, relating to the sea, mare ; in allusion to the deep 
blue color, as of the high sea ; " ultramarine " blue. See Peuccea, No. 253. 
This stands in the orig. ed. as A. sordida, " Sieber's Jay." 

358. Xan-thu'-ra lux-u-rl-o'-sa. Gr. av&6s, yellow, and ovpa, tail. Luxuosa was doubtless 

intended by Lesson for Lat. luxuriosa, luxurious, in allusion to the elegant coloration. 

This stands in the orig. ed. as X. yncas var. luxuosa, but proves to be distinct from the 
Peruvian yncas. 

359. Pr-I-so'-r6-us can-a-den'-sls. Unde deriratur? One of the dictionaries gives a sonar, 

defined as a bird dedicated to Saturn ; whence Perisoreus might be derived as an adjec- 
tival form, intensified by the preposition peri-. This would accord in idea with the term 
infaustus bestowed by Linnaeus on the European species, and also with Dysornithia, the 
generic term invented by Swainson ; there being some superstition attaching to the jays 
of this genus. But we advance this etymology as mere conjecture. We may note also 
the Gr. <rop6s, a tomb or sepulchre. 

360. P. c. fu'-ml-frSns. Lat. fumus, smoke, and/rons, forehead; related to Gr. 6va>, I offer 


Described since the orig. ed. ; Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, 1880, p. 5. 


361. Perisoreus canadensis obscurus Ridg. B . c 239a. R 298. 

Oregon Jay. 

362. Perisoreus canadensis capitalis Bd. B . c 239&. R 297a. 

Rocky Mountain Jay. 

363. Sturmis vulgaris L. B . c . R 279. (G. IE.) 

European Starling. 

364. PitangTis derbianus (Kaup) Scl. B . c . R 308. 

Lord Derby's Flycatcher. 

365. Myiodynastes luteiventris Scl. B . c . R 310. 

Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher. 

366. Milvulus tyrannus (L.) Bp. B 122. c 240. R 302. (is. A.) 

Fork-tailed Flycatcher. 

367. Milvulus forficatus (Gm.) Sw. B 123. c 241. R 301. 

Swallow-tailed Flycatcher; Scissor-tail. 

368. Tyrannus carolinensis (L.) Bd. B 124. c 242. R 304. 

Tyrant Flycatcher; King-bird; Bee-martin. 

369. Tyrannus dominicensis (Gm.) Rich. B 125. c 243. R 303. 

Gray Tyrant Flycatcher; Gray King-bird. 

361. P. c. ob-scu'-rtis. See Molothrus, No. 314. 

362. P. c. cap-l-ta'-lls. Lat. capitalis, capital, relating to the head, caput, the color of which 

distinguishes the race from the stock species. 

363. Stur'-nus vul-ga'-rls. Lat. sturnus, a stare or starling. Lat. vulgaris, vulgar, common; 

vulgus, or volgus, the people or folk, is digammated Gr. Fo\xos, with transposition of 
letters from &x^*> a crowd. 

it Not in the orig. ed. Only American as occurring in Greenland, and there only acci- 

dentally, in one known instance. 

364. Plt-an'-gfis der-bl-a'-nus. Pitangus is a barbarous word, of some South American ver- 

nacular ; it occurs, in several forms, in Marcgrave. The species is dedicated to the 
Earl of Derby. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. Since discovered in Texas by G. B. Sennett. 
See Coues, The Country, i, p. 184, July 13, 1878. 

365. Myl-S-dyn-aV-tes lut-gl-ven'-trls. Gr. /turn, a fly, and Swaarr-ffs, a sovereign, ruler, &c. ; 

SiWfus, power, from 5vva/, I can, I am able. Lat. luteus, luteous, yellow, from lutum, a 
plant used for yellow dye, and venter, genitive ventris, the belly ; said to be digammated 
from Gr. evrepov, the entrails. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List: since discovered in Arizona by H. W. 
Henshaw. See Hensh., Rep. Expl. W. 100 Merid., v, 1875, p. 346, pi. xiv. 

366. Mil'-vii-lus tyr-an'-nus. Lat. milvulus, diminutive of milvus, a kite. Lat. tyrannus, Gr. 

rvpavvos, a ruler, despot, " tyrant ; " well applied to a bird of this genus. 

367. M. for-fl-ca'-tus. Lat. forjicatus, a participial adjective, as if from a verb/or/ico; forfex, a 

pair of shears, scissors, which the deeply forked tail resembles. 

368. Tyr-an'-nGs ca-rS-Hn-en'-sIs. See Milvulus, No. 366. Named after the State of Caro- 

lina : the direct adjective from Carolus, Charles. See Mimus, No. 16. 

369. T. dSm-In-I-cen'-sIs. Named after the island of Hayti, or St. Domingo; dominicus, do- 

minus, domus. See Dendrceca, No. 129. 


370. Tyrannus verticalis Say. B 126. c 244. R 306. 

Arkansas Tyrant Flycatcher. 

371. Tyranmis vociferans Sw. B 127. c 245. R SOT. 

Cassin's Tyrant Flycatcher. 

372. Tyrannus melancholicus couchi (Bd.) Coues. B 128, 129. c 246. R 305. 

Couch's Tyrant Flycatcher. 

373. Myiarchus crinitus (L.) Cab. B iso. c 247. R 312. 

Great Crested Flycatcher. [See Addenda. No. 880. 

374. Myiarchus erythrocercus Scl. and Salv.? B 132 v c . R 311. (?) 

Rufous-tailed Crested Flycatcher. 

375. Myiarchus cinerescens (Lawr.) Scl. B 131. c 248. R 313. 

Ash-throated Crested Flycatcher. 

376. Myiarchus lawrencii (Gir.) Bd. B. 133. c 249. R 314. (!M.) 

Lawrence's Crested Flycatcher. 

377. Sayiornis sayi (Bp.) Bd. B 136. c 250. R 316. 

Say's Pewit Flycatcher. 

370. T. ver-tl-caMls. Lat. verticalis, vertical, t. e., relating to the vertex, top or crown of the 

head, which has a flame-colored patch. The etymological meaning of vertex is vortex, the 
turning or whirling thing, from verto, I turn. 

371. T. vo-cl'-fer-ans. Lat. present participle vociferans, vociferating, vociferous, from vocifero ; 

vox, genitive vocis, voice, andyero, I bear. 

373. T. mgl-an-chSF-I-cus. Gr. /teAayxoAimfc, melancholy, from /ieXos, feminine /ieAotj/a, black, 
and x^os, gall, bile ; Lat. melancholicus, atrabilious. The ancients had some notions on 
this subject which make the term not wholly inapplicable to a bird of splenetic, irri- 
table disposition, as all of this genus are. To Lt. D. N. Couch, U. S. A., who collected 
extensively in Matamoras and Texas. 

373. Myl-ar'-chus cri-m'-tus [not " crinnytus," as usually heard]. Gr. //u?a, a fly, and apxos, 

a ruler, leader, chief, from &px<, I am first, lead, rule, or apx"fi, the beginning. This 
theme is seen in our prefix arch-, as arch-bishop, &c. Lat. crinitus, haired, i. e., crested, 
from crinis, hair of the head. See Myiodioctes, No. 146. 

374. M. 6-ryth-r6-cer'-cus. Gr. tpvep6s, reddish, and MPKOS, tail. 

Not in the Check List, orig. ed. Since discovered in Texas by G. B. Sennett. The 
proper name of the species is much in question. The bird is the M. crinitus erythrocercus 
of Coues, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., iv, no. 2, p. 32, and v, no. 3, p. 402 ; the M. eryth- 
rocercus var. cooperi of Ridgway, Pr. Nat. Mus., i, p. 138; and the M. mexicanus of Ridg., 
Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, p. 14. 

375. M. cln-gr-es'-cens. Lat. present participle of an inceptive verb cineresco, I grow ashy ; 

in the sense of being somewhat ashy ; cinereus, ashy, from cinis, ash. N. B. The 
name has always been written cinerascens, for which we find no authority; while there 
is actually a verb cineresco : we therefore emend as above. 

376. M. law-rgn'-cl-i. To George Newbold Lawrence, of New York. 

377. Say-i-or'-nls say'-i. " Sayornis " is a violent combination of the name of Mr. Thomas 

Say, of Philadelphia, with the Greek word for bird, &pvis. It may be somewhat improved 
as above, when the combination of vowels becomes no more unusual than is seen in 
myw-dioctes, myia-rchus, &c. In equally loose style, Bonaparte made the specific name 
sayus, a direct Latinization of the same person's name; but it must either be put in 


378. Sayiornis nigricans (Sw.) Bp. B 134. c 251. K 317. 

Black Pewit Flycatcher. 

379. Sayiornis fusca (Gm.) Bd. B 135. c 252. R 315. 

Pewit Flycatcher; Phoebe-bird. 

380. Contopus borealis (Sw.) Bd. B 137. c 253. R sis. 

Olive-sided Pewee Flycatcher. 

381. Contopus psrtinax Cab. B . c 254. B 319. 

Coues's Pewee Flycatcher. 

382. Contopus virens (L.) Cab. B 139. c 255. R 320. 

Pewee Flycatcher ; Wood Pewee. 

383. Contopus virens richardsoni (Sw.) Coues. B 138. c 255a. B 321. 

Western Pewee Flycatcher. 

384. Empidonax acadicus (Gm.) Bd. B 143. c 256. R 324. 

Acadian Flycatcher. 

385. Empidonax trailli (Aud.) Bd. B 140. c 257. R 325a. 

Train's Flycatcher. 

386. Empidonax trailli pusillus (Bd.) Cones. B HI. c 257a. R 325. 

Little Western Flycatcher. 

the genitive, sayi or sail, or in adjectival form, saynna or saiana it must in the latter 
case be feminine to agree with sayiornis. The above emendation of both generic and 
specific names is respectfully submitted. (See Coues, Bull. Nutt. Club, v, 1880, p. 99.) 

378. S. nig'-rl-cans. Present participle of nigrico, I am blackish; niger, black. 

379. S. fus'-ca. Lat./uscus, dark, dusky, swarthy. See Pipilo, No. 306. 

380. Con^td-pus bfir-g-a'-lis. Gr. n6vTos, in some sense unknown to us, and TTOUV, foot. Lat. 

borealis, northern ; boreas, the northwind. " Pewee/' like " pewit/' is an onomatopoeon. 

N. B. Many words ending in -opus, from the Gr. TTOVS and a connecting vowel o, are 
habitually accented on the lengthened penult, and the last syllable is made short. But 
as -pus here stands for Gr. irovs, and the connecting vowel is invariably short, we should 
throw the accent back to the antepenult, and dwell on the last syllable. Thus, not 
Conto'-pus, Hcemato'-pus, Phalaro'-pus, but Cont'6-pus, HcEma'tG-pus, Phalar'0-pus. 

381. C. per'-tl-nax. Lat. pertinax, pertinacious, holding fast on to ; from per and tenax, tenacious, 

from teneo, I hold ; this species closely resembling C. borealis. 

382. C. vir'-ens. See Dendrceca virens, No. 112. 

383. C. v. rlch'-ard-sfin-i. To Dr. John Richardson, an author of the Fauna Boreali- 

Americana, &c. 

384. Em-pld-o'-nax a-cad'-I-cus. Gr. fairls, genitive tfurtHos, a small kind of insect, gnat; and 

2>va. or #va|, king. Acadicus, Latinized adjective for Acadian ; from Acadia or Acadie. 

N. B. This species has never been found, and probably does not occur, in the region 
formerly called Acadia; the name is therefore geographically false. The name "Aca- 
dian Flycatcher," whence Muscicapa acadica Gm., no doubt actually refers to Traill's or 
the Least Flycatcher, the proper name of the present species being probably Empidonax 
subviridis (Bartr.) Coues. Lat. subviridis, somewhat green, greenish. 

385. E. trail'-li. To Thomas Stewart Traill, a Scottish naturalist. He was professor of medi- 

cal jurisprudence in the University of Edinburgh, and editor of one of the later editions 
of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica." 

386. E. t. pu-sil'-lus. See Sitta, No. 60. 


387. Empidonax minimus Bd. B 142. c 258. R 326. 

Least Flycatcher. 

388. Empidonax flaviventris Bd. B 144. c 259. R 322. 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. 

389. Empidonax flaviventris dimcilis Bd. B I44a. c . R 323. (?) 

Western Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. 

390. Empidonax hammondi (Xant.) Bd. B 145. c 260. R 327. 

Hammond's Flycatcher. 

391. Empidonax obscurus (Sw.) Bd. B 146. c 261. R 328. 

Wright's Flycatcher. 

392. Mitrephorus fulvifrons pallescens Coues. B . c 262. R 329<z. 

Buff-breasted Flycatcher. 

393. Ornithium imberbe Scl. B . c . R 331. 

Beardless Flycatcher. 

394. Pyrocephalus rubineus mexicamis (Scl.) Coues. B 147. c 263. R 330. 

Mexican Vermilion Flycatcher. 

395. Nyctidromus albicollis (Gin.) Burm. B . c . R 356. 


387. E. mln'-I-mus. Lat. minimus, least, smallest, superlative degree of parvus, little. 

388. E. fla-vl-ven'-trls. Lat. flavus, yellow; ventris, pertaining to the belly, venter, belly ; prob- 

ably digammated from Gr. evrfpov, the entrails. 

389. E. f. dif-fl'-cl-lls. Lat. dlfficilis, difficult, not facile ; disfacilis, not easily do-able ; fado, I 

do; like agilis, active, or utllt's, useful, from ago and utor. It is applied to the bird 
as the French would call a person difficile, that is, hard to get at, manage-, understand, 
impracticable; the subspecies not being readily distinguished from E. Jlaviventris. 

390. E. ham'-mSnd-i. To Dr. W. A. Hammond, sometime Surgeon General, U. S. Army. 

391. E. ob-scu'-rfcs. See Molothrus, No. 314. To C. Wright, the discoverer. Swainson's bird 

is very uncertain, and our species might be called E. wrighti. 

392. MI-tre'-phSr-Gs ful'-vl-frons pal-les'-cens. Gr. fj.lrpa or fjilrprj, a mitre or other head- 

dress, and <pop6s, bearing, from <epco, same as Lat. fero, I bear. We believe either 
mitrephorus or mitrophorus to be admissible ; the former has currency, though the latter 
maybe preferable. Lat. fulvus, yellowish, fulvous, and frons, forehead. Lat. palles- 
cens, somewhat pale, from pallesco, I grow pale ; palleo, of same meaning. The allusion 
is to the pale coloration in comparison with the stock-form fulvifrons. [See Index, p. 137.] 

393. Or-nith'-I-Qm Im-ber'-bg. Gr. opviQiov, a little bird; diminutive of 6pvis, a bird. Lat. 

imberbe, beardless, from in, negation, and larba, beard. The genus is commonly written 
Ornithion, but it is customary to change -ov of the Greek into -um in Latin. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since discovered in Texas by G. B. Sennett. See Coues, The 
Country, i, p. 184, July 13, 1878. 

394. Py-rQ-cgph'-a-lQs rub-Tn'-6-us mex-I-ca'-nus. Gr. irvp, genitive irvp6s, fire, Ke<pa\-fi, 

head. Lat. rubineus (not classic), equivalent to rubens, ruby-colored, rose-red. 

395. Nyc-tI'-dr6-mQs al-bl-col'-lls. Gr. 6, genitive VVKT^S, night, and Sptpos, act of running: 

in allusion to the nocturnal activity of the bird. See Ammodramus, No. 238. Lat. albus, 
white, and collis, neck. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since discovered in Texas by G. B. Sennett, and J. C. Merrill. 


396. Antrostomus carolinensis (Gm.) Gould. B 111. c 264. R 353. 


397. Antrostomus vociferus (Wils.) Bp. B 112. c 265. R 354. 

Whip-poor-will. [See Addenda, No. 881. 

398. Phalsenoptilus imttalli (Aud.) Ridg. B 113. c 266. R 355. 

Nuttall's Whip-poor-will. 

399. Chordediles popetue (V.) Bd. B 114. c 267. R 357. 


400. Chordediles popetue henryi (Cass.) All. B 115. c 267a. R 357a. 

Western Night-hawk. 

401. Chordediles popetue minor (Cab.) Ridg. B . c . R 3576. (!w. i.) 

Cuban Night-hawk. 

402. Chordediles aciitipenms texensis (Lawr.) Ridg. B lie. c 268. R 358. 

Texan Night-hawk. 

396. An-tr5'-st6-mus ca-r5-lln-en'-sls. Gr. &vrpov, Lat. antrum, a cave, o-ro/to, mouth; in 

allusion to the cavernous capacity of this fissirost. The curious English name, like 
"whip-poor-will," is an onomatopoeon, being an attempt to express the bird's cry in 

397. A. vo-cl'-fe'r-fis. Lat. vociferus, vociferous, clamorous, from vox, genitive, vocis, voice, and 

fero, I bear ; vox is said to be digammated from Gr. 2ty. 

398. Phal-ae-nop'-tfl-us nfit-tal-H. Gr. <pd\atva, a moth, and irriXov, plumage ; in allusion to 

the peculiar velvety plumage, like the f urriness of a moth's wing. To Thomas Nuttall. 
This is given as Antrostomus nuttalli in the orig. ed. The genus has since been estab- 
lished by Ridgway, Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, 1880, p. 5. 

399. Chor-de-di'-les popetue. Gr. xopti-i), a chord, a stringed instrument, and SeiAr;, con- 

tracted from Se/eAos, root e?Aa>, the evening, here apparently meaning to close in, as 
evening does. The allusion is to the crepuscular habits of the bird, its curious notes 
being oftenest heard at evening. Swainson originally wrote chordeiles, an inadmissible 
contraction, and further erroneous in retaining Gr. et instead of changing to long Lat. i. 
The word has sometimes been written chordlles. Cabanis properly emends as above. 
Swainson was very negligent in these matters : for instance, he made a genus aipunemia, 
the proper form of which is cepycnemis. The word popetue is barbarous, of meaning 
and pronunciation alike unknown to us. We have heard it as three and as four sylla- 
bles, accented in each case on the antepenult. 

This stands as Chordeiles virginianus in the orig. ed. 

400. C. p. hgn'-ry-I. To Dr. T. Charlton Henry, who collected and observed in the West. 

401. C. p. mnV-Sr. Lat. minor, minor, less, smaller, this form holding such relation to the stock 


Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. Stated to have occurred in Florida. See 
Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, p. 219. 

402. C. a-cu-tl-pen'-nls tex-en'-sls. Lat. acutus, acute, sharp, pointed, and penna, wing or 

feather, in allusion to the long wings. Texensis, adjective formed from Texas. Texas 
is properly a plural noun, singular Texa, meaning the Texas ; as we should say now, the 
Texans, a race of the Caddos. Tachies and Taxus are also found. 
This stands as C. texensis of the orig. ed. 


403. Panyptila saxatilis (Woodh.) Coues. B 107. c 269. R 349. 

White-throated Rock Swift. 

404. Nephcecetes niger borealis (Kenn.) Coues. B 108. c 270. R 350. 

Black Rock Swift. 

405. Chaetura pelasgica (L.) Steph. B 109. c 271. R 351. 

Chimney Swift. 

406. Chaetura vauxi (Towns.) De Kay. B no. C 272. R 352. 

Vaux's Chimney Swift. 

407. Basilinna xantusi (Lawr.) EUiot. B . c 273. R 347. 

Xantus Humming-bird. 

408. Eugenes fulgens (Sw.) Gld. B . c 274&w. R 334. 

Refulgent Humming-bird. 

409. Trochilus colubris L. B 101. c 275. R 335. 

Ruby-throated Humming-bird. 

403. Pan-yp'-tl-la sax-at'-l-lls. Gr. irdvv, much, very, from iras, iraffa, irav, all, and irrl\ov, wing: 

in allusion to the great length of this member. Lat. saxatilis, rock-inhabiting : saxum, 
a rock. 

404. Neph-oe'-cg-tes nlg'-Sr b6r-g-a'-lls. Gr. vfyos, a cloud, and omertjs, an inhabitant; well 

applied to this bird of great wing and high flight. See Pocecetes, No. 232. Lat. niger ; 
black. Lat. borealis, northern. 

405. Chae-tu'-ra pgl-as'-gl-ca. Gr. XCH'TT?, a stiff hair, a bristle, and ovpa, tail, in allusion to the 

spines which project from the ends of the tail-feathers. 

The specific word was written pelagtca by Linnaeus in 1758, and pelasgia by him in 
1766. The word has occasioned much conjecture as to its orthography, derivation, and 
applicability. We cannot suppose it to be pelagica, pelagic, relating to the high seas, like 
marine. It is apparently one of Linnreus's whims of nomenclature, by which he likened 
this migratory species to a Pelasgian, one of the nomadic tribes of Greece, the Pelasyi, 
lie \aa-yoi. There is indeed a geographical name pelasgia, but such would hardly be used 
in this form, and would be geographically false, moreover. Excluding pelasgia or pelagica 
as out of the question, and supposing the allusion to be to the nomadic Pelasgi, we con- 
clude that the proper form of the word is as above given, pelasgica, the adjective 
meaning Pelasgian. t. e., in a tropical sense, nomadic, migratory. 

406. C. vaux'-i. To William S. Vaux, of Philadelphia. 

407. Bas-iMn'-nS xan'-tus-i. Gr. fra.<ri\ivva., a queen, feminine form of &a<ri\fvs, a king. To 

Louis John Xantus de Vesey, who later called himself John Xantus, an energetic and 
successful collector in South-western United States, and Mexico. We suppose the name 
originally meant yellow, avd6s, xanthus, and in fact it is written xanthusi sometimes. 
This is given as Heliopcedica xantusi in the orig. ed. of the Check List. 

408. Eu'-ggn-es ful'-gens. Gr. t-vytv-fis, well-born; from e5, well, and y4vos, birth;, I 

am born. Lat. fulgens, glittering, refulgent, fromfulgeo, I shine, flash, gleam, glitter. 
Not in the orig. ed. : since discovered in Arizona by H. W. Henshaw. 

409. Tr8ch'-I-lus c61'-fi-brls. Gr. rp^x^os or rpox'^os, Lat. trochilus, a kind of bird; from 

rpoxos, a runner. The bird originally so called by Herodotus was an Egyptian species 
of plover, of the genus JEgialitis, which was so named from its habit of coursing the 
banks of streams. The name was also applied by the ancients to some small bird, 
species uncertain, perhaps a warbler, wren, or kinglet. Very curiously, the name was 
afterward transferred to the American humming-birds, becoming fixed in modern nomen- 


410. Trochilus alexandri Bourc. and Muls. B 102. c 276. R 336. 

Alexander Humming-bird. 

411. Selasphorus rufus (Gm.) Sw. B 103. c 277. R 340. 

Rufous Humming-bird. 

412. Selasphorus alleni Hensh. B . c . R 341. 

Allen Humming-bird. 

413. Selasphoms platycercus (Sw.) Old. B 104. c 278. R 339. 

Broad-tailed Humming-bird. 

414. Calypte annse (Less.) Old. B 105. c 279. R 338. 

Anna Humming-bird. 

415. Calypte costae (Bourc.) Gld. B IOG. c 280. R 337. 

Costa Humming-bird. 

416. Atthis heloisae (Less, and De Lat.) Reich. B . c 281. R 342. 

Heloise Humming-bird. 

417. Stellula calliope Gld. B . c 282. R 343. 

Calliope Humming-bird. 

418. Calothorax lucifer (Sw.) Gray. B . c . R 349. 

Lucifer Humming-bird. 

clature as a genus in that family in consequence of such usage on the part of Linnaeus. 
The name colubrts might be an adjective formed from coluber, a snake, in allusion to 
the scales on the hummer's throat ; but this is unlikely. There are old treatises on birds 
in which the terms collbri, kolibri, colibry occur, and the word is doubtless barbarous. 

410. T. a-lgx-an'-dri. To Alexandra. 

41 1. Se-las'-phSr-us ru'-fus. Gr. <reAas, acAaos, light, and <J>op6s, bearing, </>po>, I bear ; eupho- 

niously compounded, at the expense of strict propriety. Lat. rufus, rufous, reddish. 

412. S. Sl'-ien-I. To C. A. Allen, of Nicasio, California. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since distinguished from S. rufus by Mr. Henshaw : see Bull. 
Nutt. Club, ii, 1877, p. 64. 

413. S. plat-y-cer'-cus. Gr. irXarts, broad, wide ; KepKos, tail. 

414. C. an'-nae. Dedicated to the Duchess of Rivoli. 

This is Selasphorus anna in the orig. ed. 

415. Ca-lyp'-te c5s'-tae. Gr. KaAwTrr^, a proper name ; KaXvirrw, I conceal. To Costa, 

This is Selasphorus costce in the orig. ed. 

416. At'-thls h61-6-i'-sae. Gr. 'ArBis, Attic, Athenian; probably in allusion to some peculiar 

charm of the bird. Attic was ne phis ultra Greek, as Parisian is par excellence French. 
This is Selasphorus heloisce of the orig. ed. 

417. StelMQ-15 cal-H'-6-pe. Lat. stellula, a little star, diminutive of Stella, a star. Gr. KaA- 

\i6irrj, Calliope, one of the Muses ; na\6s, feminine /coAAVj, beautiful, &c., and fy, voice. 
The application of the word to a voiceless bird is not obvious, unless it be simply 

418. Cal-6-tho'-rax lu'-cl-fgr. Gr. Ka\6s, beautiful, and 0cfya|, thorax, chest. Lat. Lucifer, 

Lucifer, the light-bearer, from lux, lucis, light, and fero, I bear. Both words note the 
glittering plumage. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since discovered in Arizona by H. W. Henshaw; and first 
announced from that locality under the erroneous name of " Dorlcha enicura," in Am. 
Sportsm., v, p. 328, Feb. 20, 1875. See Lawr., Bull. Nutt. Club, ii, 1877, p. 108. 


419. Amazilia fuscocaudata (Fras.) Elliot. B. . c . R 345. 

Dusky-tailed Humming-bird. 

420. Amazilia cerviniventris Gld. B . c . R 346. 

Buff-bellied Humming-bird. 

421. lache latirostris (Sw.) Elliot. B . c . R 348. 

Circe Humming-bird. 

422. Trogon ambiguus Gld. B 65. c 284. R 384. (!M) 

Copper-tailed Trogon. 

423. Ceryle alcyon (L.) Boie. B 117. c 286. R 382. 

Belted Kingfisher. 

424. Ceryle americana cabanisi (Reich.) Coues. B 118. c 287. R 383. 

Texas Kingfisher. 

425. Crotophaga ani L. B 66, 67. c 288. R 389. 

Black Ani. 

419. Am-a-zIl'-I-a fus-co-caud-a'-ta. The word amazilia is apparently Latinized from Lesson's 

word amazili, used in the plural form amazilis for a group of hummers. We do not know 
what it means. Lat./uscws, dark, and caudata, tailed; cauda, tail. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since discovered in Texas by J. C. Merrill. This has been 
called Pyrrhophcena riefferi in papers relating to the Texas specimens. See Merrill, Bull. 
Nutt. Club, i, 1876, p. 88, and Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, p. 147. 

420. A. cer-vl-nl-ven'-trls. Lat. cervinus, relating to a deer, cervus; and ventris, pertaining to 

the belly, venter. The allusion is to the fawn-colored, under parts. 

Not in the orig. ed.; since discovered in Texas by J. C. Merrill. See Bull. Nutt. 
Club, ii, 1877, p. 26, and Pr. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, p. 148. 

42 1 . I'-a-che la-ti-ros'-trls. Gr. lax^, a battle-cry ; also a proper name, whence derived. Lat. 
latirostris, broad-billed ; latus, wide, like Gr. v\ar^s, of same meaning ; and rostrum, beak. 
Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List; since discovered in Arizona by H. W. 
Henshaw. See Amer. Sportsm., Feb. 20, 1875. 

422. TrS'-gon am-bi'-gu-us. Gr. rpdywv, a gnawer, rodent, from rptayw, I gnaw, eat away, 

corrode ; from the stout, dentate bill ; see Troglodytes, No. 74. The word was applied by 
Moehring in 1752 to the Brazilian Trogon, called curucui by the natives, and made generic 
by Brisson in 1760. Lat. ambiguus, ambiguous, equivocal, of more than one meaning, 
in a double sense; hence, doubtful, uncertain; from ambo, both, on two sides, and ago, 
to act or do. Ambiguity is literally a double-dealing, " with double sense deluding ; " 
compare Fr. double entendre, and such homely expressions as " back and fill," " blow hot 
and cold," " on the fence," " hedge" (to bet on both sides). It was badly applied to this 
fine species when considered doubtfully distinct from T. mexicanus. 

This stands as T. mexicanus in the orig. ed. For its actual occurrence in Texas, see 
Pr. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, p. 118. 

423. Ce'-ry-le aF-cy"-on. Gr. /c^puXos, a kingfisher. Gr. a.\ttvd>v, Lat. halcyon or alcyon, a 

kingfisher. 'AA/cuch/r; or Alcyone was a mythical character, daughter of ^Eolus, fabled to 
have been transformed into a kingfisher when, out of love for her shipwrecked husband 
Ceyx, she threw herself into the sea. The kingfisher was also believed to nest on the 
water, at a time the waves were stilled ; hence the term " halcyon days." 

424. C. am-gr-I-ca'-na cab-Sn'-Is-i. To Dr. Jean Cabanis, long time one of the leaders of 

German ornithology, and editor of the Journal fur Ornithologie. 

425. Cr8-to'-pha-ga a'-ni. Gr. Kpor&v, a bug, tick, plant-louse ; and Qoiyos, from ^dyo/xat, I eat. 


426. Crotophaga sulcirostris Sw. B . c . R 390. 

Groove-billed Ani. 

427. Geococcyx californiaims (Less.) Bd. B 68. c 289. R 385. 

Ground Cuckoo; Chaparral Cock; Road-runner. 

428. Coccygus erythrophthalmus (Wils.) Bd. B 70. c 290. R 388. 

Black-billed Cuckoo. 

429. Coccygus americamis (L.) Bp. B 69. c 291. R 387. 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 

430. Coccygus seniculus (Lath.) V. B 71. c 292. R 386. 

Mangrove Cuckoo. 

431. Campephilus principalis (L.) Gr. B 72. c 293. R 359. 

Ivory-billed Woodpecker. 

432. Hylotomus pileatus (L.) Bd. B 90. c 294. R 371. 

Pileated Woodpecker. 

433. Picus borealis V. B 80. c 296. R 362. 

Red-cockaded Woodpecker. 

426. C. sul-cl-ros'-tris. Lat. sulcus, a groove, furrow, channel; a word sibilated from Gr. 

6\Kos, a trace, track, trail ; and rostris, pertaining to the beak, rostrum. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since discovered in Texas by G. B. Sennett. See Coues, The 
Country, i, July 13, 1878, p. 184. 

427. Gg-S-coc'-cyx cal-I-fdr-nl-an'-Gs. Gr. 77} or yea, the earth, and /c<fo/fu, a cuckoo. The 

latter word is onomatopoeic, and runs in similar forms through many languages, the idea 
being always to express the cuckoo's voice in a word : Lat. cuculus ; Fr. coucou ; Eng. 
cuckoo, cuckow; Germ. $ufuf, &c. See Coccygus, No. 428. 

428. C6c'-cy-gus S-ryth-roph-thaT-miis. The generic name is modified from K<fo/eu|, a cuckoo. 

Its orthography has given rise to much variance of opinion. It was originally written 
by Vieillot coccyzus; such spelling has been accepted by Sclater and others, and is per- 
haps defensible on the ground that there is a Greek verb KOKKV&, I make a noise like a 
cuckoo, whence a noun KOKKV&S, becoming coccyzus in Latin, might be formed. Boie 
first emended Vieillot's name to coccygus, in which he was followed by Cabanis and many 
others. Other forms of the word found in ornithological writings are : coccyzon, coccy- 
gius, coccysus, coccyzius, coccygon. We adopt Boie's form coccygus, being directly from the 
genitive of KOKKV, not wishing to unnecessarily interfere. For erythrophthalmus, see 
Pipilo, No. 301. 

429. C. am-gr-I-ca'-nfis. To America. See Parula, No. 93. 

430. C. sgn-I'-cu-lus. Lat. seniculus, a little old man ; diminutive of senex, an old man. The 

allusion is probably to the gray on the head, a sign of senility. 

431. Cam-pe'-phll-Qs prln-d-paMIs. Gr. ltd/jury, "a caterpillar, from its bending; well-illus- 

trated in the way a " measuring-worm " bends. The word primarily means a bending : 
KapiTTos, bent ; /CCI/ATTTW, I bend ; the same word is seen in Campylorhynchtis, for example. 
<f>t\os, <f>tA, I love. Lat. principalis, principal, chief, from the great size of the bird. 

432. Hy-lS'-tS-mus pi-lS-a'-tQs. Gr. V\OTOJJ.OS, cutting wood, i. e., a woodcutter : 8\r), wood, 

and rffjLVfiv, to cut. Lat. pileatus, capped, i. e., crested; from plleus or pileum, a cap ; 
related to pilus, a hair ; the same root is seen in depilatory, pile, as of velvet, &c. 

433. Pi'-cQs b6r-g-a'-lls. Lat. Picus, a mythical person, and also a woodpecker, because the 

former, one of the victims of Circe, whose love he had scorned, was transformed into a 
woodpecker. The etymology of picus is doubtful ; the word is said by some to be prob- 


434. Pious scalaris Wagl. B 79. c 297. R 363. 

Texas Woodpecker. 

435. Picus scalaris mittalli (Gamb.) Coues. B 78. c 297a. R 364. 

Nuttall's Woodpecker. 

436. Picus scalaris lucasanus (Xant.) Coues. B . c 2976. R 363a. 

St. Lucas Woodpecker. 

437. Picus stricklandi Malh. B . c . R 365. 

Strickland's Woodpecker. 

438. PiCUS villoSUS L. B 74. C 298. R 360, 360a. 

Hairy Woodpecker. 

439. Picus villosus harrisi (Aud.) All. B 75. c 298a. R 3606. 

Harris's Woodpecker. 

440. Picus pubescens L. B 76. c 299. R 361. 

Downy Woodpecker. 

441. Picus pubescens gairdneri (Aud.) Coues. B 77. c 299a. R 36ia. 

Gairdner's Woodpecker. 

ably for pigus, from pingo, I paint, and hence to mean pigtus or pictus, painted, spotted ; if 
so, it is well applied to the woodpecker, a bird of variegated colors, a much pied bird : 
compare Pica, No. 347. Others hold, however, that picas is from the same root as the Gr. 
iriiru or ir'nros, a little bird, a peeper, chirper ; just as Gr. 'iinros or fv/cos and Lat. equus 
(which was formerly spelled very differently, and with c instead of </) are cognate. 
This would make it an onomatopoeon, like pipit, pipilo, &e. Lat. borealis, northern ; 
boreas, the north-wind. 

NOTE. According to Professor Newton (Ibis, 3d ser., vi, 1876, p. 94 seq.), the type 
of the Linnsean genus Picus is P. martins. The same author adds, in a private note 
addressed to Dr. Coues, that " the adjective in any other combination loses its classical 
allusion, which all naturalists, including Linnaeus, until comparatively recent times, 
recognized." It would also appear that our H. pileatus, No. 432, is congeneric with 
P. martius. On these premises, No. 432 should stand as Picus pileatus, and some other 
generic name be found for Nos. 433-441. It is regretted, that, as the untoward circum- 
stances (tent-life in unbookish Arizona) under which these proof-sheets are being cor- 
rected do not permit us to follow up the matter at present, we are obliged to let the 
current nomenclature pass with this explanation. 

434. P. sca-la'-rls. Lat. scalaris, ladder-like; scala, a flight of stairs, a ladder, scale, shortened 

from scandla, from scando, I climb. The idea in Wagler's mind may have been the 
climbing or scaling of trees by the bird ; more likely the bars on the back, resembling 
the rounds of a ladder. 

435. P. s. nut'-tal-li. To Thomas Nuttall. Perhaps entirely distinct from No. 434. 

436. P. s. lu-cas-a'-nus. To Cape St. Lucas, S. Gala., where discovered. 

437. P. strlck'-land-i. To Hugh E. Strickland, the eminent English ornithologist. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since discovered in Arizona by H. W. Henshaw. See Amer. 
Sportsm., v, p. 328, Feb. 20, 1875. 

438. P. vil-lo'-sfis. Lat. villosus, shaggy, hairy, villous ; from vittus, a hair, tuft of hair. 

439. P. v. har'-rls-i. To Edward Harris, companion and friend of Audubon. 

440. P. pu-be'-scens. Lat. pubescens, present participle of pubesco, I come to puberty, i.e., the 

time when the hair grows on the genitals ; pubes, the parts on which such hair grows ; 
hence, pubescent, hairy, downy. 

441. P. p. gaird'-ngr-I. To Dr. Gairdner, a Scottish naturalist. 


442. Xenopicns albolarvatus (Cass.) Bd. B si. c 295. R 366. 

White-headed Woodpecker. 

443. Picoi'des arcticus (Sw.) Gray. B 82. c 300. R 367. 

Black-backed Three-toed Woodpecker. 

444. Picoi'des americanus Brehm. B 83. c soi. R 368. 

Banded-backed Three-toed Woodpecker. 

445. Picoi'des americanus dorsalis (Bd.) Allen. B 84. c sola. R 368a. 

Striped-backed Three-toed Woodpecker. 

446. Sphyropicus varius (L.) Bd. B 85. c 302. R 369. 

Yellow-bellied Woodpecker. 

447. Sphyropicns varms nuchalis Bd. B 86. c 302*. R 369a. 

Nuchal Woodpecker. 

448. Sphyropicus varius ruber (Gm.) Ridg. B 87. c 3026, or 303. R 369&. 

Red-breasted Woodpecker. 

449. Sphyropicus thyroi'des (Cass.) Bd. B 88, 89. c 304, 305. R 370. 

Brown-headed Woodpecker. 

442. XSn-5-pi'-cus al-b6-lar-va'-tus. Gr. tVos, a guest, stranger ; f eVos, rare, foreign, &c. Lat. 

albolarvdtus, white-masked ; albus, white, and larva, a mask. The same word is used for 
insects in their early stage, when the characters of the imago, or perfect insect, are 
masked or hidden in the caterpillar. 

Given as Picus a. in the orig. ed. For generic characters, see Ridgw., Pr. Nat. Mus., 
ii, 1880, p. 6. 

443. Pi-cd-i'-des arc'-tl-cus. Lat. picus, a woodpecker, and Gr. eTSos, resemblance. The word 

is one of the numerous bastards in the genera of Picidce, which authors seem bent on 
producing; there is no such word as Picus in Greek, yet they have constantly com- 
pounded it with Greek adjectives. The e? becomes long f ; the o is the connecting 
vowel ; the word should have the diaeresis over the i, and be pronounced in four sylla- 
bles, with accent on the penult. All such hybrid words are so far wrong as to be past 
praying for, and scarcely worth the trouble of trying to twist into some decent shape. 

444. P. am-gr-I-ca'-nus. To America. See Parula, No. 93. 

445. P. a. dor-sa'-lls. Lat. dorsalis, pertaining to dorsum, the back. 

446. Sphy-r6-pi'-cus var'-I-us. Gr. crQvpov, a hammer, and Lat, picus. It was originally written 

sphyrapicus by Baird ; but the connecting vowel should be o in this case. It is usually 
accented on the antepenult, with shortening of the i in picus, for which we see no reason, 
beyond our extreme tendency to throw the accent always backward. The word is a 
hopeless hybrid, even when emended as above; sphyrocopus (a<pvpoK6iros] would have 
been classic for a hammerer. Lat. varius, various, varied, variegated ; referring to the 
coloration in this case. 

447. S. v. nu-cha-lis. Quasi-Lat. nuchalis, relating to the nape, nucha, which is red in this bird, 

not in S. varius. See Leucosticte, No. 205. 

448. S. v. rub'-gr. Lat. ruber, red. 

This stands as S. ruber in the body of the orig. ed. of the Check List : as above in the 

449. S. thy-ro-i'-des. Gr. Ovpfoct^s, resembling a certain kind of shield; in allusion to the 

shield-shaped black spot on the breast ; Qvpe6s, a shield, e?5os, resemblance. The fuller 
form of the word would be thyreoldes, in five syllables. It has always been wrongly 
written thyroideus. See especially Picoides, No. 443. 

NOTE. S. williamsoni, No. 305 of the orig. ed., is the male of the same species. 


450. Centurus carolimis (L.) Bp. B 91. c 306. R 372. 

Red-bellied Woodpecker. 

451. Centurus aurifrons Wagl. B 92. c 307. R 373. 

Yellow-fronted Woodpecker. 

452. Centurus uropygialis Bd. B 93. c 308. R 374. 

Gila Woodpecker. 

453. Melanerpes erythrocephalus (L.) Sw. B 94. c 309. R 375. 

Red-headed Woodpecker. 

454. Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi Ridg. B 95. c 310. R 377. 

Californian Woodpecker. 

455. Melanerpes formicivorus angustifrons Bd. B . c sioa. R 377a. 

Narrow-fronted Woodpecker. 

456. Asyndesmus torquatus (Wils.) Coues. B 96. c 311. R 376. 

Lewis's Woodpecker. 

457. Colaptes auratus (L.) Sw. B 97. c 312. R 378. 

Golden- winged Woodpecker; Flicker. 

458. Colaptes chrysoides Malh. B 99. c 313. R 379. 

Gilded Woodpecker. 

450. Cen-tu'-rus ca-r8-li'-niis. Gr. Kcvrpov, a point, prickle, and ofya, tail ; spine-tailed. The 

full form would appear to be Centrums (like Centrocercus, for example), but there is a way 
of getting Centurus from K eW^- ; /cei/rew is the verb to prick, goad, &c. Carolinus is badly 
syncopated from carolinianus ; carolinensis would have been better still. 

451. C. aur'-I-frons. Lat. aurifrons, golden-forehead ; durum, gold (yellow), and/rons, forehead. 

452. C. u-rS-py-gi-a'-lTs. There is a very late Latin word uropygium, the rump, from which 

the above is derived as an adjective. But this is merely a modern Latinizing of the good 
Gr. ovpoirvyiov or oppoirvytov, the rump ; from olpa, tail, and irvyf], the buttocks. The 
allusion in this case is to the conspicuously white rump of the bird, which a Greek would 
have called irvyapyos (pygargus). 

453. Mei-an-er'-pes e-ryth-rS-cgph'-a-lQs. Gr. ^\as, genitive p.e\avos, black, and epirrjs, a 

creeper ; cprrco, I creep, crawl. See Catherpes, No. 66. The full form would be melano- 
herpes. Gr. 4pvdp6s, red, and Ke^aA^j, head. 

454. M. for-mi-cl'-v8r-us baird'-i. Lat. formica, an ant, and voro, I devour, in allusion to a 

habit of the species. To Prof. Spencer Fullerton Baird. See Ridg., Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., No. 21, 1881, p. 85. Given in the orig. ed. as M. formicivorus. 

455. M. f. an-gus'-ti-frons. Lat. angustus, narrow, straitened, from ango, I press upon, draw 

together, &c. ; Gr. &yx*>, I squeeze, strangle, distress, &c. ; the same root and idea is seen 
in anxious, anxiety, &c. ; frons, forehead. The allusion is to the narrowness of the yellow 
frontal band. 

456. A-syn-des'-mfis tor-qua'-tOs. Gr. d privative, <rt5i/, together, with, 8e<r,u<k, a bond ; in allu- 

sion to the loosened texture of the feathers of the under parts. Lat. torquatus, collared ; 
torquis, a necklace, collar ; torqueo, I twist, twine around ; tortus, twisted, distorted, con- 
tort'ion ; so also torture, as of one wrenched or racked. The allusion is to the ashy collar 
on the neck of the bird. The English name is that of Merriwether Lewis, the explorer 
in company with Clark (Clark's Crow, Picicorvus). 

457. C61-ap'-tes aur-a'-tus. Gr. Ko\airr^s, a chisel, hammer ; /eoAcfo-Tw, I use such an instru- 

ment ; very appropriate to a woodpecker. Lat. auratus, gilded, golden (colored) ; aurum, 
gold ; also very apt to this bird. 

458. C. chry-s5-i'-dgs. Gr. xp fff s> xp v vs> golden, of the color of gold, xp v(r ^ 5 > 



459. Colaptes mexicanus Sw. B 98. c 314. R 378a. 

Red-shafted Woodpecker. 

460. Conurus carolinensis (L.) Kuhl. B 63. c 315. R 392. 

Carolina Parrot ; Paroquet. 

461. Aluco flammeus pratincola (Bp.) Coues. B 47. c 316. R 394. 

American Barn Owl. 

462. Bubo virginiaims (Gm.) Bp. B 48. c 317. R 405. 

Great Horned Owl. 

463. Bubo virginiaims arcticus (Sw.) Cass. B . c 3i7a. R 405a, 4056. 

Arctic Horned Owl. 

464. Bubo virginianus pacificus Cass. B . c 3176. R 405c. 

Pacific Horned Owl. 

459. C. mex-I-ca'-nus. To Mexico. 

460. Co-nu-ru's ca-r8-lln-en'-sls. Gr. KUVOS, Lat. conns, a cone, pine-cone, whence our word 

for a figure of that kind ; olpa, tail; in allusion to the wedged or cuneate tail. 

NOTE. The nomenclature of our owls, Nos. 461-488, must be considered still 
unsettled in several instances, though we have endeavored to approximate toward a 
fixed terminology in this difficult group, where the species and subspecies are not readily 
determined, and where authors have bandied about the generic and specific names so 
indiscriminately as to produce great confusion. The names here provisionally adopted 
are in the main according to results reached by Mr. Ridgway, who has given special 
attention to these birds. 

46 1 . Al-u'-co flam'-me-iis prat-in f -c5-15. The meaning of Aluco we do not know, further than 

that it has long been used for some kind of owl ; perhaps related to e'Aeo's, which occurs 
in Aristotle as the name of some owl, and is enumerated by Brisson among the syno- 
nyms of the European barn owl. Numberless names of owls in very many languages 
are doubtless more nearly related than their diverse orthography would show at first 
sight, and mostly appear to be onomatopoeic, in imitation of the hooting, howling cries 
of these inauspicious birds of the night : Eng. owl, owlet, howlet; A. S. ul, eul, ule; Dutch, 
nil; Dan. ugle ; Sw. uggla ; Germ, eule; Fr. huloite ; Ital. alocho (compare aluco) ; Sansk. 
uluka, &c. Lat. flammeus, flaming, fiery-red; flamma (flag-ma), a flame, blaze; the root 
is seen in flagrant, flagitious, de/Za^rrate ; flagro, I flare up, am inflamed; and many kin- 
dred words. The allusion, rather strong, is to the flagrant colors of this species in com- 
parison with most owls. Lat. pratincola, an inhabitant of fields; pratum, a meadow, 
incola, an inhabitant (in and colo, I cultivate). 

This stands as Strixflammea americana in the orig. ed., and Ridgway has A.flammea 
americana; but pratincola Bp. (1838) antedates americana Aud. (1839) ; and, on the gen- 
eric nomenclature of owls, especially on the type of Strix L., see Newton, Yarr. Br. B., 
4th ed., i, p. 150, and Ibis, 3d ser., vi, 1876, p. 94. 

462. Bu'-bo vlr-gln-I-a'-nu's. Lat. bubo, the horned owl ; perhaps related to bubulus or bubalus; 

bos, Gr. ftovs, a bull, horned cattle ; there is a similar Greek word &vas, for a horned owl. 
So, also, the verb bubo or bubah, to low, hoot ; the word for the bittern, butor, botaurus 
(bos, taunts), and others, are related, all being onomatopoeic, with reference to the low- 
ing or bellowing of cattle. Virginianus, see Cardinalis, No. 299. 

463. B. v. arc'-tl-cfis. See Sialia, No. 29. 

464. B. v. pa-d'-fl-cQs. Lat. pacificus, pacific, peaceable, peace-making ; pax, peace, facio, I do, 

make ; " the stilly sea." The reference is to the habitat of the bird. 

We retain the three forms of Bubo as given in the orig. ed. Mr. Ridgway, after dis- 
missing Mr. Cassin's var. pacificus, has four : B. v., and B. v. arcticus, as we have them ; 




465. Scops asio (L.) Bp. B 49. c sis. B 402. 

Screech Owl; Mottled Owl; Red Owl. 

466. Scops asio kennicotti (Elliot) Coues. B . c 3i8a. R 402<*. 

Kennicott's Screech Owl. 

467. Scops asio maxwellae Ridg. B . c . R 402<?. 

Rocky Mountain Screech Owl. 

468. Scops asio maccalli (Cass.) Coues. B 50. c 3186. R 402&. 

McCall's Screech Owl. 

469. Scops asio floridamis Ridg. B . c 3i8c. R 402a. 

Florida Screech Owl. 

470. Scops trichopsis Wagl. B . c . R 403. (?) 

Mexican Screech Owl. 

471. Scops flammeolus (Licht.) Scl. B . c 319. R 404. 

Flammulated Screech Owl. 

472. Asio wilsoniamis (Less.) Coues. B 51. c 320. R 395 

Long-eared Owl. 

with B. v. subarcticus, after Hoy, and B. v. saturates, Ridg., from the North-west coast, 
the latter being var. pacificus of Hist. N. A. B., iii, p. 65. 

465. Sc5ps as'-I-o. Lat. scopes or scops, Gr. fficdty, a kind of owl. Here we have a name for 

owl which regards the bird in an entirely different sense from that implied in any of the 
onomatopoeic names. The etymology is disputed. Some say from O-KC^TTTW, I mock, 
scoff, deride, which would make scops the same as O-/CCOTTTTJS, a mocker, mimic ; the actions 
of an owl seeming to travesty the beholder. Others have it from o-KoTrecw, I look out,, 
survey, contemplate, the root of this being seen in scope, telescope, &c. ; or from aKeirTo/, 
I examine, scrutinize, am sceptical about any thing ; the reference being to the great 
staring eyes of the bird, or its air of contemplation. Lat. asio, a horned owl ; occurring 
in Pliny ; apparently a word of Hebrew extraction, the significance of which is unknown 
to us. 

466. S. a. k6n-nl-c6t'-ti. To Robert Kennicott, of Illinois, an ardent and able naturalist, who- 

sadly lost his life on the Yukon River, in Alaska, where the variety was procured. 

467. S. a. max'-wgl-lae. To Mrs. M. A. Maxwell, of Boulder, Colorado, the discoverer. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List ; since described. See Field and Forest, June,. 
1877, pp. 210, 213. 

468. S. a. mac-cal'-ll. To Colonel G. A. McCall, U. S. A., of Philadelphia, who studied 5 

ornithology in Texas. 

The AS. a. enano, recently attributed to Texas by Coues and Sennett, has been identi- 
fied with this by Ridgway. 

469. S. a. flS-rl-da'-nus. To Florida. 

470. S. t rich -op '-sis. Gr. 0pi, genitive rptxds, hair, and \j/, aspect, countenance ; i. q., hairy- 

faced, bristly about the bill ? or general plumage of that character ? 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. If not the species itself, then its identifica- 
tion with any United States specimens, would appear to be dubious. The name i 
inserted upon Mr. Ridgway's authority. 

471. S. flam-m'-<5-lus. Lat.flammeolus, diminutive offlammeus: see AIuco, No. 461. 

472. As'-I-o wfl-sSn-I-a'-nus. For asio, see Scops, No. 465. Latinized Wilsonian ; to Alexander 

Wilson, "father of American ornithology." 

This stands as Otus vulgaris var. wilsonianus in the orig. ed., but is now regarded as- 


473. Asio accipitrinus (Pall.) Newt. B 52. c 321. R 395. 

Short-eared Owl. 

474. Strix cinerea Gm. B 53. c 322. R 399. 

Great Gray Owl. 

475. Strix cinerea lapponica (Retz.) Coues. B . c . R 399a. (! A.) 

Lapland Great Gray Owl. 

476. Strix nebulosa Forst. B 54. c 323. R 397. 

Barred Owl. 

477. Strix nebulosa alleni Ridg. B . c . R 397. 

Florida Barred OwL 

478. Strix occidentalis (Xant.) Ridg. B . c 324. R 398. 

Western Barred Owl. 

479. Nyctea scandiaca (L.) Newt. B 61. c 325. R 406. 

Snowy OwL 

sufficiently distinct from the European "bird. The genus Otus is from the Lat. otus, Gr. 
&TOS or wr6s, the eared owl ; Gr. o3s or &s, genitive arts, an ear ; from o5os, a handle. 
(See Bubo, No. 462, and compare fivas and ftovs.) The genus Asio would appear to be 
eligible for the group of long-eared owls commonly called Otus of late years. It is 
quite likely that the most available specific name for our bird is americanus (Steph.), as 
Ridgway has it. 

473. A. ac-clp-lt-ri'-nus. Lat. accipitrinus, accipitrine, hawk-like ; see Accipiter, No. 494. 

This stands as Brachyotus palustris in the orig. ed. But both the eared owls may well 
be put in one genus, and the name accipitrinus has priority over brachyotus. This last 
word is literal Greek for " short-eared." 

474. Strix cTn-gr'-g-a. Lat. strix, stryx, or strynx, or Gr. ffrply, a screech-owl ; from strido, I 

screech, utter shrill strident sounds of any kind ; Gr. ffrptfa ; sibilated from rptfa. The 
same root is seen in the English strident, stridulous. Lat. cinereus, ashy ; cinis, ashes. See 
Harporhynchus, No. 22. 

This stands as Syrnium lapponicum var. cinereum in the orig. ed., by a blunder ; for the 
latter name has priority over the former. The late rectifications made by Newton in 
the genera of owls cause Strix to be referred to the common Brown Owl of Europe, 
strictly congeneric with our Barred Owl. If the great Gray Owls be considered generi- 
cally distinct, they may be called SCOTIAPTEX. Mr. Ridgway uses the genus Ulula for 
this group, which he separates from Strix proper. 

475. S. c. lap-pQn'-I-ca. To Lapland. 

This European conspecies of the great Gray Owl has lately been attributed to North 
America by Ridgway : see Bull. Nutt. Club, iii, 1878, p. 37 ; Alaska. Not in orig. ed. 

476. S. n6b-u-16'-sa. Lat. nebulosus, nebulous, misty, foggy, in the sense here of dark clouded 

color; from the Gr. veQeh-r) (vecpos), a cloud. So, also, Lat. nubes, a cloud; nubo, I 
marry, nubilis, marriageable ; the bride being veiled (nupta) for the nuptials. 
This is Syrnium nebulosum of the orig. ed. 

477. S. n. al'-ien-i. To J. A. Allen, of Cambridge, Mass. See Pipilo, No. 302. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since described. See Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, 1880, p. 8. 

478. S. oocl-den-ta'-lls. Lat. occidentalis, occidental, western, where the sun sets ; occido, I 

fall down (ob and cado, not occido, I slay). 
This is Syrnium occidentale of the orig. ed. 

479. Nyc'-tg-a scan-dl-a'-ca. Gr. Nu/rreus, Lat. Nycteus, a proper name ; as an adjective, noc- 

turnal ; Lat. nox, Gr. v6, night. There are very many derivatives, of which Nyctala is 
one. Lat. Scandiaca, Skandinavian, relating to Scandia or Scandinavia. 


480. Surnia funerea (L.) Rich. & Sw. B 62. c 326. R 407. 

American Hawk Owl. 

481. Surnia funerea ulula (L.) Ridg. B . c . E 407. (?) (! A.) 

European Hawk Owl. 

482. Nyctala tengmalmi richardsoni (Bp.) Ridg. B 55. c 327. R 400. 

Richardson's Owl. 

483. Nyctala acadica (Gm.) Bp. B 56, 57. c 328. R 401. 

Acadian Owl; Saw-whet OwL 

484. Glaucidium gnoma Wagl. B 60. c 329. R 400. 

Pygmy Owl. 

480. Sur'-nl-a fu-ng'-rl-a. Surnia and Syrnium are forms of the same word, the meaning and 

derivation of which are alike unknown to us; we follow Newton in using the former; 
see Sund., Tent., p. 104. Lat. funereus, funereal ; from funus, a funeral, burial pro- 
cession. Applicable to an owl, either regarded as a bird of ill omen, or with reference to 
its dismal cry, as if wailing the dead. 

This stands Surnia ulula hudsonica in the orig. ed. Names of owls are " confusion 
worse confounded." See Ridg. Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, 1880, p. 8. 

481. S. f. iil-ul-a. Lat. ulula, & Plinian name of the screech-owl; ululo, Gr. b\o\vfa, I howl, hal- 

loo, make a "hullaballoo"; all onomatopreic. Compare also the Hebrew, Jjjbn, whence 

Not in the orig. ed. The old world Hawk Owl, at best hardly distinguishable from 
the American, is stated to occur in Alaska as a straggler from Asia ; and all the Hawk 
Owls of Great Britain are said to be of the American variety. The case itself is as 
perplexing as its nomenclature is involved. 

482. Nyc'-ta-la tgng'-mal-mi rlch'-ard-sdn-i. Gr. vtivraXos or vuffraXos, drowsy, sleepy. See 

Nyctea, No. 479, for basis of the word. To P. G. Tengmalm, a Swedish naturalist. To 
Sir John Richardson, the English naturalist. 

483. N. a-cad'-I-ca. To Acadia, or Acadie, a locale now in Maine, scene of Longfellow's 

" Evangeline." 

484. Glau-cId'-I-um gno'-ma. There is a Greek word y\avKiSiov, but that is some kind of fish, 

not a bird. It is, however, related to y\av}-, which means an owl. There is also an 
adjective y\avKci>5r)s, from y\av and elSos, from which Glaucidium may be modified. 
The allusion in all these cases is to the eyes of the bird ; if not in color, then in the 
general aspect and expression of these remarkable organs of vision. There being actu- 
ally no owls with blue eyes, as y \avic6s, glaucus, is commonly translated, the direct impli- 
cation is probably to the owl as the bird of wisdom, sacred to Minerva, yXavKanris being 
one of the most familiar Homeric epithets of the " blue-eyed " goddess. Such may 
therefore be the meaning of y\av, without reference to the color of the bird's own eyes. 
The word gnoma is very pat for an owl, and especially interesting in such application. 
Gr. yva>/j.a, an opinion, decision ; 71/0^77, reason ; yrt&fuav, a judge, arbiter ; all from yiyvcaffKu, 
I know ; whence also gnostic, and the very English word know, with countless related 
forms, all rooted in the idea of knowledge. Hence gnoma is apt for the bird of Minerva, 
goddess of wisdom, and is given just as Athene was made a similar epithet. Further- 
more, the English word gnome, by which we may directly translate gnoma in this case, is 
from the same root, meaning etymologically "the knowing one," "one who arbi- 
trates certain destinies " : by metonymy, a kind of sprite or elf presiding over mines. 
Gnoma is thus an eligible epithet of a bird which combines a reputation for wisdom 
with certain superstitions connected with the gnome-like or goblin-like quality of its 


485. Grlaucidium fernigineiim (Maxim.) Kaup. B . c 330. R 410. 

Ferrugineous Owl. 

486. Micrathene whitneyi (Coop.) Coues. B ,>c 331. R ill. 

Elf Owl. 

487. Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea (Bp.) Coues. B 58, 59. c 332. R 408. 

Burrowing Owl. 

488. Speotyto cunicularia floridana Ridg. B . c . R 408a. 

Florida Burrowing Owl. 

489. Circus cyaneus hudsonius (L.) Coues. B 38. c 333. R 430. 

Marsh Hawk; Harrier. 

490. Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus ( ) Ridg. B 37. c 334. R 429. 

Everglade Kite. 

491. Ictinia subcoerulea (Bartr.) Coues. B 36. c 335. R 428. 

Mississippi Kite. 

492. Elanus glaucus (Bartr.) Coues. B 35. c 336. R 427. 

White-tailed or Black-shouldered Kite. 

485. G. fer-ru-gin'-S-iim. Lat. ferrugineum, rusty-red ; femigo, iron-rust ; ferrum, iron. 

486. Mi-cra-then'-e whlt'-ngy-i. Gr. fuicpAs, small ; 'A.e-f)vn or 'Aenva or 'Aeyvaia, the Greek 

goddess of wisdom, to whom the owl was sacred. There was already a genus Athene, 
when Dr. Coues constructed the above. The genus Atthis, No. 416, is rooted with the 
same, as are Attic, Athens, Athenian, Athenaeum, &c. To Professor J. D. Whitney, Director 
of the Geological Survey of California. 

487. SpS-6'-ty-to cun-i-cG-la'-rl-a hy-pS-gae'-a. Gr. <rircos, a cave, excavation ; rvrd>, a kind 

of owl. The first refers to the burrowing of this species ; the last, like ulula, is onoma- 
topaic, in imitation of an owl's hooting or "tooting"; tyto, a " tooter." Lat. cunicu- 
larius, a miner, burro wer; cuniculus, a mine, pit, hole. Lat. hypogceum, a vault, cellar; 
Gr. virdyeios, under ground, subterranean ; vir6, under, 760, 71), the ground. Thus all 
three words refer to the same thing. 

488. S. c. flor-Id-a'-na. To Florida, " land of flowers." 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since described ; Ridg., Am. Sportsman, July 4, 1874, p. 216. 

489. Cir-cGs cy-an'-6-iis hfid-sSn'-I-iis. Gr. KipKos, Lat. circus, a kind of hawk, so called 

from its circling in the air. Gr. KVO.VOS, Lat. cyaneus, blue ; the color of the old male. 
To Hudson's Bay. 

490. Rostr-hany-us sS-cI-a'-bl-Hs plum'-be'-Gs. Lat. rostrum, beak, and hamus, Gr. x /^*? a 

hook, from the greatly decurved form of the upper mandible. It is a queerly com- 
pounded word, meaning literally bill-hook, though the person who invented it meant to 
say hook-bill, hamirostrum. It is very bad form as it stands, but we hardly know how 
to emend without entirely changing it. Lat. sociabilis, sociable, gregarious ; socius, a 
companion. Lat. plumbeus, plumbeous, lead-colored. 

491. Ic-tln'-i-a sub-coe-rul'-g-a. Gr. ittriv or IKTWOS, a kite ; probably rooted same as tnrepos, a 

disease, in the idea of attacking ; Lat. ictus, a blow, &c. Lat. sub, a prefix of diminishing 
force, and cceruleus, blue ; bluish, pale blue. See Dendroeca, No. 117. 

This stands as 1. mississippiensis in the orig. ed. See Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad., 1875, 
p. 345. 

492. El'-an-fis glau'-cus. Lat. elanus, a kite; derived from the Gr. iXafov, I drive on, urge 

forward, press upon, harass, &c. ; a good name for a bird of prey which exhibits what 
the French would call dan. Lat. glaucus, Gr. y\avKos, bluish, glaucous ; from \fv<a, 
\tvffff(a, I shine. See Glaucidium, No. 484. 

This is Elanus leucurus in the orig. ed. See Coues, Pr. Phila. Acad., 1875, p. 345. 


493. Elano'ides forficatus (L., 1758) Coues. B 34. c 337. R 426. 

Swallow-tailed Kite. 

494. Accipiter fuscus (Gm.) Bp. B 17. c 338. R 432. 

Sharp-shinned Hawk; Pigeon Hawk. 

495. Accipiter cooperi Bp. B 15, 16. c 339. R 431. 

Cooper's Hawk; Chicken Hawk. 

496. Astur atricapillus (Wils.) Bp.' B 14. c 340. R 433. 

American Goshawk. 

497. Astur atricapillus striatulus Ridg. B . c . R 433a. (?) 

Western Goshawk. 

498. Falco sacer Forst. B . c 341. R 4126. 

American Continental Gyrfalcon. 

493. El-an-S-I'-des for-fi-ca'-tus. Lat. elanus (see No. 492) and Gr. e?5os, resemblance. For 

forficatus, see Milvulus, No. 367. 

This is Nauclerus furcatus of the orig. ed. See Coues, Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., 
iv, No. 1, 1878, p. 42. 

494. Ac-cIp'-I-t6r fus'-cus. Lat. accfpiter, a general name for a hawk ; accipio, I take, seize ; 

from ad and capio: Gr. naimo, of similar meaning. Some, however, derive the word 
(as it seems to us, fancifully) from acuo and peto, i. e., the swift flyer. The root cap- is a 
very general one for words denoting this idea of taking ; as in English accept, except, 
captive, capable, capacious, &c. Lat./wscws, fuscous, dark-colored. 

495. A. coop'-gr-i. To William Cooper, of New York. 

496. As'-tur a-trl-ca-pfl'-lus. Lat. astur, a hawk; evidently related to aster, a star; asterias, 

starry, t. e., speckled ; French autour is the same. The European Goshawk was called 
Asterias and " Star-hawk " by some of the old ornithologists, and the term aa-repias 
i'e/mf is classic. The Italian is astore or asturo, and some dialectic form of this is said to 
give the name to the A9ores or Azores Islands, from the abundance of hawks there. 
For atricapillus, see Parus, No. 44. The word gos- prefixed to hawk is Anglo-Saxon; 
goshafoc is goose-hawk; hafoc, and many similar words, are related to faucon, falcon, falco, 
which see, No. 498. 

497. A. a. strl-a'-tu-lus. Lat. striatulus, diminutive of striatus, striate, streaked, striped ; imply- 

ing not the smallness of the streaked object, but the fineness of the stripes themselves. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. Since described by Ridg., Hist. N. A. B., iii, 
1874, p. 240. 

498. FaT-co sa'-cgr. Gr. <f>d\xuj/, Lat./ifco, a falcon, from the falx, falcis, a sickle, scythe: in 

, allusion to the falcate form of the hooked beak. The English is directly from falco, and 
the word reappears in many languages : Fr. faucon; Ital.falcone; Span, halcon, &c. The 
word Gyrfalcon or Jerfalcon has much exercised the ingenuity of the dictionaries. To 
us the etymology seems clear and indisputable. It is found in many forms, as ger-, gir-, 
gyr-, giro-, ier-, Her-, and this leads directly to tfpds, divine, sacred, noble, auspicious, 
chief, &c. ; lepers, a priest ; whence tepa|, the actual Greek word for a hawk, as used in 
divination, and therefore sacred. The idea is the same as that in hierarck, &c. The 
English Gyrfalcon or Jerfalcon is therefore a mere transliteration of Hierofalco. In 
the same spirit, Steenstrup recently made a genus Gyralca for the principal bird of the 
auk tribe, already known in many vernaculars by a corresponding epithet. Speculations 
respecting gyr- as meaning gyrus, a whirl, from the hawk's gyrations, are superfluous. 
Lat. sacer. sacred, consecrated, sanctified, &c. ; the root sac- is the Greek root ay, as seen 
in ayios, a.yv6s. 

By the above name we indicate the continental Gyrfalcon of Arctic America, corre- 


499. Falco sacer obsoletus (Gra.) Ridg. B . c . R 4i2c. 

Labrador Gyrfalcon. 

500. Falco islandicus Gm. B 12. c . R 4i2a. 

Iceland Gyrfalcon. 

501. Falco candicans Gm. B 11. c 34ia. R 412. (G.) 

Greenland Gyrfalcon. 

502. Falco mexicanus Licht. B 10. c 342. R 413. 

American Lanier Falcon. 

503. Falco peregrinus Tunstall. B 5, 6. c 343. R 414. 

Peregrine Falcon; Duck Hawk. 

504. Falco peregrinus pealii (Ridg.) Coues. B . c 343a. R 4i4a. (?) 

Peale's Peregrine Falcon. 

505. Falco columbarius L. B 7. c 344. R 417. 

Pigeon Hawk. 

506. Falco columbarius stickleyi Ridg. B . c 344a. R 4i7a. (?) 

Suckley's Pigeon Hawk. 

spending to F. gyrfalco of Continental Europe, without raising the much-vexed question 
of their identity. We give the dark Labrador bird as a variety of this, and the Ice- 
landic and Greenlandic as both specifically distinct ; though we suppose all the northern 
Hierofalcones to be but geographical races of a single species. 

499. F. s. 5b-s61-e'-tus. Lat. obsoletus, unaccustomed, unwonted, disused, obsolete ; here refer- 

ring simply to the ill-defined character of the markings ; ob and soleo, I am accustomed. 

Not in orig. ed. This is Falco labradorus of Audubon, lately accredited by Mr. Eidg- 
way with varietal distinction, and identified with F. obsoletus Gm. 

500. F. is-land'-I-ciis. [ees-]. Latinized directly from the native name of Ice-land (Island, 

otherwise known as Eisland and Ijsland), and thus meaning Icelandic, not "in- 

501. F. can'-di-cans. Lat. candico, I am white ; present participle of the verb ; candidus, white ; 

candeo, I am shining, &c. Candid is pure, clean, hence truthful ; candescent, brilliantly 
glowing; candidates were so called because clothed in white; candles give light; canescent 
hairs grow white ; in all these, and countless words, the same root is seen. 
In the orig. ed. as Falco sacer var. candicans ; see above, No. 498. 

502. F. mex-i-ca'-nus. To Mexico, whence Lichtenstein described it. It has been identified 

with F. polyagrus of Cassin. " Lanier " or " Lanner " is the name applied in ornithology 
and falconry to certain Old World species ; it is from laniarius, of a butcher, laniator, a 
butcher, from lanio, I lacerate, mangle; lanius (which see, No. 186) is the same thing. 

503. F. pgr-e-gri'-niis. See Helminthophaga, No. 109. 

This stands as F. communis in the orig. ed. It is well to stretch a point in favor of 
Tunstall, 1779, to be able to restore this well-known name. 

504. F. p. peal'-i-i [in three syllables]. To Titian E. Peale, of United States Exploring Expe- 

dition fame. Of doubtful standing. 

505. F. c61-um-ba'-rl-us. Post-classic Lat. columbarius, pertaining to a pigeon, columba ; or, a 

pigeon-fancier, as this spirited little falcon is. 

506. F. c. suck'-iey-i. To George Suckley, known in ornithology for his researches in Oregon 

and Washington Territories. The first syllable is long, and pronounced with the full 
Latin force of u, like oo in moon. A very dubious bird. 


507. Falco columbarius richardsoni Ridg. B . c 345. R 418. 

Richardson's Pigeon Hawk. 

508. Falco sparverius L. B 13. c 346. R 420. 

Sparrow Hawk. 

509. Falco sparverius isabellinus (Sw.) Ridg. B . c 346a. R 420a. 

Isabel Sparrow Hawk. 

510. Falco Vig. B . c . R 421. (!w. i.) 

Cuban Sparrow Hawk. 

511. Falco fusciccemlescens V. B 9. c 347. R 419. 

Femoral Falcon. 

512. Bnteo Tinicinctus harrisi (Aud.) Ridg. B 46. c 348. R 434. 

Harris's Buzzard Hawk. 

513. Buteo albocandatus V. B . c . R441. 

White-tailed Buzzard Hawk. 

507. F. e. rlch'-ard-s8n-i. To Sir John Richardson, the species having been described and 

figured in the Fauna Boreali- Americana. 

508. F. spar-v6'-rl-us. Post-classic Latin, meaning, relating to a sparrow, as columbaritts from 

columba. There is a quasi-Latin word sparvius, from which sparverius is directly formed. 
The word sparrow in some of its forms doubtless antedates any corresponding word in 
the South European languages. We have not traced the Latin sparvius or sparverius 
back of Gesner, 1555. See Passer, No. 192. 

509 F. s. I-sa-bel-H'-nus. The Lady Isabel, having confidence in her husband's prowess, 
vowed not to change her chemise until that warrior had taken a certain town. He was 
longer about it than she expected, and she wore the garment until it assumed a peculiar 
brown tint : hence the term " isabel-color " ; whence quasi-Latin isabellinus. 

510. F. spar-vS-rl-S-I'-des. This is an aggravated case of bastardy. Anglo-Saxon and Gothic 

sparwa or sparva, Latinized as sparvius, a sparrow, whence sparverius, a sparrower, so to 
speak, or sparrow-catcher, as this hawk is ; with the Gr. ?5os, to denote the resemblance 
of the West Indian to the North American bird. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. Lately said to have occurred in Florida. 
See Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, p. 220. 

511. F. fus-ci-coe-riil-es'-cens. Lat. fuscus, dusky, and ccerulescens, growing blue; t. e., being 

bluish : cceruleus, blue. This was written fuscocarulescens by Vieillot, but the above is 
preferable. " Femoral " relates to the color of the thigh ; femur, the thigh-bone. 
This is F.femoralis of the orig, ed. See Sharpe, Cat. Accip. Br. Mus., i. p. 400. 

512. Bu'-t6-5 u-nl-cmc'-tus har'-rls-i. Lat. buteo, a buzzard-hawk; of doubtful etymology; 

the word occurs in Pliny. Lat. uni, once, and cinctus, girded ; unus, one, and cingo, I 
gird, bind about ; with reference to the single zone of white color on the tail. To 
Edward Harris, of Philadelphia. 

513. B. al-bS-caud-a'-tus. Lat. albus, white, caudatus, tailed; cauda, tail. The latter part of 

the word being a participial adjective of a supposed verb caudo, permits albus to be in the 
"ablative of instrument," "white" being that wherewith the bird is "tailed." In 
another form, it would be albicauda, like albicilla for instance. See No 42. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since discovered in Texas both by G. B. Sennett and J. C. 
Merrill. See Coues, The Country, July 13, 1878, p. 184; and Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., i, 
Oct. 2, 1878, p. 154. 


514. Buteo cooperi Cass. B 29. c 349. R 437. (?) 

Cooper's Buzzard Hawk. 

515. Buteo harlani (Aud.) Bp. B 22. c sso. R 438. 

Harlan's Buzzard Hawk. 

516. Bnteo borealis (Gm.) V. B 23. c 351. R 436. 

Red-tailed Buzzard Hawk; Hen Hawk. 

517. Buteo borealis calurus (Cass.) Ridg. B 20, 24. c 35ia. R 436&. 

Western Red-tailed Buzzard Hawk. 

518. Buteo borealis lucasanus Ridg. B . c 3516. R 436e. 

St. Lucas Buzzard Hawk. 

519. Buteo borealis krideri Hoopes. B . c 35ic. R 436a. (?) 

Krider's Buzzard Hawk. 

520. Buteo lineatus (Gm.) Jard. B 25. c 352. R 439. 

Red-shouldered Buzzard Hawk. 

521. Buteo lineatus elegans (Cass.) Ridg. B 26. c 352a. R 439a. 

Western Red-shouldered Buzzard Hawk. 

522. Buteo abbreviatus Cab. B . c 353. R 440. 

Band-tailed Hawk. 

523. Buteo swainsoni Bp. B is, 19, 21, 28. c 354. R 442. 

Swainson's Buzzard Hawk. 

514. B. coop'-6r-i. To Dr. James G. Cooper, of California, well known for his studies of the 

birds of that country. Doubtful species : only one specimen known. 

515. B. harMan-I. To Dr. Richard Harlan, of Philadelphia, author of Medical and Physical 

Researches, Fauna Americana, etc. 

516. B. b8r-g-a'-lls. Lat. borealis, northern; boreas, the north wind. 

517. B. b. cal-u'-nSs. Gr. Ka\6s, beautiful, and olpa, tail. 

518. B. b. lu-cas-a'-nus. Named after Cape St. Lucas, Lower California. 

519. B. b. kri'-dgr-i. To John Krider, the veteran taxidermist of Philadelphia. Dubious. 

520. B. li-nS-a'-tus. Lat. lineatus, lineated, limned, from linio ; linea, a line. In reference to the 

streaking of the plumage. 

521. B. 1. e'-lg-gans. Lat. elegans, elegant, because select, chosen: e and ligo, I pick out. 

522. B. ab-brSv-I-a'-tus. Lat. abbreviatus, shortened ; ab and brevio, I abridge, contract ; brevis, 

short ; Gr. ppaxts- Applicability unknown to us. 

This stands as B. zonocercus in the orig. ed. See Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, p. 220. 

523. B. swaln'-s8n-i. To William Swainson, Esq., the celebrated English naturalist. 

Mr. Sharpe has lately called this B. obsoletus (Gm.), but very erroneously, Gmelin's 
bird of that name being a Gyrfalcon. B. insignatus of Cassin is simply a melanism. 
B. bairdi of Cassin is the young. This bird is the nearest form we have to the Euro- 
pean B. vulgaris, which latter has been attributed to Michigan : see Maynard, Bull. Nutt. 
Club, i, No. 1, 1876, pp. 2-6. 

The meaning of the word " buzzard " is unknown to us. It runs through several 
languages, as buzhard, buzard, busard, buse. Some think it onomatopoeic, related to 
buzz ; that seems doubtful ; more likely related to the Latin buteo. Butes is a Latin 
proper name, but of no obvious connection. 


524. Buteo pennsylvanicTis (Wils.) Bp. B 27. c 355. R 443. 

Broad- winged Buzzard Hawk. |See Addenda, Nos. 882, 883. 

525. Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis (Gm.) Riclg. BSO, 31. C356. R447. 

American Rough-legged Buzzard. 

526. Archibuteo femigineus (Licht.) Gr. B 32. c 357. R 448. 

Ferrugineous Bough-legged Buzzard. 

527. Asturina plagata Schl. B 33. c 358. R 445. 

Gray Hawk. 

528. Umbitinga anthracina (Licht.) Lafr. B . c . R 444. 

Anthracite Hawk. 

529. Onychotes gruberi Ridg. B . c 359. R 446. 

Gruber's Hawk. 

530. Pandion haliae'tus (L.) Sav. B 44. c 360. R 425. 

Fish Hawk; Osprey. 

531. Thrasyaetus harpyia (L.) Gr. B . c . R 450. (! M.) 

Harpy Eagle. 

524. B. penn-syl-van'-I-cus. See Dendrceca, No. 124. 

525. Arch-I-bu'-te-o lag-o'-pus sanc-tl-j6-han'-nls. Lat. archi-, equivalent to Gr. &pxos, & 

leader, a chief ; &px>> I rule, I am first ; the word simply means " arch-buzzard," like 
archbishop, archetype, architect, &c. Lat. lagopus, Gr. \aycairovs, hare-footed, from \ayd>s, a 
hare, and irovs, a foot : in allusion to the feathering of the tarsi. The penult here remains 
long in Latin as it is in Greek ; but words in -opus, where the o is simply a connecting 
vowel, shorten the penult. Lat. sancti-johannis, of Saint John, alluding to the place in 
Newfoundland so called. 

526. A. fer-ru-gln'-g-iis. See Scolecophagus, No. 331. 

527. As-tur-i'-na pla-ga'-ta. Asturina is simply formed from Lat. astur, which see, No. 496, 

without any difference of meaning. Lat. plagata, striped, from plago, I strike ; plaga, a 
blow, stroke, stripe ; Gr. ir\riyfi, a blow, wound, from ir\^ffff(a or TTA^TTW, I strike. Com- 
monly written plagiata, for which we see no good reason. 

528. U-ru-bl-tm'-ga an-thra-ci'-na. Umbitinga is a barbarous word, of some South American 

dialect ; urubu means a vulture ; we do not know what the rest of the word is, nor the 
quantity of the first two vowels ; we hear them long and leave them so. Lat. anthra- 
cinus, Gr. a.vQp<j.Kivos, carbuncular ; #?/0pa, genitive &vdpaKos, a carbuncle ; also a live coal, 
a coal. The application in the present case is not to a glowing coal, like a carbuncle, 
but to a dead coal, coal-black; the glossy black of anthracite coal, as the bird is. 

529. 6-nycb/-6-tes gru'-ber-i. Gr. ow, genitive Swxos, a claw; the rest of the word is the 

regular suffix -TTJS, -tes, making the whole signify " the clawed one." Notice the accent. 
To F. Gruber, a taxidermist of San Francisco. 

This bird is questionably North American ; but distinct from any Hawk in this list. 

530. Pan-di'-on hal-I-a-e'-tfis. Lat. Pandion, Gr. navtlcav, was the alleged father of Progne 

and Philomela : see Coues, B. Col. Vail., i, 1878, p. 371. Observe quantity and accent of 
the penult. Gr. a\s, genitive a\6s, salt, the sea, and &r)r6$, an eagle; "sea-eagle." 
See Haliaetus, No. 533. 

531. Thra-sy-a-e'-tfis har-pyl'-a or har-py'-I-5 [either three or four syllables; in either case 

pronounced harpwee'ah]. Gr. Bpaats, bold, audacious, and ebynfs, eagle; see No. 533. 
Generally written Thrasaetus, as originally by Gray : but the above is preferable ; com- 
pare Thrasyas, Thrasybulus, Thrasymachus, &c., all retaining the y (v). The "Apirvtai. 


532. Aquila chrysaetus (L.) Cuv. B 39. c 361. R 449. 

Golden Eagle. 

533. Haliaetus albicilla (L.) Leach. B 42. c . R 452. (G.) 

White-tailed Eagle; Sea Eagle. 

534. Haliaetus lencocephalus (L.) Savig. B 41, 43. c 3G2. R 451. 

White-headed Eagle; Bald Eagle. 

535. Polyborus cheriway (Jacq.) Cab. B 45. c 363. R 423. 

Caracara Eagle. 

Harpyice or Harpies were fabulous monsters, embodying the idea of female rapacity as 
birds of prey, with crooked talons and beak (apirrj). 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List ; lately ascertained to occur in Texas. See 
Oswald, Am. Nat., 1878, p. 151 ; and Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, p. 221. 

533. A'-qufl-a chrys-a-e'-tus. Lat. aquila, an eagle. The etymology is disputed. It is given 
by some, without qualification, as from Gr. UKVS, Lat. acer, odor, sharp, swift, from Jac 
or \Jak. Some say from aquilus, dark, swarthy ; others, as related to aquilo, the north 
wind ; others from Gr. ayKv\os, crooked, hooked, as the bird's beak is : this would corre- 
spond to the derivation of gryps, ypfy, a griffin, from ypvirts, bent, hook-nosed. It is 
conjectured, also, from ayKv\-rj, the curve of the limb, or the curved lirnb, with which the 
bird, as Jove's lightning-bearer, grasped the thunder-bolts. Some pllied forms of the 
word, in which g appears instead of the q, as aguila, aigle, eagle, favor the supposition 
that the name has something to do with the great wings of the bird. Gr. xpyfoieTos or 
Xpva-deros, golden eagle ; xp va "6s, golden, oertk, eagle. See Haliaetus, No. 533. 

533. Hal-I-a-e'-tus al-bt-cH'-la. Gr. &\s, genitive a\6s, salt; the (salt) sea; and aeros or OTJT^S 

or aler6s, an eagle ; there is also the actual Greek aXideros or aAtaieros, for the " sea- 
eagle," that is, the osprey. There is also the actual Latin transliteration " haliaeetos," 
for the same bird. So many vowels coming together, with such variation in the original 
Greek, has kept the orthography incessantly fluctuating. Savigny, who was a classical 
scholar, as well as an ornithologist, originally spelled the genus he founded Haliceetus. 
This is perfectly correct, in fact, the poetic form, as transliterated from oAja/eros, with 
only the usual and proper change of Greek ai into Latin ce. Many purists keep to this 
spelling, which is perfectly defensible, and has the advantage of being that used by the 
founder of the genus. But, as Haldeman remarks, however desirable Haliocetns may be 
in poetical writing, it is more consonant with a strict scientific spirit to simplify the 
word into Haliaetus, deriving it in this case from derJy or a-rjros. We accept and adopt this 
form upon such understanding. Having settled this, the next question arises respecting 
the quantity of the vowels, and accentuation of the syllables. If derived from nerds, 
the word would be Halia'e'lus ; if from a-rjrds, it would be Halide'tus. We prefer the latter. 
In any event, the form " Haliretus," in four syllables, is inadmissible : the word must 
have at least five syllables. But ornithologists may be forgiven for anything in this 
case, seeing that the grammarians have disputed it for some centuries. Lat. albicilia, 
white-tailed. See Motacilla, No. 86. 

This species, though frequently attributed to North America, has of late years been 
dropped. It is now restored, on the strength of its occurrence in Greenland, though not 
elsewhere in North America that we know of. Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. 

534. H. leu-c8-cSph/-a-lus. Gr.^s, white, and tceQaX-fi, head. 

535. P81-5r'-b8r-Qs cheriway. Gr. iro\v&6pos, eating a great deal, very voracious. Cheriway 

and Caracara are both barbarous words, the meaning of which we know not : from some 
South American dialect. 

This stands in the orig. ed. as P. tharus var. auduboni. 


536. Pseudogryphus californianus (Shaw) Ridg. B 2. c 364. R 453. 

Californian Vulture. 

537. Cathartes atira (L.) 111. B i. c 365. R 454. 

Turkey Buzzard. 

538. Catharista atrata (Bartr.) Less. B 3. c 366. R 455. 

Carrion Crow. 

539. Columba fasciata Say. B 445. c. 367. R 456. 

Band-tailed Pigeon. 

540. Columba erythrina Licht. B 446. c 368. R 457. 

Red-billed Pigeon. 

541. Columba leucocephala L. B 447. c 369. R 458. 

White-crowned Pigeon. 

542. Engyptila albifrons (Bp.) Coues. B . c . R 463. 

White-fronted Pigeon. 

536. Pseu-dS-gry'-phiis cal-I-for-nl-a'-nus. Gr. i//ev5os, false, from tyevSw, I deceive, and Lat. 

gryphus, for gryps, genitive gryphis, a griffin, a fabulous bird ; from Gr. ypty, the same, 
from ypvirds, bent, hook-nosed. The word is badly formed in two languages : had better 
have been Pseudogryps. Gryphus is a name early transferred by ornithologists from its 
fabulous prototype to the condor of the Andes ; and Mr. Ridgway made Pseudogryphus 
from the resemblance of the Californian vulture to the latter. 

This stands as Cathartes cal. in the orig. ed. See Ridg., Bull. Nutt. Club, v, 1880, 
p. 79. 

537. Cath-ar'-tes au'-ra [ow-rah, not or-ah]. Gr. KaQapT^s, a purifier, from KaQalpw, I cleanse, 

purify, purge ; from the good offices of the bird as a scavenger in warm countries. 
Aura is a name applied to this bird by the oldest writers who speak of it, and, in all its 
various forms, as rendered by De Laet and others who treat of tropical American 
Cathartidce, it is of South American or Mexican origin, and apparently related to 
urubu or ourubu. It early crystallized in its present orthography, and was soon Latinized, 
or at least declined as a Latin word; as, rex aurarum, or regina aurarum (genitive plural), 
"king of the vultures." That it has any connection with Lat. aura, Gr. cfipa, air, 
atmosphere, may well be doubted. 

538. Cath-ar-is'-ta a-tra'-ta. Badly framed from KaOapifa, only another form of KaBaipu, of 

same meaning; see No. 537. Lat. atrata, participial adjective, blackened; ater, black. 
This stands as Catharles atratus in the orig. ed. See Ridg., Bull. Nutt. Club, v, 1880, 
p. 80. 

539. C61-um'-ba fas-ci-a'-ta. Lat. columba, a pigeon; etymology unknown. See Chamcea, 

No. 39. 

540. C. g-ryth-ri'-na. Lat. erythrina, Gr. epv9p?t>os, reddish ; from cpv6p6s, red. 

This is C.flavirostris of the orig. ed. As the bill is not at all yellow, another name is 
desirable. See Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, 1880, p. 9. 

541. C. leu-cd-ceph'-a-la. Gr. Xeu/co'y, white, and /ce^aA^, head. 

542. En-gyp'-ti-la al'-bl-frons. Gr. lyyts, narrow, slender, contracted, and ir\i\ov, a feather; 

from the attenuated outer primaries. Lat. albus, white ; frons, forehead. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since discovered in Texas by G. B. Sennett. See Coues, Bull. 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, p. 48, and Bull. Nutt. Club, v, 1880, p. 100 ; Ridg., Pr. 
Nat. Mus., i, 1878, p. 158. 


543. Ectopistes migratorius (L.) Sw. B 448. c 370. R 459. 

Wild Pigeon ; Passenger Pigeon. 

544. Zenaidura carolinensis (L.) Bp. B 451. c 371. R 460. 

Carolina Dove. 

545. Zenaida amabilis Bp. B 449. c 372. R 462. 

Zenaida Dove. 

546. Melopelia leucoptera (L.) Bp. B 450. c 373. R 464. 

White-winged Dove. 

547. Chamsepelia passerina (L.) Sw. B 453. c 374. R 465. 

Ground Dove. 

548. Chamsepelia passerina pallescens (Bd.) Coues. B . c 374a. R . (?) 

St. Lucas Ground Dove. 

549. Scardafella inca (Less.) Bp. B 452. c 375. R 466. 

Scaled Dove. 

550. Geotrygon martinica (Gm.) Reich. B 454. c 376. R 467. 

Key West Pigeon. 

543. Ec-t8-pis'-tes mf-gra-to'-rl-us. Gr. e/cToirto-T^s, a wanderer, passenger; 

wander, change place ; from e, out of, and TOTTOS, place ; " out of place." Lat. 
migratorius, of same meaning ; migro, I migrate. 

544. ZSn-a-i-du'-ra ca-r5-lln-en'-sls. "We think zenaida is a barbarous word. Its meaning we 

do not know. See Phonipara, No. 297, and compare zena there given. The rest of the 
word is formed by adding the Greek ovpd. Bonaparte originally wrote zenaidura, which 
has usually, of late, following Dr. Coues' lead, been turned to zencedura ; but if the 
word is not classic, there is no occasion for the modification. 

545. Zgn-a-I'-da am-a'-bll-Is. Zenaida, a proper name, perhaps Spanish ; meaning unknown 

to us : see No. 544. Lat. amabilis, lovable, lovely ; amo, I love. 

546. M61-8-pl-i'-a leu-cop'-tgr-a. Gr. /xeAos, melody, and irc'Aem, a dove. Name derived 

from Tre'AAos, the peculiar dark slaty -blue color, so characteristic of pigeons ; we say 
to-day in sporting parlance " blue-rocks " for the ordinary domestic pigeon. The word, 
like many others ending in -pelia, is often wrong- written -peleia. Observe that the Greek 
i becomes long t in Latin, giving us -pelia, accented on the penult. Gr. \evic6s, white, 
and Trrepcfj/, a wing. 

547. Cham-ae-pel-i'-a pas-sSr-i'-na. Gr. xc^ta/, an adverb, on the ground, and ire A cm, a dove. 

See No. 546. See Chamcea, No. 39. This word is spelled about a dozen different 
ways, by writers or printers who are careless or ignorant. Lat. passerina, sparrow-like, 
in allusion to the diminutive size: passer, a sparrow. See No. 192. 

548. C. p. pal-les'-cens. See Mitrephorus, No. 392. Scarcely distinguishable from No. 547. 

549. Scar-da-fel'-la m'-ca. Scardafella is an Italian word, thus accounted for by Bonaparte, 

who founded the genus, in his " Coup d'CEil sur 1'Ordre des Pigeons " (p. 43 of the 
separate copies) : " une expression du Dante m'a inspire le nom de scardafella, qui peint 
1'apparence e'cailleuse de notre treizieme genre." The " scaly appearance " is due to the 
coloration, not the texture, of the feathers. Inca is a barbarous word ; the incas or yncas 
were Peruvian chiefs. 

This is S. squamosa var. inca in the orig. ed. ; later determined to be distinct. 

550. G5-8-try'-gon mar-tln'-I-ca. Gr. yea, the earth, the ground, and rpvy<S>v, a pigeon ; from 

rpvfa, to coo; onomatopoeic, like turtur. There seems to be reason for keeping the 
penult long, and accenting it. Lat. martinica, Latinized adjective from Martinique, one 
of the West Indies. 


551. Starnoenas cyanocephalus (L.) Bp. B 455. c 377. R 468. 

Blue-headed Pigeon. 

552. Ortalis vetula maccalli (Bd.) B 456. c 378. R 469. 

Texan Guaii. 

553. Meleagris gallipavo L. B 458. c 379. R 470. 

Domestic Turkey; Mexican Turkey. 

554. Meleagris gallipavo americana (Bartr.) Coues. B 457. c 379a. R 470a. 

Common Wild Turkey of the United States. 

555. Canace canadensis (L.) Bp. B 460. c 380. R 472. 

Canada Grouse ; Spruce Partridge. 

556. Canace canadensis franklini (Dougl.) Coues. B 461. c 380a. R 472a. 

Franklin's Spruce Partridge. 

557. Canace obscura (Say) Bp. B 459. c 381. R 471. 

Dusky Grouse. 

558. Canace obscura richardsoni (Dougl.) Coues. B . c 38ia. R 4716. 

Richardson's Dusky Grouse. 

551. Star-noe'-nas cy-an-6-ce"ph'-a-lus. From ? (probably Italian; Agassiz gives 

Starna as a proper name), and Gr. olvas, Lat. oenas, the vine : also, a kind of pigeon ; oenas 
geems to have been transferred to the pigeon, as cenanthe was to some other bird ; see 
Saxicola, No. 26. The olvds of Aristotle is Columba livia L. Gr. Kvav6s, cyanus, blue, 
and Ke<pa\-fi, head. 

552. Or'-tal-Is v6t'-u-la mac-calMI. Gr. 6pra\ls, a pullet, a kind of quail. This word 

was universally written ortalida, until Mr. Wharton showed that the way Merrem, 
writing Latin, constructed the sentence in which the word first occurs made it the accu- 
sative case ; arguing hence that Merrem meant to found a genus ortalis, not ortalida, 
See Ibis, October, 1879, p. 450. The Rev. Mr. Avery's MS. in our possession makes 
the same correction, though without comment. Lat. vetula, a little old woman ; derisive 
diminutive from vetus, old, veteran ; digammated from Gr. eros, a year. To General 
George A. McCall, U. S. Army. 

553. MSl-8-ag'-rts gal-H-pa'-vo. Gr. peteayph, Lat. meleagris, a guinea-hen ; literally, a field- 

tender, farmer ; from /teAe*, relating to the care of a thing, and &-ypos, a field. The word not 
transferred from the African Numida to the American Turkey until near the middle of 
the 16th century, and occasionally confounded for many years after that. Me/eager 
or M\ayp6s was a mythical person who suffered a cruel fate : his sisters, the Meleagrides, 
who bitterly lamented his death, were changed into guinea-hens ; the profusely-spotted 
plumage of which gives evidence of the tears they shed for him. Lat. gallipavo, usually 
written gallopavo, a very late combination of gallus, a cock, and paro, a pea-fowl, bird of 
Juno ; the latter word from the Gr. rouSts or raws or rawv, a pea-fowl. 

554. M. g. am-6r-I-ca'-na. Of America. 

555. Can'-a-ce ca-na-den'-sls. Canace, a proper name ; she lived in incest with her brother; 

application not obvious, unless referring in a general way to the polygamy of gallina- 
ceous birds. 

This and following species are given as Tetrao in the orig. ed. ; but may be properly 
separated generically from Tetrao urogallus. 

556. C. c. frank'-lin-i. To Sir John Franklin, of Arctic fame and sorrow. 

557. C. ob-scu'-rus. Lat. obscurus, obscure, i. e., dark-colored. 

558. C. o. rlch'-ard-sSn-i. To Sir John Richardson, often already mentioned in this List. 


559. Canace obscura fuliginosa Ridg. B . c 3816. R 47ia. 

Fuliginous Dusky Grouse. 

560. Centrocercus urophasianus (Bp.) Sw. B 462. C382. R 479. 

Sage-cock ; Cock-of-the-Plains. 

561. Pedioecetes phasianellus (L.) Elliot. B . c 383. R 478. 

Northern Sharp-tailed Grouse. 

562. Pedioecetes phasianellus columbianus (Ord) Coues. B 463. c 383a. R478a 

Common Sharp-tailed Grouse; Prairie Hen of the Northwest. 

563. Cupidonia cupido (L.) Bd. B 464. c 384. R 477. 

Pinnated Grouse; Prairie Hen. 

564. Cupidonia cupido pallidicincta Ridg. B . c 384a. R 477a. 

Pale Pinnated Grouse. 

565. Bonasa umbella (L.) Steph. B 465. c 385. R 473. 

Buffed Grouse; "Pheasant" in the Middle and Southern States. 

559. C. o. fu-H-gln-o'-sa. Lat., post-classic, fuliginosa, of a dark sooty color; fuligo, soot; 

fulica, orfulix, a coot; so called from -its color. 

560. Cen-tr6-cer'-cus u-rd-pha-si-a'-nus. Gr. icevrpov, a spine, and Kfpitos, tail; "sharp- 

tailed." Gr. oupa, tail, and <paaiav6s, Lat. phasianus, ~Fr.Jaisan, Engl. pheasant, pertaining 
to the river Phasis in Colchis. The scientific name of the English pheasant is Phasianus 
colchicus. The name " pheasant " has been ignorantly transferred to various American 
birds of this family. 

561. PSd-I-oe'-cg-tes pha-sl-an-el'-liis. Gr. veSiov, a plain ; as we should say, prairie; from 

Tre'Soy, the ground ; and ot'/ceVrjs, an inhabitant ; see Poaecetes, No. 232. The word was 
originally written Pedioecetes. Lat. phasianellus, diminutive of phasianus; see Centro- 
cercus, No. 560. 

562. P. p. cSl-um-bl-a'-nfis. To the Columbia river, whence the birds were brought by 

Lewis and Clarke. 

563. Cii-pi-dS'-nl-a cu-pi'-do. The bird was named by Linnaeus Tetrao cupido, after the " blind 

bow-boy," son of Venus, not with any allusion to erotic concerns, but because the little 
wings on the bird's neck were likened to "Cupid's wings." The same idea is repeated 
in the English " pinnated " grouse. Professor Reichenbach formed his genus Cupidonia 
by merely adding a suffix. If he had written cupidinen, he would have had a classic 
word, directly formed, like cupidus, from cupido, exactly expressing the sense intended 
by Linnaeus to be conveyed. The Latin tetrao, from the Gr. rerpdcav, and tetrix, from 
the Gr. rerpi^, were certain gallinaceous birds, so called from their wont to cackle, 
rerpd&iv : all onomatopoeic. 

564. C. c. pal-H-dl-cinc'-ta. Lat. pallidus, pallid, pale ; and cinctus, begirt, encircled ; cingo, 

I bind. 

565. B8n-a'-sa um-bel'-lus. Gr. &6va<ros, Lat. bonasas, a wild bull. The allusion here is to the 

"drumming" noise made by the bird, likened to the bellowing of a bull; see Bubo, 
No. 462, and Botaurus, No. 666. Also written Bonasia. Lat. umbel/us, or umbella, an 
umbel, umbrella ; from umbra, shade, shadow, whence penumbra, umbrageous, &c. The 
allusion is to the tuft of feathers on the side of the neck, as in the case of cupido, which 
see, No. 563. Linnaeus wrote Tetrao umbelhis, masculine ; but we see no reason why 
umbella, the noun feminine, should not be used with Bonasa; it is equally good Latin. 
The adjective umbellata would be preferable to either. 


566. Bonasa umbella umbelloides (Dougl.) Bd. B 465*. c 3S5a. R 473a. 

Gray Ruffed Grouse. 

567. Bonasa umbella sabinii (Dougl.) Coues. B 466. c 3856. R 473ft. 

Oregon Ruffed Grouse. 

568. Lagopus albus (Gm.) Aud. B 467, 470 ?. c 386. R 474. 

Willow Ptarmigan. 

569. Lagopus rupestris (Gm.) Leach. B 468. c 387. R 475. 

Rock Ptarmigan. 

570. Lagopus leucurus Sw. B 469. c 388. R 476. 

White-tailed Ptarmigan. 

571. Ortyx virginiana (L.) Bp. B471. c 389. R 480. 

Virginia Partridge; Quail; Bob- white. 

572. Ortyx virginiana floridana Coues. B . c 389a. R 480a. 

Florida Partridge. 

573. Ortyx virginiana texana (Lawr.) Coues. B 472. c 3896. R 4806. 

Texas Partridge. 

574. Orortyx picta (Dougl.) Bd. B 473. c 390. R 481. 

Plumed Partridge ; California Mountain Quail. 

575. Lophortyx californica (Shaw) Bp. B 474. c 391. R 482. 

Crested Partridge ; California Valley Quail. 

576. Lophortyx gambeli Nutt. B 475. c 392. R 483. 

Gambel's Crested Partridge; Arizona Quail. 

577. Callipepla squamata (Vig.) Gr. B 476. c 393. R 484. 

Scaled Blue Partridge. 

566. B. u. um-bel-ld-i'-des. Lat. umbellus, which see, next above, and t?8os. 

567. B. u. sa-bi'-ni-i. To J. Sabine. 

568. Lag-o'-pus al'-bus. Gr. \a-y6trovs, Lat. lagopus, hare-foot ; \ay6s, a hare, and ITOVS, foot. 

Lat. albus, white. For the length of the accented penult, see Archibuteo, No. 525. 

569. L. ru-pes'-tris. Late Lat rupestris, pertaining to, or inhabiting, rocks; rupes, a rock. 

570. L. leu-cu'-rus. Gr. Aeu/coy, white, ovpa, tail. 

571. Or'-tyx vir-gm-i-a'-na. Gr. fyrwf, a quail; related to opra\(s; both are akin to Spvis, a 

bird. The word is masculine in Greek, but in transliteration into Latin becomes 
feminine, like other nouns of same termination. The English word partridge, Scot. 
patrick, Fr. perdrix, Span, perdiz, Ital. perdice, Lat. perdix, Gr. vcptit, are all the same. 

572. O. v. flo-ri-da'-na. To Florida. 

573. O. v. tex-a'-na. To Texas. 

574. Or-6r-tyx pic'-ta. Gr. opos, a mountain, and #pru; see Oroscoptes, No. 14. Lat. pictus, 

painted, depicted ; pinrjo, I paint ; in allusion to the beautiful colors. 

575. LSph-or'-tyx cal-I-fSr'-nl-ca. Gr. Ao>os, a crest, helmet, and oprv. 

576. L. gam'-bei-I. To William Gambel, of Philadelphia. See Zonotrichia, No. 278. 

577. Cal-H-pep'-la squa-ma'-ta. Gr. /eoAo'y, feminine Ka\\-?i, and ireVxos, a certain robe of 

state; Ka\\nrfTr\os, beautifully robed, as this quail is. Lat. squamata, squamous, scaled, 
covered with scales, the peculiar colors presenting such an appearance; squama, a scale-^ 


578. Cyrtonyx massena (Less.) Gould. B 477. c 394. R 485. 

Massena Partridge. 

579. Coturnix dactylisonans Meyer. B . c . R . 

Migratory Quail (imported). 

580. Squatarola helvetica (L.) Cuv. B 510. c 395. R 513. 

Black-bellied Plover; Bull-head. 

581. Charadrms dominions Mull. B 503. c 396. R 515. 

American Golden Plover. 

582. Charadrius dominions fulvus (Gm.) Ridg. B . c . R 5i5a. (! A.) 

Asiatic Golden Plover. 

583. Charadrius pluvialis L. B . c . R 514. (G.) 

European Golden Plover. 

578. Cyr-to'-nyx mas-se'-na. Gr. Kvpr6s, bent, curved, crooked, and tfw|, a claw, nail ; related 

to Lat. uncus, a hook. To the French Marshal Andre' Massena, Frince d' Essling. 

579. C6-tur'-nTx dac-ty'l-I'-so'n-ans. Lat. coturnix, a quail; onomatopoeic, a sono vocis, 

from the sound of the voice, just as we have invented " bob-white " and " whip-poor- 
will." Lat. dactylisonans, sounding a dactyle. The dactyle, in poetry, is afoot con- 
sisting of a long and two short syllables ; from ScforuAos, the finder, which has a long 
and two short joints. Sono, I sound ; sonorous, &c. 

This bird, lately imported, has become naturalized, with the same right to a place 
in the list that Passer domesticus has acquired. 

580. Squa-ta-ro'-la hel-ve'-tl-ca. Of squatarola the authors learned little, until a note from 

Professor Newton supplied the desired information, in substance as follows: As a 
generic term it is of course from the Linnaan Tringa squatarola, and Linnaeus obviously 
got his trivial name from Willughby, who says (Ornith., ed. 1676, p. 229), " Pluvialis 
cinerea. Squatarola Venetiis dicta, ubi frequens est. The Gray Plover." The word is not 
to be found in the best Italian dictionaries ; but Salvador!, in his Fauna d' Italia Uccelli, 
seems to acknowledge it as a genuine word; though probably it is only local in its 
application. It may possibly have to do with the regular Italian squartare, "to quarter." 
Lat. helvetica, from ancient Helvetia, now Switzerland ; the bird is still often called 
" Swiss plover." The Helvetians were probably so called from their fairness, with 
flaxen or auburn hair ; helvus, helveolus (related to gilvus), meaning some such color. 

581. Char-ad'-rl-us dSm-In'-I-cus. [Ch- hard; second syllable long.] Gr. x a P&P>s> some 

kind of a bird, supposed to be a plover, and the same as rp^x^os ; from xpafy>a, the 
watery places inhabited by such birds. As used by Aristotle, the word apparently 
refers to Oedicnemus crepitans. Lat. dominicus, see Dendraca, No. 129. 

This stands as C. falvus var. virginicus in the orig. ed., but Miiller's name has 
priority over Gmelin's. See Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, 1880, p. 9; and Cassin, Pr. Phila. 
Acad., 1864, p. 246. 

582. C. d. ful'-vus. Lat./Zin/s, fulvous, yellow. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since discovered in Alaska. See Coues, in Elliot's Prybilov 
Report, 1875, 179; and Birds N. W., 1874, p. 450, note. 

583. C. pluv-T-aMls. Lat. pluvialis, rainy, pertaining to rain, bringing rain; pluvia, rain; pluo, 

to rain : the bird was supposed in some way related to rain or the rainy season : " plover " 
is the same. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; ascertained to occur in Greenland; see Newt., Man. N. H. 
Greenl., 1875, p. 101 ; Freke, Zoologist, September, 1881, p. 374. 


584. JEgialites vocifems (L.) Cass. B 504. c 397. R 516. 

Kildeer Ring Plover. 

585. JEgialites wilsonius (Ord) Cass. B 506. c 398. R 522. 

Wilson's Ring Plover. 

586. JEgialites semipalmatus (Bp.) Cab. B 507. c 399. R 517. 

Semipalmated Ring Plover; Ring-neck. 

587. JEgialites melodus (Ord) Cab. B 508. c 400, 400a. R 520. 

Piping Ring Plover; Ring-neck. 

588. JEgialites melodus circumcinctus Ridg. B . c 400. R 520. (?) 

Belted Piping Plover. 

589. JEgialites hiaticula (L.) Boie. B . c . R 518. 

European Ring Plover. 

590. JEgialites cnronicus (Gm.) Gray. B . c 400&is. R 519. 

European Lesser Ring Plover. 

591. JEgialites cantianus nivosus (Cass.) Coues. B 509. c 401. R 521. 

Snowy Ring Plover. 

584. Aeg-I-5Ml-tes v5-d'-fgr-Qs. Gr. aiyiaXlrijs, masculine, or alyia\?rts, feminine, or alyia- 

\f6s, an inhabitant of the seashore ; aiyia\6s, the coast, from the breaking of the waves- 
upon it (&yvvfj.i). The name is very appropriate to these beach-birds. Both forms,. 
cegialites, masculine, and cegialitis, feminine, are in common use ; either is perfectly 
correct ; but as Boie wrote cegialites originally, this form should be preserved. Lat. 
vociferus, vociferous ; vox, genitive vocis, voice, and fero, I bear ; vox digammated* 
from dty. 

585. A. wll-sdn'-I-us. To Alexander Wilson. 

586. A. sgm-I-pal-ma'-tus. Lat. semi, half; sibilated from Gr. TJ/JLI, hemi-, a contraction of 

finurvs, half, and palmatus, palmated, web-footed ; palma, the palm of the hand, the hand 
itself; from Gr. ira\dfj.Tj, of same meaning. The bird is conspicuously webbed between 
the toes, in comparison with its allies. * 

587. A. mel-S'-diis. Lat. melodus, Gr. /*e\<p5<k, melodious, sweetly singing ; yue'Aos, melody, and; 

wS-f], a song, an ode. (Notice the long o, being in place of the Gr. omega with iota 

588. A. m. cir-cum-cmc'-tiis. Lat. circum, around ; cinctus, belted, girded. See Parus, No. 52. 

The black is said to form a complete necklace. 

589. A. hl-a-tl'-cfi-la. Of this word we can give no satisfactory account. It is "classic" ini 

ornithology, going back for over two centuries ; in form, it is a diminutive of hiatus r 
from hio, I yawn, gape. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since ascertained to inhabit Continental North America, as 
well as long known in Greenland. See Brewer, Bull. Nutt. Club, iii, 1878, p. 49 seq. 

590. A. cu-r5n'-I-ciis. Lat. Curonicus, Curonian, of the region formerly called Curonia. 

The bird described as JEg. microrhynchus, Ridg., Am. Nat., viii, 1874, p. 109, has since 
been identified with the above. See Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, 1880, p. 10 ; 1881, p. 67. The bird 
is very questionably North American. 

591. A. can-tl-a'-nus nlv-o'-sfis. Lat. Cantianus, Kentish. Lat. nivosus, snowy, in allusion 

to the color ; nix, genitive nivis, snow ; Gr. vty, vupos, snow. 


592. Podasocys montanus (Towns.) Coues. B 505. c 402. R 523. 

Mountain Plover. 

593. Vanelhis cristatus Meyer. B . c . R 512. (G.) 


594. Aphriza virgata (Gm.) Gray. B 511. c 403. R 511. 

Surf Bird. 

595. Hsematopus ostrilegus L. B . c . R 506. (G.) 

European Oyster-catcher. 

596. Haematopus palliatus Temm. B 512. c 404. R 507. 

American Oyster-catcher. 

597. Haematopus niger Pall. B 513. c 405. R 508. 

Black Oyster-catcher. 

598. Strepsilas interpres (L.) 111. B 5^15. c 406. R 509. 


599. Strepsilas interpres melanocephalus (Vig.) Coues. B 516. c 406a. R 510. 

Black-headed Turnstone. 

592. PSd-as-o'-cys mon-ta'-nus. The word Podasocys is simply the transliteration of the 

familiar Homeric epithet of Achilles, " swift as to his feet" TTO'SOS w/ci/s 'AxiAAeus. 
Lat. montanus, pertaining to mountains. 

593. Va-nel'-lus cris-ta'-tus. Lat. vanus, empty, void, vain, whence vaneUiis, as a diminutive, 

for the restless, idle, and noisy bird. " In the spring the wanton lapwing gets himself 
another crest." (Tennyson.) Lat, cristatus, crested. 

Not in the orig. ed. Only North American as occurring in Greenland. See Reinh., 
Ibis, 1861, p. 9. 

594. Aph-ri'-za vir-ga'-ta. Gr. a<f>p6s, surf, sea-foam, and d(a, I live ; badly formed, but 

euphonious. Compare Aphrodite, the Greek Venus, foam-formed. Audubon, who 
invented the word, gives the above etymology ; but Wharton's MS. suggests more 
direct derivation from a<p/&>, I foam. Lat. virgata, striped, streaked; virga, a rod, 
green sprout, osier ; from vireo, I am green. 

595. Haem-at'-S-pus os-trl'-le'-gus. Gr. alp.a.Toirovs, red-footed ; aTjua, genitive aYjuaros, blood, 

and TTOVS, foot. The word is commonly but wrongly accented on the penult ; but that 
would be a.ifjia.T<air6s, meaning red-eyed. Lat. ostrea, an oyster, and lego, I collect, 
gather. Commonly written ostralegus ; but the above seems to be the correct form, 
agreeable \vit\\frugilegus, for example, and conformable with the actual word ostriferus 
in the following lines : 

Quam quibus in patriam ventosa per aequora vectis, 
Pontus et ostriferi fauces tentantur Abydi. Verg., Georg., i, 206, 207. 
Not in orig. ed. Only North American as occurring in Greenland. See Ibis, 1861, p. 9. 

596. H. pal-ll-a'-tus. Lat. palliatus, wearing the pallium, a kind of cloak; to "palliate" is 

literally to hide, cover up as with a cloak. The allusion here is to the particular colora- 
tion of the bird. See Contopus, No. 380. 

597. H. nlg'-gr. Lat. niger, black. 

598. Strep'-sMas in-ter'-pr6s. Gr. <rTpe<j>a>, future o-rpfyw, I turn ; o-rpfyis, a turning over ; 

and \os, a stone; literally "turn-stone." Lat. interpres, a go-between, factor, broker, 
agent ; literally, an interpreter, that is, inter-proztor ; prcetor, a Roman magistrate, from 
prce and eo, I go before. 

599. S. i. mei-an-S-ceph'-al-us. Gr. p.e\as, genitive jueWoy, black, and K^a.\-}\, head. 


600. Recnrvirostra americana Gm. B 517. c 407. R 566. 

American Avocet. 

601. Himantopus mexicamis (Miill.) Ord. B 518. c 408. R 567. 

Black-necked Stilt. 

602. Steganopus wilsoni (Sab.) Coues. B 519. c 409. R 565. 

Wilson's Phalarope. 

603. Lobipes hyperboreus (L.) Cuv. B 520. c 410. R 564. 

Northern Phalarope ; Red-necked Phalarope. 

604. Phalaropus fulicarius (L.) Bp. B 521. c 411. R 563. 

Red Phalarope; Gray Phalarope. 

605. Philohela minor (Gm.) Gr. B 522. c 412. R 525. 

American Woodcock. 

606. Scolopax rusticula L. B . c 413. R 524. (!E.) 

European Woodcock. 

600. R-cur-vI-r5s'-tra am-gr-I-ca'-na. Lat. recurvus, bent upward, recurved, and rostrum, 

beak : as the bill of the avocet notably is. The English word is either avocet or avoset, 
the meaning of which we know not. 

601. Hlm-an'-tS-pus mex-I-ca'-nus. Gr. i/j.avT6irovs, Lat. himantopus, the stilt, from f/tos, 

genitive, and irovs, foot. The former word means a thong or strap ; applied to 
this bird on account of its very long leathery legs like straps. Commonly accented on 
the penult ; see Contopus, No. 380. 

This stands as H. nigricolUs of the orig. ed.; see Cassin, Pr. Phila. Acad., 1864, p. 246. 

602. St6g-an'-6-pus wfl'-sdn-i. Gr. (rreyav6irovs, web-footed; ffreyavos, webbed; <rreydvii, a 

web ; (TTcyw, I cover, roof in, and irovs, foot. Commonly accented on the penult ; see 

Contopus, No. 380. 

603. L6b'-I-pes hy-per-bSr'-g-us. Gr. \o06s, Lat. lobus, a lobe, flap, and Lat. pes, foot; "lobe- 

foot," in allusion to the flaps on the toes. Lat. hyperboreus, Gr. virfp&opeos, hyperborean, 
in the extreme north, " beyond the north wind," in the sense of where the north wind 
comes from. 

604. Phal-ar'-S-pus ful-I-ca'-rl-us. Gr. <f>a\apis, the coot, so called from the conspicuous 

white of the bill, <f)a\apds meaning white, bright, clear, &c. ; and TTOVS, foot; phalaropus 
is " coot-foot ; " the phalarope was early called " coot-footed tringa," from the flaps on 
the toes, like those of a coot. The full form of the word would be phalaridopus. Lat. 
fulicarius, relating to a coot ; the specific name being derived, like the generic, from the 
lobate feet. See also Fulica, No. 686. See Contopus, No. 380. 

605. Phll-Q'-hel-a mln'-or. Gr. <{>i\os, loving, or a lover, and e'Aos, a swamp. Commonly 

accented on a wrongly lengthened penult. Lat. minor, comparative degree of parvus, 
smaller (than the European woodcock). 

606. Sc61'-6-pax rus-tl'-cQ-la. Gr. o-/coAo7ra, Lat. scolopax, a snipe ; the name of this very 

species. The dictionaries give it as a theme, and any possible derivation is open to 
conjecture, cf. aKo\o\l/, from the shape of the bill (most likely) ; ai((f>\r)l-, a worm ; 
tr/caAAw, I scratch. Lat. rusticus, a rustic, a countryman; diminutive rusticulus ; from 
rus, the country, as opposed to the city. The word occurs as msticola in Linnaeus, and 
has so almost universally been written ; but as Wharton shows (Ibis, 1879, p. 453), this 
is erroneous. The word would be ruricola, if from rus and colo, I inhabit. Rusticula is 
good Latin, and the epithet of "little countryman " is very appropriate to the bird. 


607. Gallinago media Leach. B . c . K 526. (G.) 

European Snipe. 

608. G-allinago wilsoni (Ternm.) Bp. B 523. c 414. R 526a. 

American Snipe; Wilson's Snipe. 

609. Macrorhamphus griseus (Gm.) Leach. B 524. c 415. R 527. 

Red-breasted Snipe; Gray-back Snipe; Dowitcher. 

610. Macrorhamphus griseus scolopaceus (Say) Coues. B525. C4i5a. R527a. 

Western Red-breasted Snipe. 

611. Micropalama himantopus (Bp.) Bd. B 536. c 416. R 528. 

Stilt Sandpiper. 

612. Ereunetes pusillus (L.) Cass. B 535. c 417. R 541. 

Semipalmated Sandpiper. 

613. Ereunetes pusillus occidentalis (Lawr.) Coues. B . c 4i7a. R 54ia. (?) 

Western Semipalmated Sandpiper. 

614. Actodromas minutilla (V.) Coues. B 532. c 418. R 538. 

Least Sandpiper. 

615. Actodromas bairdi Coues. B . c 419. R 537. 

Baird's Sandpiper. 

607. Gal-lln-a'-go m6d'-I-a. Lat. gallus, a cock, gallina, a hen, gallinula, a chicken, gallinarius 

or gallinaceus, relating to poultry; the present word is an arbitrary derivative, as a 
Latin word, though the forms gallinago, gallinazo, and others are found in different lan- 
guages. It is formed from gcdlina like fringillago from fringilla, or like virago from vir. 

Lat. medius, median, medium, in the middle (in size, between certain other species). 

Not in the orig. ed. ; only North American as occurring in Greenland. 

608. G. wH'-sSn-I. To Alexander Wilson. 

609. Mac-rQ-rham'-phQs grls'-g-iis. Gr. jj.aicp6s, great, large, long; and ftd^os, beak, bill. 

Notice that the p is aspirated, requiring to be followed by h, as many writers forget. 

Griseus, gray, grisly, grizzly; not classic; a late Latinizing of an Anglo-Saxon word; 
compare Fr. gris and Gr. ypavs or ypyvs, yepai6s, yepas or yrjpas all these relate to age, 
when people grow gray. The word " grous " or " grouse," " the gray bird/' may be 
related. See Leucosticte, No. 205. 

610. M. g. sc81-8-pa'-c6-us. The word is formed as an adjective from scolopax, which see, 

No. 606 ; scolopaceous, scolopacine, snipe-like. 

611. Mic-r8-pal'-a-ma hlm-an'-tS-pus. Gr. fjuKpds, small, and TraAcfyiTj, the palm, the hand; 

same as the Lat. palma ; referring to the webbing between the toes. Himantopus, see 
No. 601. 

612. E-reu-ne'-tes pus-IF-lus. Gr. ^pevvrjr^s, a searcher; from the way in which the bird 

probes with its bill. Lat. pusillus, puerile ; see Sitta, No. 60. 

613. E. p. ood-den-ta'-Hs. Lat. occidentalis, western. See Dendroeca, No. 113. 

614. Ac-tQ'-drfim-as mln-u-tflMa. Gr. oirH?, the seashore; from Hyvv/jn, &y<a, I break, as the 

waves do there ; 5po/j.ds, rapidly running see Ammodramus, No. 238, and Eudromias, No. 
591. Lat. minutus, small, minute, diminutive, of which minutilla is an arbitrary diminu- 
tive ; minuo, I lessen, diminish ; it ought to have been minutula. 

615. A. bair'di. To S. F. Baird. 


616. Actodromas macnlata (V.) Coues. B 531. c 420. R 534. 

Pectoral Sandpiper. 

617. Actodromas bonapartii (Schl.) Coues. B 533. c 421. R 536. 

Wliite-rumped Sandpiper. 

618. Actodromas cooperi (Bd.) Coues. B 527. c 422. R 535. (?) 

Cooper's Sandpiper. 

619. Actodromas acuminata (Horsf.) Ridg. B . c . R 533. (!A.) 

Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. 

620. Arquatella maritima (Briinn.) Bd. B 528. c 423. R 530. 

Purple Sandpiper. 

621. Arquatella couesi Ridg. B . c . R 531. 

Aleutian Sandpiper. 

622. Arquatella ptilocnemis (Coues) Ridg. B . c 426&w. R 532. 

Prybilov Sandpiper. 

623. Pelidna alpina (L.) Boie. B . c . R 539. (G.) 

European Dunlin. 

616. A. ma-cul-a'-ta. Lat. maculatus, spotted; macula, a spot. 

617. A. bo-na-par'-tl-i. To Charles Lucien Bonaparte, Prince of Musignano and Canino. 

618. A. coop'-gr-i. To William Cooper, Esq. Only one specimen known. 

619. A. ac-u-ml-na'-ta. Lat. acuminata, acuminate, sharpened, from acumino; like aculeata 

from aculeus. See Sitta, No. 58. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since observed at St. Michael's, Alaska. See Pr. Nat. Mus., 
iii, 1880, p. 222. 

620. Ar-qua-tel'-la mar-It'-I-ma. Arquatella, for arcuatula, is an arbitrary diminutive of arqua- 

tus, bent, bowed : this is poor Latin for arcuatus, curved, arcuate ; arcuo, I bend ; arcus, 
a bow, an arc. It refers to the slightly curved bill. Lat. maritimus, maritime ; mare, 
the sea. 

621. A. m. coues'-i. To Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. The name of this person is Norman- 

French, and is still not infrequently found in the north of France, pronounced in two 
syllables, with the grave accent on the last : Cou-es Coo-ayz. On the removal of his 
ancestors to the Isle of Wight, the pronunciation naturally became corrupted into Cowz. 
The original spelling, though sometimes changed to Cowes, has been preserved in the 
family, no grown male members of which are known to be living in the United States 
excepting the person here in mention and his brother, Dr. S. F. Coues, U. S. N. The 
meaning of the word is unknown to us. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since described, from Alaska, Bull. Nutt. Club, v, 1880, p. 160. 

622. A. m. ptfl-oc-ne'-mls. Gr. trri\ov, a feather, and KV-TJ/JLIS, a greave, boot ; the crus being 

feathered to the heel. 

This is the Tringa crassirostris of the orig. ed., very wrongly so named ; also, it is 
T. gracilis, Harting. See Coues, Elliott's Prybilov Islands, 1875. 

623. PSl-id'-na al-pi'-na. ? Gr. ire\i8v6s, gray; from ircXos, some dark color. Lat. Alpina, 

Alpine ; Alpes, Alps. See Eremophila, No. 82. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. Only North American as occurring in Green- 
land. See Newton, Man. Nat. Hist. Greenland, 1875, p. 103, where the Dunlin of 
Greenland is recognized as distinct from var. americana. 


624. Pelidna alpina americana (Cass.) Allen. B 530. c 424. R 539a. 

American Dunlin. 

625. Ancylochilus subarquatus (Giild.) Kaup. B 529. c 425. R 540. 

Curlew Sandpiper. 

626. Tringa caimtus L. B 526. c 426. R 529. 

Red-breasted Sandpiper; Robin Snipe; Knot. [See Addenda, No. 884. 

627. Calidris arenaria (L.) 111. B 534. c 427. R 542. 


628. Limosa fceda (L.) Ord. B 547. c 428. R 543. 

Great Marbled Godwit. 

629. Limosa hsemastica (L., 1758) Coues. B 548. c 429. R 545. 

Hudsonian Godwit. 

624. P. a. am-er-I-ca'-na. See Parula, No. 93. 

625. An-cy-lS-chi'-lus sub-ar-qua'-tus. Gr. dy/cvAoxeiAos, having a curved bill : aynv\os, 

crooked, bent, from a-yKtav, the bent elbow, and x^ os > ^ ie mouth, from a word signify- 
ing to open, to gape. Lat. subarquatus, slightly curved ; see Arquatella, No. 620. 

626. Trin'-ga can-u'-tus. Lat. tringa, or trynga, or tryngas, a sandpiper ; not classic. Derived 

from Gr. rptyyas, an obscure and obsolete word, occurring in Aristotle as the name of 
some unknown bird. The species was very aptly named by Linnaeus after old King 
Canute, who, it is said, sat on the seashore and allowed the waves to reach him, to 
rebuke his toadying courtiers who had declared the sea would obey his majesty, a 
myth according well with the habits of sandpipers. Canutus, if it has any relation 
with, or is of same meaning as canus, gray, hoary, vo\ios, is well suited either to the 
old king, or to this sandpiper in its winter dress. 

627. Cal-id'-rls a-re-na'-rl-a. Gr. <TKa\iSpis or Ka\iSpis, Lat. scalidris or calidris, an obscure 

Aristotelian bird, by some supposed to be the modern totanus calidris. The word is 
apparently from ovcaAis, some digging instrument, from 0-KaAAw, I scrape, rake, &c., and 
refers to the same probing habits of this sandpiper that ereuneles signalizes. But the 
form Chalidris also occurs, as in Belon for example ; whence some refer the word to the 
Gr. x^'l kat. ca l x > calculus, &c., considering that it alludes to the pebbly or shingly 
beaches which the bird frequents. Lat. arenarius, relating to sand ; arena, sand, or a 
sandy place, as the arena was, where gladiatorial and other sports were witnessed by 
the Roman brutes. 

628. Li-mo'-sa foe'-da. Lat. limosus, miry, muddy ; limus, mud, slime. We can learn nothing of 

any such word asfedoa, and take it to be a misprint or other mistake for fcedus, -a, -um t 
ugly, unseemly, &c. It might be supposed to have some relation to fcedus, a compact, 
treaty, the sense of which is seen in federal, confederate, &c., and the application of which 
would be to the gregariousness of the bird. But fcedus, in the latter sense, is not an 
adjective; it is fcedus, feeder is, and the adjectival form would be federatus ; while there is 
an adjective fxdus, ugly, as well as a verb fcedo, to defile, the participial of which is 
fcedatus. In view of these facts, we propose to substitutey^cfa forfedoa, until some satis- 
factory explanation of the latter can be given. Fedoa occurs at least as far back as 
Edwards as the name of this species, and has since passed unchallenged. 

629. L. haem-as'-ti-ca. Gr. cujuotrr/Kos or af/xart/cos, hsemastic or haematic, of a bloody-red 

color ; alfida-ffu, I make bloody ; at]ua, blood ; referring to the red under parts, so con- 
spicuous in this species. 

This stands as L. hudsonica in the orig. ed. See Coues, Bull. Nutt. Club, v, 1880, 
p. 100. 


630. Limosa aegocephala (L.) Leach. B . c . R 546. (G.) 

Black-tailed Godwit. 

631. Limosa uropygialis Gould. B . c 430. R 544. (!A.) 

White-rumped Godwit. 

632. Symphemia semipalmata (Gra.) Hartl. B 537. c 431. R 552. 

Semipalmated Tattler ; Willet. 

633. Totanus melanoleucus (Gm.) V. B 539. c 432. R 548. 

Greater Tattler ; Stone Snipe. 

634. Totanus flavipes (Gm.) V. B 540. c 433. R 549. 

Lesser Tattler; Yellowshanks. 

635. Totanus glottis (L.) Bechst. B 538. c 434. R 547. (!E.) 


636. Bhyacophilus ochropus (L.) Ridg. B . c . R 551. (IE.) 

Green Sandpiper. 

637. Bhyacophilus solitarius (Wils.) Bp. B 541. c 435. R 550. 

Solitary Tattler. 

638. Tringoi'des macularius (L.) Gr. B 543. c 436. R 557 

Spotted Tattler; Spotted Sandpiper. 

630. L. aeg-5-c6ph'-a-la. Gr. alyoKetyaXos, an Aristotelian epithet of some unknown bird ; it 

literally means "goat-headed," but what application 1 About the middle of the sixteenth 
century it was applied by Belon to a species of Limosa, perhaps from the cry of the bird 
being fancied like the bleating of a goat ; " bleating " is a term in every-day use now to 
express the peculiar sounds made by some snipes. The curious English word godwit 
is derived by Johnson from Anglo-Saxon god, good, and wiht, animal : by others from 
god, and wide, game ; latter not unlikely. 

Not in the orig. ed. Only North American as a straggler to Greenland. 

631. L. u-rS-py-gl-a'-Hs. See Centurus, No. 452. 

632. Sym-phe'-ml-a sSm-T-pal-ma'-ta. Gr. o-y^^i ; <r6v, with, and <t>r)fji.l, I speak; alluding to 

the noisy concerts of the birds. Lat. semipalmata, half-webbed: see ^Egialites, No. 584. 
"Willet" is derived from the sound of the bird's voice; sometimes written "pilwillet." 

633. T6-ta ; -nus mgl-an-S-leu'-cus. Totanus is Latinized from the Italian totano, a name of 

some bird of the kind. We suppose it should be accented on a lengthened penult. 
Gr. fjLe\as, genitive jueAcwos, black, and \evKos, white. 

634. T. fla'-vi-pes. Lat. flavus, yellow ; pes, foot. 

635. T. gl5t'-t!s. Gr. yhoocrora or yKwrra, the tongue ; referring to the noisiness of the bird. 

This is given in the orig. ed. as Totanus chhropus. 

636. R. 5ch'-r5-pus. Gr. uxpos, pale, sallow, wan, and TTOVS, foot. From this word come 

Lat. ochra, and our ochre, ochreous, ochraceous, as names of some dull yellowish color. 
Linnaeus had originally ocrophus by misprint. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since found in Nova Scotia as a straggler from Europe. See 
Bull. Nutt. Club, iii, 1878, p. 49. 

637. Rhy-a-c5'-phfl-\is sQl-T-ta'-rf-us. Gr. /3uo, genitive {>va.Kos, a stream, brook; free* or uo>, 

I flow ; and <j>i\as, loving, loved, a lover. Lat. solitarius, solitary; solus, alone. 

638. Trin-g6-i'-des mSc-ul-a'-rl-us. See Tringa, No. 623, and add elSos, resemblance. Note 

that the word is in four syllables, accented on the penult. Lat. macularius, not classic ; 
like maculatus and maculosus, spotted ; macula, a spot. 


639. Machetes pngnax (L.) Cuv. B 544. c 437. R 554. (IE.) 

Buff(^); Reeve (9). 

640. Bartramia longicauda (Bechst.) Coues. B 545. c 438. R 555. 

Bartramian Tattler. 

641. Tryngites rufescens (V.) Cab. B 546. c 439. R 556. 

Kurt-breasted Sandpiper. 

642. Heteroscelus incanus (Gm.) Coues. B 542. c 440. R 553. 

Wandering Tattler. 

643. Numenms longirostris Wils. B 549. c 441. R 558. 

Long-billed Curlew. 

644. Numenius phseopus (L.) Lath. B . c . R 561. (G.) 

European Whimbrel. 

639. Mach-e'-tes pug'-nax. Gr. fiaxyr-fis, a fighter, combatant, in allusion to the pugnacity of 

the male in the breeding season ; /, I fight ; /tcx>7, a battle. Lat. pugnax, pugna- 
cious, combative; pugao, I fight; pugna, a battle; properly, fisticuffs, as the primitive 
mode of fighting; pugnum, the fist; root pug, whence come the whole set of words, and 
others, as pygmy, &c. 

640. Bar-tram'-I-a lon-gl-caud'-S. To William Bartram, "grandfather of American orni- 

thology." The usual generic name, actiturus, is from the Gr. SLKT'ITTJS, a doer by the sea, 
a beach-inhabiter, a " longshoreman," from d/cr^, the seashore, and olpa, tail. Lat. 
longus, long, and cauda, tail. 

This is Actiturus bartramius of the orig. ed. See Coues, Bull. Nutt. Club, v, 1880, 
p. 100. 

641. Tryn'-gl-tes ru-fes'-cens. See Tringa, No. 626. Here we have another form of the word, 

nearer the original Gr. rp6yya.s, with the termination -TTJS, -tes ; this suffix commonly 
denoting active agency, as the English -er, for example, makes work-er from work. 
Lat. rufescens, present participle of rufesco, I grow reddish. 

642. Het-g-rS'-scSl-Qs m-can'-us. Gr. erepos, opposite, different, otherwise, and o-/ce\os, the 

leg, shin ; from the peculiar scutellation of the leg. Lat. incanus, very gray, quite 
hoary, as the bird is : in and canus. 

643. Nu-me'-nl-us lon-gl-ros'-trls. A curious etymology is this, if the derivation assigned be 

true. Gr. veos, new, young, and /j.-f]v, a month, id]vi\, the moon; the narrow arcuate bill 
being likened to the new crescent moon. The same word is seen in meniscus, a kind of 
lens, but primarily and literally a little moon. But numenius might also be derived 
directly from numen, a nod, a bending of the head downward and forward (hence assent, 
command, and hence a divinity, who nods assent or expresses its will by such gesture) ; 
Gr. j/eD/xa, a nod, vcfa, I nod ; very applicable to the attitude of the birjl. Whichever 
of these derivations we approve, they amount to practically the same thing; for numenius 
certainly refers to the shape of the bill, being used by the ornithologists of the heroic 
age as synonymous with arquata or arcuata. Lat. longirostris, long-billed ; longus and 
rostrum. " Curlew " is not an imitation of the bird's voice, but a mangling of the 
French name cour-fieu, " run-place," from the coursing of the birds : compare courlis, 
courly, courlan, cocorli, &c. 

644. N. phae'-Q-pus. Gr. <f>ai6s, dark colored, dusky, gray, swarthy ; its exact meaning is 

expressed when we say " gray of the morning : " related to <palvw, I appear ; TTOVS, foot. 
" Whimbrel " is apparently Anglo-Saxon ; related to whim, whimsical, in the sense of 
flighty, a gad-about. 

Not in the orig. ed. Only North American as a bird of Greenland. 


645. Nnmenius hudsonicus Lath. B 550. c 442. R 559. 

Hudsonian Curlew. 

646. NTimenms borealis (Fprst.) Lath. B 551. c 443. R 560. 

Eskimo Curlew. 

647. Numenius taitensis (Gm.) Lath. B . c 442fcw. R 562. (!A.) 

Otahiti Curlew. 

648. Tantalus loculator L. B 497. c 444. R 500. 

Wood Ibis. 

649. Plegadis falcinellus (L.) Kaup. B 500. c 445. R 503. 

Glossy Ibis. 

650. Plegadis guaranna (L.) Ridg. B . c 445M*, 445fer. R 504. 

White-faced Glossy Ibis. 

651. Endocimns albus (L.) Wagl. B 499. c 446. R 501. 

White Ibis. 

645. N. hGd-sSn'-I-cus. To Hudson's Bay, after Henry Hudson. 

646. N. bSr-g-a'-Hs. Lat. borealis, northern ; boreas, tlie northwind. 

647. N. ta-l-ten'-sls. Of Otaheite, one of the Society or Friendly Islands. The original orthog- 

raphy, tahitiensis, is resolvable into the above, which is less barbarous in sound and look. 
Though named for the island called in English Otaheite, or better Otahiti, the first syl- 
lable is to be dropped as being merely the definite article the. It is the native name 
O-tahiti, ^e-island ; i. e., the principal island. 

This is N.femoralis, Peale, of the orig. ed.. Appendix. 

648. Tan'-tal-us 18-cu-la'-tor. Gr. Te^raAoy, Tantalus, the Phrygian king, who, admitted to 

the councils of the gods, betrayed their secrets, and was tormented, " tantalized," with 
food and water in sight but unattainable. Lat. locus, a place ; loculus, a little place, 
division, compartment ; loculatus or loculosus, furnished with compartments, full of 
" pigeon-holes " ; but qu. loculator and its application to this bird ? 

649. Ple'-ga-dls fal-dn-el'-lQs. Gr. ir\r)yds, a scythe, sickle, from TTA^O-O-W or irX^rru, I strike. 

The actual form, Plegadis, may be a diminutive ; if so, it is exactly Greek for the quasi- 
Latin falcinellus,falcicuJa, or falcunculus, a little scythe, small hook ; falx, a reaping-hook 
or any thing of that falcate shape, as the bill of this bird is. See Falco, No. 498. 

This stands in the orig. ed. as Ibis falcinellus var. ordii. But it has proved to be not 
satisfactorily distinguished from the European form ; while as to the generic designa- 
tion, see Ibis, 1878, p. 112. 

650. P. gu-a-rau'-na. A barbarous word, of some South American (Brazilian) dialect. It 

occurs as such in Marcgrave and other early ornithologists. 

This stands as Ibis guarauna in the orig. ed. ; see No. 649. The Ibis thalassinus of 
Kidg., Am. Nat., viii, 1874, p. 110, inserted in the Appendix of the orig. ed. as No. 445 ter, 
proves to be the young of this species : see Coues, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. 
Terr., iv, No. 1, 1878, p. 57. 

651. Eu-dSc'-I-mTis al'-biis. Gr. tv86Ki/j.os, well-tried; hence, approved, famous, of high 

repute: from u, well, and Sdmfjios, assayed and found acceptable; Sexo/tcu, 1 accept. 
The ibis or ffiis of the ancients (not this species) was a celebrated and sacred bird; it 
was the Egyptian bird, now called Ibis cethiopica. Lat. albus, white. 
This is Ibis alba in the orig. ed. See Elliot, Ibis, 1877, p. 482. 


652. Eudocirmis rriber (L.) Wagl. B 498. c 447. R 502. 

Scarlet Ibis. 

653. Ajaja rosea (Briss.) Reich. B 501. c 448. R 505. 

Roseate Spoonbill. 

654. Mycteria americana L. B . c 4486/s. R 499. (!M.) 

American Jabiru. 

655. Ardea herodias L. B 487. c 449. R 487. 

Great Blue Heron. 

656. Ardea occidentalis Aud. B 488, 489. c 450, 451. R 486. 

Great White Heron ; Florida Heron. 

657. Ardea cinerea L. B . c . R 488. (G.) 

European Blue Heron. 

658. Herodias egretta (Gm.) Gr. B 486, 486*. c 452. R 489. 

Great White Egret. 

659. G-arzetta candidissima (Gm.) Bp. B 485. c 453. R 490. 

Little White Egret; Snowy Heron. 

660. Hydranassa tricolor (Mull.) Ridg. B 484. c 454. R 492. 

Louisiana Heron. 

652. E. rub'-6r. Lat. ruber, red. This is Ibis rubra in the orig. ed. 

653. Ajaja ro'-sS-5. Lat. roseus or rosaceus, rosy, rose-red; rosa, a rose; related to Gr. f>6$ov\ 

see for instance in rhodocolpus, rose-breasted. Ajaja or ajaia or aiaia or ayaya is the old 
Brazilian name of this bird, of signification and pronunciation alike unknown to us. 

This stands as Platalea ajaja in the orig. ed. ; for the change of this longstanding 
name, see Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, p. 10. 

654. Myc-te'-rl-a am-gr-I-ca'-na. Gr. ^vKT-ftp, the nose, snout; nvKrnpifa, literally, "I work 

the nose," i. e., turn up the nose at, sneer, scorn, deride, &c. ; well applied to the expres- 
sion of this ugly bird. 

655. Ar'-dg-a h6r-o'-dl-as. Lat. ardea, a heron. Gr. pc*>5;as, tyMs, or epdbSios, & heron. 

There is also a proper name Herodias. 

656. A. 6c-cl-den-ta'-lls. See Dendrceca, No. 113. 

NOTE. The Ardea wurdemanni of the orig. ed. is a dichroism of this species. See 
Ridg., Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., iv, No. 1, 1878, p. 227. 

657. A. cln-fir'-e'-a. Lat. cinereus, ashy. See Harporhynchus, No. 22. 

Not in the orig. ed. Only North American as occurring in Greenland. See Reinh., 
Ibis, 1861, p. 9. 

658. Hr-5'-dI-as e-gret'-ta. Latin proper name Herodias: see Ardea, No. 655. Egretta is 

Latinized from the French aigrette, a top-knot, plume; whence also egret. These words 
are said to be related to heron itself, all springing from O. H. G. hiegro, a heron. 

659. Gar-zet'-ta can-dl-dls'-sl-ma. Garzetta is the Italian name of the corresponding Euro- 

pean species. Lat. candidissima, very white, entirely white; superlative of candidus. 
See Falco, No. 501. 

660. Hyd-ra-naV-sa tri'-c51-8r. Gr. vScap, water, giving in Latin hydra-, and va<r<ra or ^o-tro, a 

water-fowl ; from a verb meaning to swim. We have here two words very fruitful of 
derivatives ; one giving us the compounds of hydr-, as hydraulic, the other those relating 
to the sea, a ship, or swimming: nautical, aeronaut, navy, navigate, nausea; the latter is 
originally " sea "-sickness, and literally " ship "-sickness. Lat tricolor, three-colored. 

This stands as Ardea kitcoyastra var. leucoprymna in the orig. ed. See Ridg., Bull. 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., iv, No.' 1, 1878, p. 224. 


661. Dichromanassa rufa (Bodd.) Ridg. B 482, 483. c 455. R 491. 

Reddish Egret. 

662. Florida ccemlea (L.) Bd. B 490. c 456. R 490. 

Little Blue Heron, 

663. Butorides virescens (L.) Cab. B 493. c 457. R 494. 

Green Heron. 

664. Nyctiardea grisea nsevia (Bodd.) Allen. B 495. c 458. R 495. 

American Night Heron. 

665. Nycterodius violaceus (L.) Reich. B 496. c 459. R 496. 

Yellow-crowned Night Heron. 

666. Botaums mugitans (Bartr.) Coues. B 492. c 460. R 497. 

American Bittern. 

667. Ardetta exilis (Gm.) Gr. B 491. c 461. R 498. 

Least Bittern. 

661. Di-chro-mS-nas'-sa ru'-fa. Gr. Sis, twice; XP^A"*> chroma, color ; originally, probably, 

flesh-color; and va<raa, a water-fowl; alluding to the dichroism or dichromatism which 
prevails in this and other herons, these birds of the same species being found either pure 
white or variously colored. Lat. rufus, reddish. 

This stands as Ardea rufa in the orig. ed. See Ridg., Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. 
Surv. Terr., iv, No. 1, 1878, p. 246. 

662. Fl5'-rl-da coe-rul-g-a. Lat.Jloridus, florid, flowery ; flos, a flower ; but the genus is named 

for the State of Florida. Lat. cceruleus, blue ; see Polioptila, No. 36. 

663. Bu-tor-i'-des vlr-es'-cens. Lat. butio or butor, a bittern; equal to bo-taur, bo-taurus, bos- 

taurus ? see Bubo, No. 462 ; e?5os, resemblance. There is also a proper name Butor ides 
Lat. virescens, present participle of viresco, I grow green, am greenish, from vireo, which 
see, No. 170. 

664. Nyc-tl-ar'-dg-a grls'-g-a nae'-vl-a. Badly formed from Gr. j>u|, gen. WKTJS, night, and 

Lat. ardea, a heron ; better Noctiardea, like Noctiluca, &c. Lat. griseus, see Macrorham- 
phus, No. 609, and Leucosticte, No. 205. Lat. ncevius, see Turdus, No. 5. 

665. Nyc-ter-o'-dl-us vI-6-la'-c6-us. Gr. */u|, night, and tyu8i6s, a heron, like the Latin ardea. 

Commonly written nyctherodius ; but we see no occasion for the h, the e not being aspi- 
rated ; though the h is seen in the Lat. herodias. Lat. violaceus, violet-colored ; viola, 
a violet, pansy. 

686. B5-tau'-rus mu-gl'-tans. The many words bittern, bitorne, bitore, butor, butio, are all onoma- 
topoeic, from the hollow guttural sound of the bird's voice, and are referable to bos- 
taurus or bo-taurus? see Bubo, No. 462. Lat. mugitans, bellowing; mugilo, I low like a cow ; 
as the children say, " moo." 

667. Ar-det'-ta ex-IMls. Ardetta is an Italian word, equivalent to ardeola, diminutive of ardea. 
Lat. exilis, contracted from exigilis, equivalent to exiguus, from exigo, this equal to ex 
and ago, literally, I drive out. Any thing exacted or exact, is carefully measured, con- 
sidered, strictly accounted for ; hence likely to be scanty, as opposed to abundant, or 
superfluous ; therefore, poor, thin, mean, small; any of these latter adjectives well suited 
to this lean little bird. We have the idea in several applications in the English words 
exigency, an emergency ; exiguous, small ; the French exigeant, exacting ; and in our 
rare though actual word exile, small. (The latter must not be confounded, however, 
with exile, banishment, one banished ; though this might seem exactly from exigo, " I 
drive out," it is from another root : exsulo, exsul.) 


668. Grus americana (L.) Temm. B 478. c 462. R 582. 

White Crane; Whooping Crane. 

669. G-rus canadensis (L.) Temm. B 480. c 463. R 584. 

Northern Sandhill Crane. 

670. Grus pratensis Bartr. B 479. c . R 583. 

Southern Sandhill Crane. 

671. Aramus pictus (Bartr.) Coues. B 481. c 464. R 581. 

Scolopaceous Courlan ; Limpkin. 

672. Parra gymnostoma Wagl. B . c . R 568. (! M.) 

Mexican Jacana. 

673. Rallus longirostris crepitans (Gm.) Ridg. B 553. c 465. R571. 

Clapper Rail ; Salt Marsh Hen. 

668. Grfis am-Sr-I-ca'-na. Lat. grus, genitive gruis, feminine noun of the third declension, a 

crane. The word refers to the hollow guttural voice of the birds, and is apparently 
related to English grunt, 

669. G. can-a-den'-sls. It was doubtless upon the northern bird, figured by Edwards, that 

Linnaeus based this name. G. fraterculus of Cassin has been found distinct from the 
common sandhill crane of the United States, and identical with the northern bird. It is 
therefore properly a synonym of canadensis, and another name must be found for the 
United States bird commonly called canadensis. See next species. See Ridg., Bull. 
Nutt. Club, v, 1880, p. 187 ; Coues, ibid., p. 188. 

670. G. pra-ten'-sls. Lat. pratensis, relating to pratum, a field. 

Not in the orig. ed. See last species. 

671. Ar'-a-mus pic'-tus. The word aramus is unknown to us. Agassiz gives it as " nom. 

propr." A correspondent remarks : " Vieillot's Analyse is very incorrectly printed, and 
some letter may have been omitted or changed ; hence the clue is still to seek. The 
origin seems hopeless, unless revealed by accident." Under these circumstances, it is 
consoling to reflect that the word is more decorous in form than many of known classic 
derivation. Lat. pictus, see Setophaga, No. 151. 

672. Par'-ra gym-no'-st6-ma. Parra is a good Latin word, being the name of some unknown 

bird regarded as of ill-omen ; as occurring in Pliny, said to be the European Lapwing, 
Vanellus cristatus. Transferred by Linnaeus to a mixed lot of spur-winged birds, 
chiefly of America. " Ja9ana " is the Brazilian name of a species of this genus ; made 
a generic term by Brisson in 1760, and we do not see why it should not be employed 
instead of Parra. Gr. yvp.v6s, naked, and oro'/ta, mouth ; in allusion to the caruncular 
skin at the base of the bill. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since discovered in Texas by J. C. Merrill : see Bull. Nutt. 
Club, i, 1876, p. 88; Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, p. 167. 

673. RalMiis lon-gl-ros'-trls crgp'-I-tans. Rallus is said to be contracted from rarulus, a 

diminutive of rarus, rare ; and to mean thin, slight ; if so, the adjective has become an 
apt generic name for these lean narrow birds. It is more likely, however, to be 
onomatopoeic, Latinized in late days from the French rash, rale, a rattling cry, Engl. 
rail, to reproach, deride, &c., having nothing to do with the English rail (of a fence) ; 
very applicable to these clamorous birds. Lat. longirostris, long-billed. Lat. crepitans, 
present participle of crepito, I creak, crackle, clatter, crepitate ; a frequentative or inten- 
sive form of crepo, of same signification. 
'This is R. longirostris of the orig. ed. 


674. Ballus longirostris obsoletus (Ridg.) Coues. B . c 466a. R 570. 

California Clapper Rail. 

675. Ballus longirostris saturatus Hensh. B . c . R 57ia. 

Louisiana Clapper Rail. 

676. Rallus elegans Aud. B 552. c 466. R 569. 

King Rail; Fresh Marsh Hen. 

677. Rallus virginianus L. B 554. C467. R 572. 

Virginia Rail. 

678. Porzana maruetta (Leach) Bp. B . c . R 573. (G.) 

Spotted Crake. 

679. Porzana Carolina (L.) V. B 555. c 468. R 574. 

Carolina Crake ; Rail ; Sora ; Ortolan. 

680. Porzana noveboracensis (Gm.) Cass. B 557. c 469. R 575. 

Yellow Crake. 

681. Porzana jamaicensis (Gm.) Cass. B 556. c 470. R 576. 

Black Crake. 

674. R. 1. ob-sdl-e'-tiis. Lat. obsoletus, obsolete, grown unaccustomed, passed out of vogue ; 

06, opposition, and solesco, I grow accustomed; soleo, I am accustomed. The application 
is to the faded, as if worn out and disused, coloration. 

This is R. elegans var. obsoletus, of the orig. ed., Appendix : see Bull. Nutt. Club, v, 
1880, p. 139. 

675. R. 1. sat-u-ra'-tus. Lat. saturatus, saturated, satiated, filled full ; i. e. t having eaten 

enough ; satis, enough : whence satisfied, &c. The allusion is to the color, which is full, 
i. e. rich, dark, heavy. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since described. See Bull. Nutt. Club, v, 1880, p. 140. 

676. R. 6Mg-gans. Lat. elegans or eligans, elegant ; literally, choice, select ; from e and lego, I 

pick out; quite equivalent to electus, chosen, picked, eclectic, &c. 

677. R. vir-gln-i-a'-nus. To Virginia, "mother of Presidents," and wet-nurse of Secession. 

678. P6r-za'-na ma-rii-et'-ta. Porzana is an Italian word, the meaning of which we know not ; 

it has been in book-use for several centuries, as the name of some marsh bird. Maruetta 
is likewise Italian : said to be applicable to anything by the sea, and hence to be equiva- 
lent to maritime. Crake is to crackle, cackle, creak, croak, quack, &c. ; see Crex, No. 
683, Querguedula, No. 714. 

Not in the orig. ed. Only North American as occurring in Greenland. See Reinh., 
Ibis, 1861, p. 12. 

679. P. ca-rd-li'-na. To Carolina. This is the rail of sportsmen. It is also called sora or 

soree ; why, we know not : the word is colloquial and local, and has scarcely crept into 
the books. The word "ortolan" has a curious connection with this species. It is 
Italian and French, equal to the Latin hortulanus, relating to a garden : the " ortolan " 
is Emberiza hortulana, a bunting, esteemed a great delicacy by gourmands ; and our 
crake has been called ortolan for no better reason than that it is also edible and sapid ! 
The same name is sometimes applied to the bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus, because it is 
found abundantly in the same marshes in the fall, and sells in the same restaurants as 
the same bird as the rail, the two being brought in together by the gunners. 

680. P. n8-vg-bSr-a-cen'-sIs. No New York. See Vireo, No. 181. 

681. P. jam-a-l-cen'-sls. To Jamaica. The name signifies in the vernacular the island of 

springs, of flowing water. 


682. Porzana jamai'censis coturniculus Bd. B . c 470a. R 576. 

Farallone Black Crake. 

683. Crex pratensis Beehst. B 558. c 471. R 577. (!E.) 

Corn Crake. 

684. G-allimila galeata (Licht.) Bp. B 560. c 472. R 579. 

Florida Gallinule. 

685. lonornis martinica (L.) Reich. B 561. c 473. R 578. 

Purple Gallinule. 

686. Fulica americana Gm. B 559. c 474. R 580. 

American Coot. [See Addenda, No. 885. 

687. Phcenicoptems ruber L. B 502. c 475. R 585. 

Red Flamingo. 

688. Cygnus buccinator Rich. B 562. c 476. R 589. 

Trumpeter Swan. 

689. Cygnus columbianus (Ord) Coues. B 56iw*. c 477. R 588. 

American Swan. 

^ . 

682. P. j. co-tur-nl'-cu-liis. Lat. diminutive of Cotumix, which see, No. 579. 

683. Crex pra-ten'-sis. Gr. itpe, Lat. crex, a crake; all three of these words are the same, 

meaning the creaking, crackling cry of the bird ; KPCKKCI), I make such a noise. Lat. 
pratensis, see Grus, No. 670. (A subgenus, " Crescicus," which passed in some American 
works for the black rail, was simply a misprint for creciscus, which is a Greek diminu- 
tive form of 

684. Gal-lin'-u-la gal-g-a'-ta. Lat. gallinula, a diminutive of gallina, a hen : see Gallinago, No. 

608. It is commonly but wrongly accented on the penult, and pronounced gaily-new' -ler ! 
But gahl-leen'-u-lah is doubtless nearer the sound a Roman would have made if he had 
used the word. Lat. galeata, helmeted ; galea, a helmet ; galeo, I crown with a helmet ; 
very apt, in allusion to the frontal shield of a bird of this genus. 

685. I-6n-6r'-nIs mar-tin'- 1- ca. Gr. tov, iwvia, a violet, and &pvts, a bird ; well applied to these 

luxurious porphyritic or hyacinthine " sultans." English violet is from Lat. viola, and 
this is very easily gotten from the Greek. To the island of Martinique. 

686. Ful'-I-ca am-Sr-I-ca'-na. Lat. fulica, same as fulix, a coot, from the sooty color of the 

bird; fuligo, soot, \vhencefuliginosus, &c. 

687. Phoe-nl-cop'-tgr-us rub'-gr. Gr. fpoivuttirrtpos, Lat. phcenicopterus, the flamingo ; literally, 

red-winged : </>oiVi| and irrfpov : see Ac/elceus, No. 316. Lat. ruber, red. English flamingo 
seems to come directly through the Spanish flamenco, the name of this bird ; both these, 
as the French flamant, are of course from the Latin flamma, flame, fiery-red. 

688. Cyg'-nus buc-cln-a'-t8r. Gr. KVKVOS, Lat. cycnus or cygnus, a swan ; famed for its dying 

song ; also name of a person fabled to have been transmuted into the bird. The name 
is probably rooted in the idea of singing, this being one of the most persistent and 
ubiquitous myths. Lat. buccinator, a trumpeter, who uses his cheeks so much in blowing 
his instrument ; buccina, or fivnavr), a trumpet ; bucca, the cheek. 

689. C. c8-lum-bl-a / -nus. Of the Columbia River, where specimens were noted by Lewis and 

Clarke, afterwards named by Ord. 

This stands in the orig. ed. as C. americanus. For the change, see Coues, Bull. U. S. 
Geol. Surv. Terr., 2d ser., No. 6, 1876, p. 444. 


690. Cygmis musicus Bechst. B . c . R 586. (G.IE.) 

Whooping Swan. 

691. Cygnus bewicki Yarr. B . c . R 587. (!E.) 

Bewick's Swan. 

692. Anser albifrons (Gin.) Bechst. B . c . R 593. (G.) 

European White-fronted Goose. 

693. Anser albifrons gambeli (Hartl.) Coues. B 565, 566. c 478. R 593. 

American White-fronted Goose. 

694. Chen coemlescens (L.) Ridg. B 564. c 479. R 590. 

Blue Goose. 

695. Chen hyperboreus (Pall.) Boie. B 563. c 480. R 591. 

Snow Goose. 

696. Chen hyperboreus albatus (Cass.) Ridg. B . c 480a. R 59ia. 

Lesser Snow Goose. 

697. Chen rossi (Bd.) Ridg. B . c 481. R 592. 

Ross' Snow Goose. 

690. C. mu'-sI-cQs. Gr. pavo-ticSs, Lat. musicus, relating to a muse, any one of the Muses ; 

hence, " music " is primarily and most properly to be predicated of high ideals in gen- 
eral, whether in science, letters, or art. The term musicus, however, as applied to a 
swan, is a lucus a non lucendo, unless a relationship between the Muses and the Graces 
be imagined. 

Not in the orig. ed., and here admitted with doubt. Greenland only, as straggler 
from Europe. See Reinh., Ibis, 1861, p. 13, and Freke, Zoologist, September, 1881, 
p. 372. See next species. 

691. C. be'-wlck-i. To Thomas Bewick. 

Not in the orig. ed., and here doubtfully admitted. See Pr. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 
p. 222, where Ridgway revives the record given in Fn. Bor.-Am. ii, 1831, p. 465, and 
states that the description of specimens killed at Igloolik, Arctic America, lat. 66, 
indicates the true Bewick's Swan. But on the doubt in the case of these Arctic Swans, 
if any different from C. colnmbiamis, see Newton, Man. Nat. Hist. Greenl., 1875, p. 113, 
and especially Freke, Zoologist, September, 1881, p. 366. 

692. An/se'r al'-bi-frons. Lat. anser, a goose. How anser came about we do not know; we sup- 
pose it related more or less radically to anas, and so to vao-cra, a duck ; see Hydranassa, 
No. 660. Lat. albifrons, white forehead. 

Not in the orig. ed., and here admitted with doubt, the identification of the Green- 
land white-fronted geese being questionable, cf. Reinh., Ibis, iii, 1861, p. 12 ; Newt., 
Man. Nat. Hist. Greenl., 1875, p. 113, and Freke, Zoologist, September, 1881,'p. . 

693. A. a. gam'-bgl-li. To William Gambel. 

694. Chen [pronounced cane] coe-rQl-es'-cens. Gr. xfa, a goose. See Dendroeca, No. 117. 

695. C. hy-per-bSr'-e'-us. Lat. hyperboreus, hyperborean, northern ; see Lobipes, No. 603. 

696. C. h. al-ba'-tfis. Lat. albatus, whitened, made white. 

697. C. rSs'-si. To Bernard R. Ross, Chief Factor, H. B. Co. 


698. Chloephaga canagica (Sevast.) Eyt. B 573. c 482. R 598. 

Painted Goose. 

699. Bernicla leucopsis (Bechst.) Boie. B 572. c 483. R 597. (!E.) 

Barnacle Goose. 

700. Bernicla brenta (Pall.) Steph. B 570. c 484. R 595. 

Brant Goose. 

701. Bernicla brenta nigricans (Lawr.) Coues. B 571. c R 596. 

Black Brant Goose. 

702. Bernicla canadensis (L.) Boie. B 567. c 485. R 594. 

Canada Goose; Common Wild Goose. 

703. Bernicla canadensis leucoparia (Brandt) Coues. B 568. c 485a. R 594^, 

White-cheeked Canada Goose. [594c. 

704. Bernicla canadensis hutchinsi (Rich.) Coues. B 569. c 4856. R 594a. 

Hutchins' Canada Goose. 

705. Dendrocygna fulva (Gm.) Burra. B 575. c 486. R eoo. 

Fulvous Tree Duck. 

706. Dendrocygna antumnalis (L.) Eyt. B 574. c 487. R 599. 

Autumnal Tree Duck. 

698. ChlS-e'-pha-ga ca-na'-gl-ca. Gr. x^a or x\<fy, young grass, whence x*- w pt*> green ; 

Qdyu, I eat. Mr. H. W. Elliott informs us there are Eskimos of Alaska who call them- 
selves " Kanagiamoot," i. e., "the people of the Kanag" whatever that may be; 
whence quasi-Lat. canagica. 

699. Ber'-nl-cla leu-cop'-sls. Bernicla or bernicula is Latinized from the French bernicle or 

bernache, Engl. barnacle. We only know this word as the name of the little cirriped crus- 
taceans out of which this goose was fabled to sprout, ripen, and fall like a fruit from 
its stem. A correspondent observes : " Max Muller says hibernaculum, but he gives no 
reason whatever (nor for hiberniculce) founded on the word having been ever used." (cf. 
Lect. on the Sci. of Lang., 2d ser.) Gr. \evK6s, white, and otyis, appearance. 

This species is Greenlandic, but otherwise North American only as a straggler. For 
a re'sume' of occurrences, see Freke, Zoologist, September, 1881, p. 372. 

The geese of this genus stand in the orig. ed. as species of Branta ; but that word 
having been found unavailable as a generic term, the name Bernicla is restored. 

700. B. bren'-ta. Latinized from brent, brant, brand, or branded goose; the forms brentus and 

brenthus are also found. See Campylorhynchus, No. 63. Brent or brant goose is therefore 
simply burnt goose, from its blackish appearance, as if charred. 

701. B. b. nlg'-rf-cans. Lat. nigricans, being blackish, like nigrescens. Not in the orig. ed. 

702. B. ca-na-den'-sls. See Myiodioctes, No. 149. 

703. B. c. Ieu-c8-pa-ri'-a. Gr. Aev/c<fe, white ; vapftd, the cheek. 

704. B. c. hutch'-Tn-si. To - Hutchins, to whom we were at one time indebted for most 

that was known of the birds of interior British America. 

705. Den-dr5-cyg'-na ful'-va. Gr. SevSpov, a tree, and KVKVOS, a swan ; see Cygnus, No. 688. 

L&t.fulvus, fulvous, reddish. 

706. D. au-tum-na'-lls. Lat. autumnalis or auctumnalis, relating to the autumn, when the 

increase of the earth is harvested ; auctumnus, the autumn ; auctus, an increase, increased ; 
auctar, a producer, author ; augeo, I increase, furnish forth, augment. 


707. Anas boscas L. B 576. c 488. R eoi. 


708. Anas obscura Gm. B 577. c 489. R 602. 

Dusky Duck. 

709. Anas obscura fulvigiila Ridg. B . c 489a. R 603. 

Florida Dusky Duck. 

710. Dafila acuta (L.) Jen. B 578. c 490. R 605. 

Pintail; Sprigtail. 

711. Chaulelasmus strepems (L.) Gr. B 584. c 491. R 604. 


712. Mareca penelope (L.) Selby. B 586. c 492. R 606. (!E.) 

European Widgeon. 

713. Mareca americana (Gm.) Steph. B 585. c 493. R 607. 

American Widgeon. 

714. Querquedula crecca (L.) Steph. B 580. c 494. R en. (IE.) 

English Teal. 

707. An'-as bos'-cas. Lat. anas, a duck; doubtless related to vavffa. See what is said under 

Hydranassa, No. 660. Gr. potritds, Lat. boscas or boscis, a duck, probably this very 
species ; from )8J(r/c<w, I graze. This word has almost invariably, in ornithology, beera 
written boschas very wrongly, as Wharton was lately at pains to point out (Ibis, 1879 r 
p. 453). 

708. A. ob-scu'-ra. Lat. obscurus, dark, obscure. 

709. A. o. ful-vl'-gfi-la. Lat. fulvus, fulvous, and gula, throat. This and many similar word* 

are viciously accented on a long penult. 

710. Da'-fl-la a-cu'-ta. Dafila is a nonsense-word, invented by W. E. Leach, like Barelda r 

meaning nothing. Lat. acuta, sharpened, pointed ; as the tail of the bird is. 

711. Chau-le-las'-mus strSp'-6-rfis. Gr. x a ^ los > prominent, projecting, protuberant; and' 

\aa/j.6s, a layer, plate, lamella; referring to the denticulations of the bill. Lat. stre- 
perus (not classic), noisy, clamorous; as we should say, obstreperous ; strepitus, a noise;, 
strepo, I make a fuss. 

712. Ma-re'-ca pe-n61'-8-pe. Mareca is said to be a Brazilian vernacular word for some kind 

of duck ; long after, it was transferred to the widgeon. But it may also be remarked 
that there is the Lat. Marlca, a water-nymph. Eay has Mareca (Syn., p. 149). Penel- 
ope was the celebrated wife of Ulysses, mother of Telemachus ; penelops, or in Gr.. 
ir-nv4\oty, was some kind of duck. Linnaeus wrote the latter. 

713. M. am-Sr-I-ca-na. See Parula, No. 93. 

714. Quer-quS'-dii-la crec'-ca. Lat. querquedula, a kind of small duck; etymology obscure, 

and not at all to our way of thinking in the authorities consulted ; apparently from 
KapKafpoa, Kpx&, KfpKis, KipKij, KpcKOD, Kpt}-, a set of onomatopoeic words formed to express- 
a shrill or harsh creaking sound ; hence related to creak, quack, crackle, &c , and quite 
equivalent to the very word crecca, which we have here, and which seems but an arbitrary 
adjective formed from KpeKw. Charleton calls one of the ducks Anas " caudacuta, The 
Cracke (a strepitu)." The form quacula is found in some writers; and "quack" is the 
usual word to express a duck's voice. See Crex, No. 683. 


715. Querquedula carolinensis (Gm.) Steph. B 579. c 495. R 612. 

Green-winged Teal. 

716. Querquedula discors (L.) Steph. B 581. c 496. R 609. 

Blue-winged Teal. 

717. Querquedula cyanoptera (V.) Cass. B 582. c 497. R 6io. 

Cinnamon Teal. 

718. Spatula clypeata (L.) Boie. B 583. c 498. R 608. 


719. Aix sponsa (L.) Boie. B 587. c 499. R 613. 

Summer Duck ; Wood Duck. [See Addenda, No. 886. 

720. Fuligula marila (L.) Steph. B 588. c 500. R 614. 

Greater Black-head ; Scaup Duck. 

721. Fuligula affinis Eyt. B 589. c 501. R 615. 

Lesser Black-head; Scaup Duck. 

722. Fuligula collaris (Donov.) Bp. B 590. c 502. R 616. 

Ring-neck; Black-head. 

723. Fuligula ferina americana (Eyt.) Coues. B 591. c 503. R 618. 

American Pochard ; Red-head. 

715. Q. c5-r6-lln-en'-sls. To Carolina. The genus Nettion, in which this teal has been placed 

by some, is the Gr. v^rrtov, a little duck ; contracted from v-nrrdpiov, a diminutive of 
vrjffffa or vijrra : see Hydranassa, No. 660. Very curiously, it seems to have been used 
by the Greeks as a familiar term of endearment, just as we sometimes now say " little 
duck," or " ducky darling ." 

716. Q. dis'-cors. Lat. discors, discordant, disagreeing, unlike; literally "two-hearted," from 

dis, twice, and cor, the heart ; opposed to concors, concordant. 

717. Q. cy-an-6p'-te-ra. Gr. Kvav6s, blue, irrepov, wing. 

718. Spa'-tu-la clyp-S-a'-ta. Lat. spatula or spathula, Gr. o-iraQis, a spathe, spatula, spoon, ladle ; 

with reference to the spathulous or spoon-like shape of the bird's bill. Lat. clypeatus, 
furnished with a shield, wearing a shield; clypeus or clipeus oT-clupeus or clipeum, a shield: 
commemorating in this case the rounded expanse of the bill. 

719. A '-Ix spon'-sa. Gr. a)f or &i ; application not obvious. Nor is the orthography settled. 

If the word be from the monosyllable a? it should be Latinized cex ; if from the dissyl- 
lable &( it becomes aix. In the uncertainty, we do not change the accustomed form ; 
though we suspect cex to be preferable. Lat. sponsa, a bride, a spouse, a betrothed ; 
that is, a promised one ; spondeo, I promise sacredly, I vow. Prettily applied to this 
lovely duck, as if the bird were arrayed for bridal. 

720. Ful-Ig'-u-la ma-ri'-la. Lat. fuligula or fulicula, diminutive of fulica or fulix, a coot ; fuligo, 

soot. Marila we know nothing about ; qu., a proper name ? qu. Gr. ^op/A.7j, embers, 
charcoal, from the scaup's pitch-black foreparts ? 

721. F. af-fin'-Is. Lat. affinis, affined, allied ; ad, and Aral's. See Campylorhynchus, No. 64. 

722. F. col-la'-rfs. Lat. collaris, relating to the neck, collum; this species having a ring of color, 

like a collar, round the neck. 

723. F. fg-ri'-na am-gr-I-ca'-na. Lat./en'na, wild, in a state of nature, feral. 


724. Fuligula vallisneria (Wils.) Steph. B 592. c 504. R 617. 


725. Clangula glaucium (L.) Brehm. B 593. c 505. R 620. 


726. Clangula islandica (Gm.) Bp. B 594. c 506. R 619. 

Barrow's Golden-eye. 

727. Clangula albeola (L.) Steph. B 595. c 507. R 621. 

Buffle-head; Butter-ball; Spirit Duck. 

728. Harelda glacialis (L.) Leach. B 597. c 508. R 623. 

Long-tailed Duck; Old Wife. 

729. Camptolsemus labradorius (Gm.) Gr. B eoo. c 509. R 624. 

Labrador Duck. 

730. Histrionicus minutus (L.) Coues. B 596. c 510. R 622. 

Harlequin Duck. 

724. F. val-Hs-ner'-I-a. Vallisneria is a genus of aquatic plants, the wild celery, V. spiralis L., 

named for Antoine Vallisner, a French botanist. The name was applied to the bird 
from its fondness for this plant as food. The name canvas-back, from the peculiar 
coloration of the upper parts, is an Americanism which has been in use at least since 
1800. (e.g., see Barton, Med. and Phys. Jo urn., pt. i, vol. ii, 1805, p. 161.) 

725. Clan'-gu-la glau'-cl-um. Lat. clangula, diminutive of clangor, a clang, noise ; the corre- 

sponding Gr. K\ayy*fi means particularly the outcry of wild animals ; K\dfa, future 
K\dyw, I cry out. It was applied to this bird several centuries ago. Gr. yKavmov or 
y\avKtov, a kind of wild duck, perhaps this very species. Under the varying forms of 
glaucion, glaucium, glaucius, and glaucia, it has been definitely applied to this duck for 
more than three centuries. 

726. C. is-land'-I-ca. To Iceland. See Falco, No. 500. 

727. C. al-bg'-S-la. Diminutive (irregular) form of albus, white: albula would be better form. 

"Buffle-head" is a corruption of buffalo-head, from the puffiness of the head: "butter- 
ball" from the fatness of the bird at times : " spirit duck," from the quickness of diving. 

728. Har-el'-da gla-cl-a'-lis. Harelda is a nonsense-word, invented by Leach. Lat. glacialis, 

glacial, icy, relating to ice; glades, ice. (Unde derivatur ? cf. Gr. y\avKos.) 

729. Camp-t6-laem'-us lab-ra-do'-rl-us. Gr. /CO^TTT^S, flexible, as leather is, for instance; 

Kap.iru>, I bend ; and Ao/yuJs, the throat ; but the whole word refers to the soft leathery 
expansion of the bill, as if Camptorhynchus, for which latter word, preoccupied in zoology, 
it was proposed as a substitute. To Labrador ; which name is said to have been given 
to the country by the Spaniards, it being considered cultivable, as Greenland was not ; 
Span, labrado, cultivated land ; labrador, laborer ; labrar, to work. 

730. His-trl-o'-nl-cus ml-nu'-tus. Lat. histrionicus, histrionic, relating to histrio, a stage- 

player ; because the bird is tricked out in various colors, as if it were dressed to play 
some part on the stage. The word is related in the most interesting manner to historia, 
history, and histology, the science of tissues of the body ; the idea being the weaving 
together of things, to make, as history, a connected account, as in histology, a tissue of 
organs. We still say, for example, a tissue of falsehood, &c. These words are all 
related to I<rr6s, a loom, or the web woven on it. 


731. Somateria stelleri (Pall.) Jard. B 598. c 511. R 625. 

Steller's Duck* 

732. Somateria fischeri (Brandt) Coues. B 599. c 512. R 626. 

Spectacled Eider. 

733. Somateria mollissima (L.) Boie. B . c . R 627. 

Eider Duck. 

734. Somateria mollissima dresseri (Sharpe) Coues. B 606. C 513. R 627a. 

American Eider Duck. 

735. Somateria v-nigra Gray. B 607. c 514. R 628. 

Black-throated Eider. 

736. Somateria spectabilis (L.) Boie. B 608. c 515. R 629. 

King Eider. 

737. CEdemia americana Sw. B 604. c 516. R 630. 

American Black Scoter. 

738. CEdemia fusca (L.) Flem. B eoi. c 517. R 631. 

Velvet Scoter; White- winged Scoter. 

739. CEdemia perspicillata (L.) Flem. B 602. c 518. R 633. 

Surf Duck. 

731. So-mat-g'-rl-a stlMSr-i. Gr. <rw/ta, genitive a-^aros, the body, and epiov, wool, down; 

with reference to the famous " eider-down " produced by species of this genus. To 
G. W. Steller, the surgeon and naturalist of Behring's second voyage, 1741-42. 

732. S. fisch'-gr-i. To Gotth. Fischer von Waldheim, a Russian naturalist. 

733. S. mol-lis'-sl-ma. Lat. mollissima, superlative degree of mollis, soft; this a contraction 

for movilis, mobile, moveable, from moueo, I move. The reference is of course to the 
downy plumage. 

See next species. Since the American bird has been distinguished from the Euro- 
pean, the latter has been said to be also found in North America, on the west side of 
Cumberland Gulf. See Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, p. 222. This requires us to 
restore the name S. mollissima, but it is No. 734 that equals No. 513 of the orig. ed. 

734. S. m. drgs-sSr-I. To Henry E. Dresser, of London, author of the "Birds of Europe," &c. 

This is the S. mollissima of writers on American birds and of the orig. ed. of the 
Check List. See Sharpe, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1871, p. 51. See last species. 

735. S. v-nlg'-ra. This is a queer way of saying that the bird has a black v-shaped mark on 

the throat " digammated," indeed! 

736. S. spec-ta'-bi-lls. Lat. spectabilis, that may be seen, hence, worth seeing, a spectacle ; 

specto, spicio, specio, I look at ; whence a thousand derivatives. 

737. De-de'-ml-a am-Sr-I-ca'-na. Gr. o^5r//ta, Lat. oedema, a swelling, tumefaction; olSdw, I 

swell ; referring to the humpiness or gibbosity of the bill. 

738. O. fus'-ca. Lat. fuscus, fuscous, dark; not well applied to this black bird. 

739. O. per-splc-fl-la'-ta. Irregularly formed from perspido; equivalent to perspicibilis, con- 

tracted to perspicilis, and then given a participial termination, as if from a verb per- 
spicillo; meaning perspicuous, that may be clearly seen, hence conspicuous, spectacular; 
see Somateria, No. 736. 


740. CEdemia perspicillata trowbridgii (Bd.) Coues. B 603. c 5i8a. R . 

Long-billed Surf Duck. 

741. Erismatura rubida (Wils.) Bp. B 609. c 519. R 634. 

Buddy Duck. 

742. Nomonyx dominica (L.) Ridg. B 610. c 520. R 635. 

St. Domingo Duck. 

743. Mergus merganser L. B en. c 521. R 636. 

Merganser; Goosander. 

744. Mergus serrator L. B 612. c 522. R 637. 

Red-breasted Merganser. 

745. Mergus cucullatus L. B 613. c 523. R 638. 

Hooded Merganser. 

746. Sula bassana (L.) Briss. B 617. c 524. R 650. 

Gannet; Solan Goose. 

747. Sula leucogastra (Bodd.) Salv. B 618. c 525. R 652. 

Booby Gannet. 

748. Pelecanus trachyrhynchus Lath. B 615. c 526. R &v . 

American White Pelican. 

740. O. p. trow-brld'-gl-i. To W. P. Trowbridge, who collected in California. 

741. Er-is-ma-tu'-ra rfib'-I-da. Gr, fpeicr/j.a, a stay, prop, pier, and ovpa, tail, as the stiffened 

member of the bird might seem to be. Lat. rubidus, ruddy, reddish. 

742. N5m-5'-nyx dfim-In'-I-ca. Gr. va^os, law, order, regular way, and uw, nail. The nail at 

the end of the bill in all the species of so-called Erismatura, except rubida, is formed in a 
particular way. See Dendrceca, No. 129. . 

743. Mer'-gGs mer-gan/-s6r. Lat. mergus, a diver; mergo, I dive, mergere, mersi, mersum> 

whence submerged, immersed, &c. Merganser is simply mergus + anser, i. e., diving- 

744. M. ser-ra'-tor. Lat. serrator, a sawyer; serratus, sawn, i.e., saw-shaped, serrate, serried, 

as the prominent teeth of the bill look like those of a saw ; serra, a saw ; supposed to be 
equal to secra, from seco, I cut. 

745. M. cii-cul-la'-tus. Lat. cucullatus, hooded, wearing the cucuttum, a kind of hood, a capu- 

chon, perhaps from its circular shape (KVK\OS). Very appropriate in this case. 

746. SiiMa bas-sa'-na. Sula, by Agassiz given as a proper name, was Latinized lately from 

the French name, Le Side. Quasi-Lat. bassanus is an adjective derived from the name 
of one of the great haunts of the bird, the Bass Rock, Firth of Forth, Scotland. 

747. S. Ieu-c6-gas'-tia. Gr. Aev/ofc, white, and ycurr-fip, the belly. 

This stands as S. fiber in the orig. ed. See Salv., Tr. Z. S. ix, pt. ix, 1875, p. 496. 

748. Pgl-e-ca'-nus trach-y-rhynch'-us. Gr. ireXeKav, or ireXficivos, or Lat. pelecanus, a pelican. 

The etymology is obscure; but the pelican was fabled to strike and wound its own 
breast, that the young might be nourished with blood ; and there are various Greek and 
Latin wofds signifying some cutting and striking instrument, as an axe, which are 
nearly identical in form with the above. Gr. rpax^s, rough, uneven, and frvyxos, the 
beak ; with reference to the deciduous excrescence or " centre-board " on the upper 


749. Pelecanus fuscus L. B 616. c 527. R 641. 

Brown Pelican. 

750. Phalacrocorax carbo (L.) Leach. B 620. c 528. R 642. 

Common Cormorant. 

751. Phalacrocorax dilophus (Sw.) Nutt. B 623. c 530. R 643. 

Double-crested Cormorant. 

752. Phalacrocorax dilophus cincinnatus (Brandt) Ridg. B 022. c 520. 

White-tufted Cormorant. [R 64~6. 

753. Phalacrocorax dilophus floridamis (Bartr.) Coues. B624. cssoa. R643a. 

Florida Cormorant. 

754. Phalacrocorax mexicanus (Brandt.) S. & S. B 625. c 531. R 644. 

Mexican Cormorant. 

755. Phalacrocorax penicillattis (Brandt) Heerm. B 626. C 532. R645. 

Tufted Cormorant. 

756. Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Pall. B 621. 0533. R 648. 

Pallas's Cormorant. 

757. Phalacrocorax bicristatus Pall. B . c 534. R 647. 

Red-faced Cormorant. 

758. Phalacrocorax violaceus (Gm.) Ridg. B 627. c 535. R 646. 

Violet-green Cormorant. 

749. P. fus'-cQs. Lat./wscus, fuscous, dark. 

750. Phal-a-cr6'-c8r-ax car'-bo. Gr. 0aAa/cpoKo/mf, Lat. phalacrocorax, a cormorant; from 

<pa\a.Kp6s, bald, and /c(fy>a|, a raven. Compare Phalaropus, No. 604. The cormorant was 
often called " sea-crow," and " cormorant " is nothing but corvus marinus ; Fr. cormoran ; 
Ital. corvo marino; Span, cuervo marino or cuervo calvo (bald-headed crow). Lat. carbo, a 
coal, charcoal ; whence carbon ; from the black color. 

The cormorants are all given as Graculus in the orig. ed. But this was according 
to a way which G. R. Gray had of determining the types of genera, which has been 
found not available. Graculus signifies that the bird is so like a crow in color ; of. Eng- 
lish " sea-crow," above. 

751. P. dl'-18ph-iis. Gr. Sis, twice, and Ao>os, crest. 

752. P. d. cm-cm-na'-tus. Lat. cincinnatus, having curly hair; Lat. cincinnus, Gr. KIKIVVOS, a 

curly lock. 

753. P. d. flo-ri-da'-nus. To Florida. Bartram named the bird before Audubon did. 

754. P. mex-l-ca'-nus. To Mexico. See Sialia, No. 28. 

755. P. pe-nl-cilMa'-tiis. Lat. peniciHum, a pencil, or painter's brush ; equivalent to peniculus, 

a little brush; this from penis, a tail, or the male organ: compare pendeo, I hang; as 
something pendent or appendaged. The reference is to the tufts of lengthened feathers 
on the bird. 

756. P. per-spfc-fl-la'-tus. See (Edtmia, No. 739. 

757. P. bi-cris-ta'-tfis. Lat. bis, twice, and cristatus, crested. Exactly equal to the Gr. 5iAo0oj. 

758. P. vI-S-la'-ce-Gs. Lat. violaceus, violet-colored ; viola, a violet. See lonornis, No. 685. 


759. Phalacrocorax violaceus resplendens (Aud.) Ridg. B . c . R646a. 

Baird's Cormorant. 

760. Plotus anhinga L. B 628. c 636. K 649. 

Anhinga; Darter; Snake-bird. 

761. Tachypetes aquilus (L.) V. B 619. c 537. R 639. 

Frigate Bird; Man-of-war Bird. 

762. Phaethon sethereus L. B . c . R 655. (?!) 

Red-billed Tropic-bird. 

763. Phaethon flavirostris Brandt. B 629. c 538. R 654. 

Yellow-billed Tropic-bird. 

764. Stercorarius skua (Briinn.) Coues. B 652. c 539. R 696. 


765. Stercorarius pomatorhinus (Temm.) Lawr. B 653. c 540. R 697. 

Pomatorhine Jager. 

759. P. v. res-plen'-dens. Lat. resplendens, resplendent, splendid, or lustrous ; resplendeo or 

splendeo, I shine, gleam. Splendor is derived by some etymologists from 0-7rA?j(j/)5o's, 
live coals. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since recognized by Ridgway, Pr. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, p. 222. 
Farallone Islands. 

760. Plo'-tus an-hin'-ga. Gr. ir\caT6s, being a good swimmer; from ir\(a<a or ir\4<t>, I swim, 

navigate ; Lat. plotus ; and very early applied, in ornithology, to divers swimming birds. 
Anhinga is a barbarous word, from the Portuguese anfnna, and equivalent to the 
Lat. anguina, snaky; anguis, a snake; very well applied to this curious bird, which in its 
subaqueous excursions strangely resembles a swimming serpent. See Coues, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, iii, 1878, p. 101. We should like to substitute the Latin form of the word, 
but that would probably be going too far. 

761. Tach-y'-pgt-es a'-quil-us. Gr. TOXVTTCTTJS, Lat, tachypetes, flying rapidly; raxvs, swift, 

and irerofAai, I fly. Lat. aquilus, swarthy, dark-colored. The word is vaguely sup- 
posed by most persons to have something to do with aquila, an eagle, in consideration 
of the raptorial prowess of this piratical high-flyer ; but it would in that case be either 
aquila, substantive, an eagle, or aquilinus, adjective, aquiline. Aquila and aquilus are 
doubtless the same word, etymologically ; but the present specific name has nothing 
further to do with the genus Aquila, which see, No. 532. 

762. P. ae-thg'-rS-us. Gr. alOepios, Lat. cetkereus, etherial, relating to the al6-f)p, (ether, ether, or 

serene upper air, as opposed to a-fip, aer, the lower aerial region ; the birds of this genus 
being noted for soaring aloft. Th. aWca, &a>. 

Not in the orig. ed. If there be no mistake in identification, this species has 
straggled to Newfoundland. See Freke, Comp. List B. of Eur. and N. A., p. 44 (repaged 
from Proc. Roy. Soc. Dubl., 1879). 

763. Pha'-e-thon fla-vl-ros'-trls. Gr. 3>a49aov, Lat. Phaethon, a proper name, an epithet of the 

sun ; Phaethon having once undertaken to drive the chariot of the sun, his father Helios ; 
well applied to these highly aerial birds of the Tropics. Sometimes very wrongly 
written Phcethon, and even Phazton. Lat. flauirostris, yellow-billed. 

764. Ster-cSr-a'-rl-iis skii'-S. Lat. Stercorarius, having to do with ordure, a scavenger; stercus, 

excrement ; from the filthy habits of the bird. Skua is the name applied to the bird 
by the Faeroese. 

765. S. po-ma-tS-rhmMis. Gr. irw^a, genitive ir^aros, a flap, lid, cover ; and pis, genitive ptvos, 


766. Stercorarius parasiticus (Brunn.) Gra}^. B 654. c 541. R 698. 

Parasitic Jager. 

767. Stercorarius biifibni (Boie) Coues. B 655. c 542. R 699. 

Arctic Jager; Long-tailed Jager. 

768. Lams glaucus Brunn. B 656. c 543. R 660. 

Glaucous Gull. 

769. Larus leucoptems Faber. B 658. c 544. R661. 

White-winged Gull. 

770. Lams glaucescens Licht. B 657, 659. c 545. R 662. 

Glaucous-winged Gull. 

771. Lams marimis L. B 660. c 546. R 663. 

Great Black-backed Gull. 

772. Lams argentatus Brunn. B . c 547. R 666. 

Herring Gull. 

773. Lams argentatus smithsoniamis Coues. B eei. c 547a. R 666a. 

Smithsonian Herring Gull. 

the nose ; from the scale-like covering of the nostrils. Temminck, habitually careless 
in such matters, originally wrote pomarinus, and we have almost always said "pomarine" 
jager, with some vague notion of the sea in the case of this marine bird ; but Newton's 
explanation of the word, as above, is undoubtedly correct. 3a$er or jaeger is the German 
for hunter, these birds being habitual hunters and plunderers of the gulls and terns. 
The name was originally applied to a class of wild huntsmen who lived on the banks of 
the Rhine, and supported themselves entirely by plunder and robbery. 

766. S. par-a-si'-tl-cus. Gr. irapcunTiitSs, Lat. parasiticus, parasitic; Gr. irapdviros, Lat. para- 

situs, a parasite, from irapd, by the side of, and o-r-ros, grain, food ; literally, one who sits 
at the table of another ; as we should say now, in vulgar parlance, a " free-luncher," 
" bummer," " dead-beat " ; hence, in general, any kind of a hanger-on. 

767. S. buf-f6n'-i. To Jean Louis Le Clerc, Compte de Buffon, the famous French panegyrist' 

of nature, particular friend of Linnaeus, who wrote a great history of birds with the 
help of the Abbe' de Montbeillard, and caused Daubenton to prepare the celebrated 
1008 Planches Enluminees. 

768. Lar'-us glau'-cus. Gr. \dpos, Lat. larus, a gull. Lat. glaucus, glaucous, bluish, y\avit6s. 

See Glaucidium, No. 484. Gull is supposed to be named for its gluttony, from gulo, a 
glutton (gula, the gullet) ; Welsh, gwylan; Fr., godand. 

769. L. leu-cop'-tgr-us. Gr. ACUK^S, white, and vrfptv, wing. 

770. L. glau-ces'-cens. Lat. (decidedly post-classic) glaucescens, the present participle of a 

suppositious inceptive verb glaucesco, 1 grow bluish ; meaning here somewhat bluish. 

771. L. ma-ri'-nus. Lat. marinus, marine; mare, the sea. 

" 772. L. ar-gen-ta'-tus. Lat. argentatus, silvered, silvery ; the participle of an obsolete verb 
argento; argentum, silver, money, from &pyvpos, silver, apy6s, white, the color of the 
metal. One writer has criticised the use of argentatus to denote a silvery color, arguing 
that argentatus would mean silvered over, silver-plated, or frosted, and proposed to sub- 
stitute some other derivative of argentum. But this is hypercriticism ; the word is 
more apt or fit for the bird than most specific names are. 

773. L. a. srnlth-sSn-T-a'-nQs. To the Smithsonian Institution ; this named for James Smithv 
son, illegitimate son of Hugh Percy, Duke of Northumberland. 


774. Larus occidentalis And. B 662. c 5476. R 664. 

Western Herring Gull. 

775. Lams cachinnans Pall. B . c . R 667. 

Pallas's Gull. 

776. Larus affinis Reinh. B . c . R 665. (G.) 

Reinhardt's Gull. 

777. Larus californicns La wr. B 663. c 548a. R 668. 

Calif or nian Gull. 

778. Larus delawarensis Ord. B 664. c 548. R 669. 

Ring-billed Gull. 

779. Larus canus L. B . c . R 671. (! E.) 

Mew Gull. 

780. Larus brachyrhynchus Rich. B 665, 673. c 549. R 670. 

American Mew Gull. 

781. Larus heermanni Cass. B 666. c 551. R 672. 

White-headed Gull. 

782. Rissa tridactyla (L.) Bp. B 672. c 552. R 658. 

Kittiwake Gull. 

774. L. 6c-cid-en-ta'-lls. See Dendrceca, No. 113. 

775. L. ca-chm'-nans. Lat. cachinnans, laughing immoderately; cachinno, I roar with laughter; 

Gr. /coxaC or Kayxdfa, of same meaning. Well expressing the outcry of the gull. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since determined to occur in Alaska. This is L. borealis of 
Baird, Trans. Chicago Acad., i, 1869, p. 305. 

776. L. af-fi'-nls. Lat. affinis, allied; ad and finis. See Campylorhynchus, No. 64. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since determined to be a good species ; North American only 
as accidentally Greenlandic. See Reinh., Vid. Medd. Nat. For. Kj<b., 1853, p. 78. 

777. L. cal-I-for'-nl-cus. To California. 

778. L. dgl-a-war-en'-sls. To the State of Delaware ; named for Lord De La Ware. 

779. L. ca'-nus. Lat. canus, ashy, hoary-gray. Mediately derived from /cat'co, to burn, con- 

sume, the root here seen giving rise to many words, as cinereus, kinetic, &c. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since ascertained to inhabit Labrador. See Saunders, P. Z. S., 
1878, p. 178, and Brewer, Bull. Nutt. Club, iii, 1878, p. 50. 

780. L. brach-y-rhynch'-us. Gr. ftpaxvs, short, and ^tryxos, beak. 

NOTE. We give all these Lari, excepting one, as good species, in deference to recent 
investigation ; but much doubt that the method of treating them in the orig. ed. is not 
more natural after all. 

781. L. heer'-man-m. To Dr. Adolphus L. Heermann, of Philadelphia, who collected exten- 

sively in the south-west. 

This stands in the orig. ed., very erroneously, as L. belcheri. 

782. Ris'-sa trl-dac'-ty-la. Rtssa or Ritsa is the Icelandic vernacular name. Lat. tris, thrice, 

and dactylus, digit, whether finger or toe : Gr.. SC^TI/AO?. This bird has the hind toe 
rudimentary, leaving only three perfect digits. Kittiwake is an old Scotch name of 
this species ; perhaps from its cry. 


783. Rissa tridactyla kotzebuii (Bp.) Coues. B . c 552a. R 658a. (?) 

Kotzebue's Kittiwake. 

784. Hissa brevirostris Brandt. B 674, 675. c 553. R 659. 

Short-billed Kittiwake. 

785. Pagophila eburnea (Gm.) Kanp. B 676, 677. c 550. R 657. 

Ivory Gull. 

786. ChroTcocephahis atricilla (L.) Lawr. B 667. c 554. R 673. 

Laughing Gull. 

787. Chroicocephahis franklini (Rich.) Bruch. B 668, 66'.). c 555. R 674. 

Franklin's Rosy Gull. 

788. Chroicocephaliis Philadelphia (Ord) Lawr. B 670. B 556. R 675. 

Bonaparte's Rosy Gull. 

789. Rhodostethia rosea (Macg.) Bruch. B 678. c 557. R 676. 

Wedge-tailed Gull. 

790. Xema sabinii (Sab.) Leach. B 680. c 558. R 677. 

Fork-tailed Gull. 

791. Xema furcata (Prov. & Des Murs) Bruch. B 679. c 559. R 678. 

Swallow-tailed Gull. 

792. Sterna anglica Mont. B esi. c 560. R 679. 

Gull-billed Tern; Marsh Tern. 

783. R. t. k6t-z6-bui'-i. To Otto de Kotzebue, the Russian navigator. 

784. R. brg-vl-ros'-trls. Lat. brevis, short, and rostris, pertaining to the bill, rostral; from 


785. Pa-g5'-phl-la g-bur'-ng-a. Gr. irdyos, ice, and <f)i\os, loved. Lat. eburnea, of ivory, like 

ivory (in whiteness or hardness) ; ebur, ivory ; directly from the Sanscrit word for 

786. Chr5-i-cS-cgph'-a-lus a-trf-dlMa. Gr. xpwts, colored, and Kre4>aA4 head. This word 

has given great trouble from Eyton's, the founder's, saying it was from KPOIKOS, there 
being no such word. Various attempts to derive it from xp ot< * or XP^ a > or from XP^ y > 
Xpots, color, and to rectify the supposed erroneous orthography, have resulted in 
kroikocephalus, chrcecocephalus, chroiocephalus, chroocephalus. Wharton has shown Eyton's 
original orthography to be correct, lacking only the diaeresis over the i, there being 
actually such an adjective as XP UII{ ^ S > not given in the common dictionaries. (See 
Zoologist, March, 1878, p. .) Lat. atricilla, black-tailed; only applicable to the 
young bird. See Motacilla, No. 86. 

787. C. frank'-lln-i. To Sir John Franklin. 

788. C. phil-a-del'-phi-a. To the City of Brotherly-Love. See Geaihlypis, No. 142. 

789. Rh5-do-ste'-thl-a rSs'-S-a. Gr. p68ov, the rose, and orrrtQos, the breast ; rose-breasted. 

Lat. roseus, rosy. 

790. XS'-ma sa-bin'-T-I. Xema is a nonsense word, invented by Leach : it is sometimes written 

zema. To Edward Sabine, by his brother. 

791. X. fur-ca'-ta. lua,t.furcatus, forked, furcate, bifurcate, forficate; furca, a fork. 

792. Ster'-na angMI-ca. Sterna is not classic, having nothing to do with stiirnus, a starling, or 

with sternum, the breast-bone, or sterna, to strew. Agassiz gives the latter etymon. It is 


793. Sterna caspia Pall. B 682. c 561. R 680. 

Caspian Tern. 

794. Sterna maxima Bodd. B 683. c 562. R 681. 

Cayenne Tern ; Royal Tern. 

795. Sterna elegans Gamb. B 684. c 563. R 682. 

Elegant Tern. 

796. Sterna cantiaca Gm. B 685. c 564. R 683. 

Sandwich Tern. 

797. Sterna hirundo L. B 689. c 565. R 686. 

Common Tern or Sea Swallow. 

798. Sterna forsteri Nutt. B 686, 691. c 566. R 685. 

Forster's Tern. 

799. Sterna macrura Naum. c 690, 693. c 567, 568. R 687. 

Arctic Tern. 

800. Sterna dougalli Mont. B 692. c 569. R 688. 

Roseate Tern. 

801. Sterna superciliaris antillarum (Less.) Coues B 694. c 570. R 690. 

Least Tern. 

a Latinization, perhaps not older than about 1523, of the English tern, or stern, or sterne, 
or stirn, there being all these, and other old forms of the word ; Danish tcerne, &c. We 
have a vague impression that the word is onomatopoeic, from the cry of the bird One 
of the names of the bird is the Swiss Schnirring. Most languages, however, have a 
different set of words, equivalent to our sea-swallow; as Fr. llirondelle-de-mer ; Germ. 
<See*3c!)ftaIbe, &c. Lat. anglica, English ; Montagu having named the bird after a 
country where it is comparatively seldom seen. 

793. S. cas'-pt-a. To the Caspian Sea. 

794:. S. max''-I-ma. Lat. maximus, superlative degree of magnus, large. 

This is S. regia of the orig. ed. We are now willing to accept Boddaert's name. 

795. S. e-'-ie-gans. See Rallus, No. 673. 

This is S. galericulata of the orig. ed. We are glad to return to the orig. name of this 
species, which H. S. has shown to be not galericulata Licht, as S. & S. had it. 

796. S. can-tl-a'-ca. An adjective formed from Cantium, a place in Britain, mentioned by 

Julius Caesar; now Kent, England. 

797. S. hlr-un'-do. See Hirundo, No. 159. 

798. S. f5r'-ster-L To John Reinh old Forster, who wrote, among many other things, a valuable 

account of Hudson's Bay birds, published in 1772. 

799. S. mac-ru'-ra. Gr. yuo/cpJy, long, and ovpa, tail. The word is often written macroura, and 

% defensibly so, the full form being macrooura. But it is permissible to shorten oou into 
long ii, as we habitually do in leucurus for leucoourus. 

800. S. dou'-gal-K. To Dr. McDougall, of Scotland. 

This stands as S. paradisea Briinn., of the orig. ed. But Brunnich's bird being 
unquestionably the Arctic Tern, No. 799, we do not see why the latter should not be 
called S. paradisea. 

801. S. sup-er-cil-T-a r -rTs. Lat. superciliaris or super -ciliosus, supercilious; i.e., relating to the 

eye-brow, supercilium ; super and cilium, a hair ; because one raises the eyebrows in expres- 


802. Sterna trudeaui Aud. B 687. c 571. R 684. (is. A.) 

Trudeau's Tern. 

803. Sterna aleutica Bd. B . c 572. R 689. 

Aleutian Tern. 

804. Sterna fuliginosa Gm. B 688. c 573. R 691. 

Sooty Tern. 

805. Sterna anaesthetica Scop. B . c 574. R 692. 

Bridled Tern. 

806. Hydrochelidon lariformis (L., 1758) Coues. B 695. c 575. R 693. 

Black Tern. 

807. Hydrochelidon leucoptera (Meisn.) Boie. B . c 575&is. R 694. (! E.) 

White-winged Black Tern. 

808. Anotis stolidns (L.) Gray. B 696. c 576. R 695. 

Noddy Tern. 

809. Bhynchops nigra L. B 697. c 577. R 656. 

Black Skimmer. 

sion of certain emotions, as, surprise. But when surprised at anything, we question it, 
or doubt it, and this implies a feeling of superiority in ourselves; -hence haughtiness, 
loftiness, even disdain and scorn, for the person or object which makes us supercilious. 
Super is the Gr. v-n-ep. Cilium is the eyelid, before transferred to the eyelashes ; it is the 
Greek nvXa, the eyelids. Cilia, in the plural, has latterly been much used in the sciences 
for any sort of little hairs or fringes, orjlagdla ; as, ciliated epithelium, &c. Lat. antil- 
larum, of the Antilles ; in the genitive plural. 

802. S. tru-deau'-i. To Dr. James Trudeau, of Louisiana. 

Included as North American on the authority of Audubon. 

803. S. a-leu'-tl-ca. To the Aleutian Islands. 

804. S. fu-H-gin-o'-sa. See Canace, No. 559. 

805. S. an-aes-the'-ti-ca. Gr. avaKrO-nrucSs, insensible, unfeeling, not perceiving; hence, as 

applied to this bird, stupid, foolish ; a or av, privative, and otV^rtK^s, sensible, &c. ; 
ctiffQ-riais, sensation, perception, feeling; aia-ddvoiJiai, I perceive. We have the English 
aesthetic direct from the Greek, though this has experienced a refinement of meaning the 
original did not possess ; also in medicine, anaesthesia, the state of insensibility produced 
by such drugs as aether or chloroform, called from their property, ancesthetic. The word 
has been brutally written anosthceta ; anastheta is one amendment already introduced, and 
the above is a further improvement. 

806. Hy-dro-che'-H'-don lar-!-for'-mIs. Gr. fjSwp, water, and x f ^ct>v, a swallow, i.e., sea- 

swallow. Lat. lariformis, gull-like, shaped like a gull: larus and forma. 

807. H. leu-cop'-tS-ra. Gr. tevxos, white, and irrepov, wing. 

North America in one known instance (Wisconsin) ; see Brewer, Am. Nat., 1874, 
p. 188. 

808. A'-nS-us st61'-?-diis. Gr. &voos or &vovs, literally mindless, unmindful of ; a privative and 

vovs, the mind, intellect, understanding. It is applied to the bird as exactly equivalent 
to stolidus, or ancesthetica, as stolid, apathetic, insensible, in view of its indifference to 
the presence of man. Lat. stolidus, stolid; related to stultus, foolish, silly. 

809. Rhynch'-ops nlg'-ra. Gr. pvyxs> tne beak, and dty, the face ; well applied to a bird whose 

extraordinary beak is such a prominent feature. Lat. niger, feminine nigra, black. 


810. Diomedea brachyura Teinm. B 631. c 578. R 701. 

Short-tailed Albatross. 

811. Diomedea nigripes Aud. B . c 579. R 700. 

Black-footed Albatross. 

812. Phcebetria fuliginosa (Gm.) Coues. B 633. c 580. R 703. 

Sooty Albatross. 

813. Ossifraga gigantea (Gm.) Reich. B 634. c 581. R 704. (!) 

Giant Fulmar. 

814. Fulmarus glacialis (L.) Steph. B 635. c 582. R 705. 


815. Fulmarus glacialis pacificus (And.) Coues. B 636. c 5S2. R 705a. (?) 

Pacific Fulmar. 

816. Fulmarus glacialis rodgersi (Cass.) Coues. B .05826. R 7056. (?) 

Rodgers's Fulmar. 

817. Priocella tenuirostris (Aud.) Ridg. B 637. c 583. R 706. (!) 

Slender-billed Fulmar. 

810. Dl-S-me-de'-a brach-y-u'-rS. Lat. Diomedeus, adjective relating to Diomedes or Atoju^5>js, 

Jove-counselled, a Grecian hero famous at the siege of Troy : application probably 
fanciful. Pliny's Diomedeaz aces were birds living on the Island Diomedea in the 
Adriatic. Gr. Ppaxvs, short, and ovpa, tail. 

811. D. nlg'-rl-pes. Lat. niger, black, andpes, foot. 

812. Phoe-be'-tri-a fu-li-gin-6'-sa. Gr. <poi/3^rpia, a prophetess, soothsayer, like 0oij8a<rrpia, 

Pkoebastria, another genus of this family invented by Reichenbach ; 4>oi/3aw is to 
prophesy; literally, to "play Apollo" with oracular utterances; *o?/3os, Phoebus, a 
Bynonym of Apollo. These words are with great propriety and correct sentiment 
applied to albatrosses, the import of whose weird presaging will be felt by one who reads 
Coleridge's " Antient Mariner," or himself goes down the deep in ships. 

813. Os-si'-fra-ga gi-gan'-tg-a. Lat. ossffragus, bone-breaking, from os, genitive ossis, a bone, 

and frango, I break; in the perfect, fregi, participle fractus: three forms of the word 
repeated in English in. frangible, fragile, fracture: the Latin digammated from Gr. pyyvvm ; 
the stem here seen giving an immense crop of words. Lat. giganteus, gigantic, giant ; 
the original " giants," gigantes, riyavres, were a race of Titans, who attempted to scale 
high heaven; they were the sons of Tartarus and Earth; but, being probably illegiti- 
mate, took the name of their mother ; " gigantic " meaning literally " earth-born," 
yyyevfis ; yrt, and 

Only North American as astray on the high sea. 

814. Ful'-ma-rus gla-d-aMis. Fulmarus is arbitrary Latinization of fulmar, which is said to be 

akin to full 'mart, foulmart, or foumart, a polecat ; probably from foul (dirty), and the root 
of the word murder ( Wharton's MS.). Glacialis, see Harelda, No. 728. 

815. F. g. pa-cl'-fl-cus. See Anorthura, No. 77. 

816. F. g. rSd'-ggr-si. To Commodore John Rodgers, U. S. Navy. 

817. Pri-6-cel'-la t6n-u-T-ros'-tris. Priocella we do not recognize, unless, perhaps, it is a 

frightful concatenation of Prion and Procellaria, two well-known genera of this family. 
French ornithologists were frequentlj' guilty of such atrocities ; see Embernagra, No. 311, 
for example. Agassiz gives it as Prion and Procella. Prion is the Gr. irpiuv, a saw, from 
the prominent teeth of the bill; for Procellaria, see below. Lat. tenuirostris, slender- 


818. Daptium capense (L.) Steph. B639. c 584. R 719. (!) 

Pintado Petrel; Cape Pigeon. 

819. CEstrelata hsesitata (Kuhl) Coues. B 638. c 585. R 717. (!) 

Black-capped Petrel. [See Addenda, No. 887. 

820. CEstrelata bulweri (Jard. & Selb.) Coues. B . c . R 718. (G. !E.) 

Bulwer's Petrel. 

821. Halocyptena microsoma Coues. B . c 58C. R 720. 

Least Petrel. 

822. Procellaria pelagica L. B 645. c 587. R 721. 

Stormy Petrel. 

823. Cymochorea leucorrhoa (V.) Coues. B 642. c 588. R 723. 

Leach's Petrel. 

billed ; tenuis, slender, slight ; more literally thin, as if spread out thin ; from tenuo, I 
make thin, dilute, rarefy ; from Gr. rflvu>, I stretch out, spread out, extend. 
The bird is questionably North American, unless as astray on the high sea. 

818. Dap'-tl-um cap-en'-se". Gr. Sdrrriov or SUTTTIOV, a diminutive of SvTmjs or Urrjs, a diver. 

This set of words vary in the vowels in different dictionaries, and may not all be found ; 
compounds of them are seen in ornithology in eudyptes,, c. They are all from 
one root. The above is almost universally written daption, but in transliteration from 
Greek to Latin becomes properly daptium. Capense, of the Cape of Good Hope, which 
was the cape in those days ; Caput Bonce-Spei, as it was called ; caput, head, a headland. 
" Pintado " is painted ; i. e., of variegated colors ; pingo, I paint. 
Only North American as astray on the high sea. 

819. Oes-tre'-la-ta haes-i-ta'-ta. Gr. oiVrp^AoTos, literally, goaded on by a gad-fly, (i.e., a 

goad-fly), olvrpos, oestrus, as cattle are; hence, goaded on in any way, as these wide- 
ranging ocean birds seem to be by some mysterious impulse winch drives them over the 
waves. The latter part of the word, -lata, the "goaded on " part of the whole idea, is from 
the Gr. c'AoiW, I urge on, drive. Lat. hcesitata, literally, stuck fast; hcesito, I stick fast, 
intensified from hcerco, I hang to, cleave to, adhere ; in a tropical sense, I hesitate ; the 
latter is the application in this case, the describer of the bird being uncertain about it, 
and therefore hesitating to name it. When at length the above generic and specific 
terms were combined, the bird was put in the bad way of a stuck-fast gad-about ! 
Only North American as astray on the high sea. 

820. O. bul'-wgr-i. To Bulwer. 

Only North American as a straggler to Greenland. See Newton, Man. Nat. Hist. 
Greenl., 1875, p. 108 ; Freke, Zoologist, September, 1881, p. 378. 

821. Hal-o-cyp-te'-na mic-rS-so'-ma. Gr. ii\s, genitive a\6s, the salt sea, UKVS, swift, TTTTJ^OS, 

winged. Gr. fj.(Kpos, small, troD/m, body; "the sharp-winged little sea-body." 

822. PrS-cel-la'-rl-a pgl-a'-gl-ca. Lat. proceRaria or procellosa, stormy, tempestuous, relating 

to storm ; proce/la, a storm. Gr. Tre\aytKos, pelagic, relating to the sea ; thoroughly 
Greek, but transferable into Latin. Petrel is commonly fancied to be a diminutive 
of Peter, Petrus, who attempted to walk on the sea of Galilee, as these little birds seem 
to be continually doing, in the way they patter over the ocean waves ; but there are 
many forms of petrel, as petteril, peterel, &c., and the word may be related to the verb 
to patter, just used. 

823. C^-mo-chSr-e'-a leu-cor'-rho-a. Gr. Kv^a, genitive KV/J.CITOS, the surging billows, and 

xopeio or xP?? a > a choir, a dancing; literally, the wave-dancers. One of my critics has 
favored me with an excellent reason why, according to his faithful dictionary, the 


824. Cymochorea melaena (Bp.) Coues. B 643. c 589. R 724. 

Black Petrel. 

825. Cymochorea homochroa Coues. B . c 590. R 725. 

Ashy Petrel. 

826. Oceanodroma furcata (Gm.) Bp. B 640. c 501. R 726. 

Fork-tailed Petrel. 

827. Oceanodroma hornbyi (Gr.) Bp. B 641. c 592. R 727. 

Hornby's Petrel. 

828. Oceanites oceanicus (Kuhl) Cones. B 644. c 593. R 722. 

Wilson's Petrel. 

829. Fregetta grallaria (V.) Bp. B 646. c 594. R 728. (!) 

Lawrence's Petrel. 

830. Priofimis melanurus (Bonn.) Ridg. B651. c 595. R 707. (!) 

Black-tailed Shearwater. 

word ought to have been cymatochoreutes. We would refer him to his dictionary again 
for certain words beginning with sync- and euph-. The stem of the first part of the word 
is seen in accumulate, to roll up ; of the second in chord, choir, choral, choresis, or chorea 
(St. Vitus's dance), &c. Gr. \CVKOS, white, and 8pf>os, the rump. 

824. C. mgl-ae'-na. Gr. /teAas, feminine fj.f\a.tva, black. The orthography introduced by 

Bonaparte, melania, requires to be emended as above. 

825. C. hS-mo'-chr8-a. Gr. 6/j.6s, equal, like, and xp' a color; in allusion to the unicolor 


826. O-cg-an-o'-drS-ma fur-ca'-ta. Gr. 'n/cecwfy, Oceanus, the divinity of, and the ocean 

itself; supposed to be UKVS, swift, and vtu, I flow. See Ammodramus, No. 238, and 
Hydranassa, No. 660. Lat. furcatus, forked ; furca, a fork. 

827. 6. horn'-by-i. To Admiral Hornby, R. N. 

828. O-cS-an-i'-tes o-cg-an'-I-ciis. Gr. wKeavlrrj?, a son of the sea; sprung from Oceanus. 

See Oceanodroma, No. 826. Gr. uKeavnc6s, oceanic. 

829. Frg-get'-ta gral-la'-rf-a. Fregetta, fregeta, fregata, as variously spelled, is from the Ital. 

fregata, Span, fragata, Fr. frigate, Eng. frigate ; according to Diez, the Lat. fabricata ; 
originally applied in French ornithology to the bird called man-of-war, Tachypetes 
aquilus; applied by English ornithologists about 1790 to some species of the present 
family, and very lately taken by Bonaparte for a generic term. Grallce, among the 
Romans, was a pair of stilts, the word being contracted from gradula, this from gradus, 
a step ; and the Grallatores were people who acted on the stage on stilts. The word was 
early taken in ornithology for wading birds, called grallce or gral/atores, from their length 
of leg ; from these words we have derived the English adjectives grallarial and grallato- 
rial; and grallaria is an obvious easy Latin derivative, though probably never used by 
the Romans. 

Only North American as astray on the high sea. 

830. PrI-8'-fin-us mgl-an-u'-rus. Priofinus, unless we are mistaken, is a dreadful concoction 

of prion and puffinus, by the same victims of misapplied ingenuity who gave us Priocella; 
see this, No. 817, and Puffinus, next below. Gr. ju Acts, genitive /xeAcwoy, black, and 
olpa, tail. 

Only North American as astray on the high sea. 


831. Puffinus kuhli (Boie) Bp. B . c 596. R 708. 

Cinereous Shearwater. fSee Addenda, No. 888. 

832. Puffinus major Faber. B 647. c 597. R 709. 

Greater Shearwater. 

833. Puffinus creatopus Coop. B . c 598. R 710. 

Flesh-footed Shearwater. 

834. Puffinus anglorum Temrn. B 649. c 599. R 711. 

Manks Shearwater. 

835. Puffinus obscurus (Gm.) V. B 650. c eoo. R 712. 

Dusky Shearwater. 

836. Puffinus opisthomelas Coues. B . C601.R713. 

Black-vented Shearwater. 

837. Puffinus fuliginosus A. Strickl. B 648. c 602. R 714. 

Sooty Shearwater. 

83 1 . Puf'-fin-us kuhl'-i. Two very different kinds of birds early received the name of puffein 

or puffin: one of these, the Fratercula arctica, has retained it in English, in place of the 
old English coulterneb ("ploughshare-nose"), which soon gave way; the French now 
call it macareux. The other, namely, the shearwater, soon lost the name of puffin; but 
meanwhile puffin had been taken into the books, and, at the pen of those who wrote 
their treatises in Latin, became puffinus or puphinus; and this was subsequently fixed 
as a generic term for the Shearwater Petrels. We do not know the exact meaning of the 
word, but suppose it has something to do with puff, as suggested by the stout, " puffy " 
shape of the bodies of the Auks, as if puffed up. The species is dedicated to Dr. Hein- 
rich Kuhl, whose early death left much promise unfulfilled. 

832. P. ma'-jor. Lat. major, greater, comparative degree of magnus, great. 

833. P. crg-at'-8-pus. Gr. Kpeas, genitive Kp4aros. flesh, and irovs, foot ; in allusion to the 

color of the feet. We see the same stem in the anatomical term pan-creas, " all-flesh." 

834. P. an-glS'-riim. " Puffinus anglorum " is a curiosity. It simply says in Latin " the puffin 

of the English," just as one might cite Puffinus jonstoni, the puffin of Jonston's treatise. 
Willughby, edited in Latin in 1676, called it " Puffinus Anglorum," meaning only that it 
was the bird " called puffin in English"; and Temminck, in 1820, not unhappily made 
the phrase generic and specific as the technical name of the bird. ' Manks " or " Manx " 
is the name of the people and of their language, of the Isle of Man ; so " manx shear- 
water" is as if we were to say "the puffin of the Isle of Man." " Shearwater" is 
defined by early ornithologists as " avis aquce super/idem radens," the bird that grazes, 
skims, shaves, shears over the surface of the water ; rado, I shave, scrape ; the stem is 
seen in erase, razor, &c. See above, Puffinus, No. 831. 

835. P. 6b-scu'-rus. Lat. obscurus, dark-colored. 

NOTE. There is doubt that the small dark shearwater of our South Atlantic coast 
is the P. obscurus of Gmelin, and Finsch has lately proposed to call it P. auduboni. But 
until we have more light on this obscure group/we prefer not to disestablish several well- 
settled names in this genus. See Ridg., Pr. Nat. Mus., ii, 1880, p. 12. 

836. P. 8-pIs-th6'-mg-las. Gr. fono-fle, backward, and /j.4\as, black; a Greek way of saying 

black behind. 

NOTE. This is supposed by some to be Puffinus gavia (Forst.). 

837. P. fu-li-gin-6'-sfis. See Canace, No. 559. 


838. Puffimis amanrosoma Coues. B . c 603. R 715. 

Spectral Shearwater. 

839. Puffinus tenuirostris Temm. B . C 604. R 716. 

Slender-billed Shearwater. 

840. Colymbns torquatus Briinn. B 698. C. 605. R 736. 

Great Northern Diver or Loon. 

841. Colyrnbns torquatTis adamsi (Gr.) Coues. B . c 605a. R 737. 

Yellow-billed Loon. 

842. Colymbus arcticus L. B 699. c 606. R 738. 

Black- throated Diver. 

843. Colymbus arcticus pacificus (Lawr.) Coues. B 700. c 606a. R 739. 

Pacific Black-throated Diver. 

844. Colymbus septentrionalis L. B 701. c 607. R 740. 

Red-throated Diver. 

845. JEchmophorus occidentalis (Lawr.) Coues. B 704. c 608. R 729. 

Western Grebe. 

846. ^Eciimophoms occidentalis clarki (Lawr.) Coues. B705. ceosa. R730. 

Clark's Grebe. 

847. Podicipes griseigena holbcelli (Reinh.) Coues. B 702. c 6io. R 731. 

American Red-necked Grebe. 

838. P. a-mau-rS s5'-ma. Gr. a^avpos, dark, dim, dusky, and creD/to, body. 

NOTE. This is probably Proc. grisea Gm., as held by Finsch and Salvin. 

839. P. ten-ti-l-ros'-tris. See Priocella, No. 817. 

840. C6-lym'-bus tor-qua'-tus. The Latin colymbus is simply a transliteration from the Greek,. 
and has nothing to do, notwithstanding the great similarity, with the purely Latin 

columba, a dove; the latter being not Greek at all, nor the former Latin, except as 
directly transferred from the Greek. The two words are consequently not related, 
unless it be in a radical manner; Corssen, however, considers them to be the same. Gr. 
K6\vfji0os or /eoAu/ijSis, a diver or swimmer; KoXv^dw, I dive, swim. The K6\v/j.fits of 
Aristotle was a species of grebe (Podicipes). Lat. torquatus, see Asyndesmus, No. 456. 
" Loon " is an old Scotch word. See No. 874. 

841. C. t. a'-dams-I. To Dr. C. B. Adams, of the British Navy. 

842. C. arc'-ti-cus. See Sialia, No. 29. 

843. C. a. pa-cl'-fi-cus. See Anorthura, No. 77. 

844. C. sep-ten-tri-o-na'-lis. Lat. septentrionalis, northern ; septentriones, the north, northern' 

regions ; septem-trio, the constellation of the Wain. See Parus, No. 45. 

845. Aech-m5'-ph5r-us oc-cld-en-ta'-lis. Gr. alx^, a spear, and <f>opos, bearing; in allusion 

to the long, slender, sharp bill. For occidentalis, see Dendrceca, No. 113. Grebe is a' 
French word, the meaning of which we do not know. 

846. A. o. clark'-i. To J. H. Clark. 

847. Pdd-I'-ci-pes gris-6I'-ggn-a h81'-boei-ll. The extraordinary word "podiceps" has 

excited much curiosity, and stimulated some ingenious surmises. As it stands, podiceps^ 
seems to be the Greek irovs, genitive TroS^s, foot, and the Latin termination -ceps, denot- 
ing head ; and "foot-head " it has doubtless been taken to be by many, who, if thinking 
of it at all, have felt vaguely that some allusion was intended to the bird's somersaulting 


848. Podicipes corimtus (Gm.) Lath. B 706. c 6ii. R 732. 

Horned Grebe. 

849. Podicipes amitus (L.) Lath. B 708. c . R 733. (G.) 

European Eared Grebe. 

850. Podicipes anritus californicus (Heerm.) Coues. B 707. c 612. R 733. 

American Eared Grebe. 

851. Podicipes dominions (L.) Lath. B 708a. c eis. R 734. 

St. Domingo Grebe. 

852. Podilymbus podicipes (L.) Lawr. B 709. c 614. R 735. 

Pied-billed Grebe; Dab-chick. 

853. Fratercula corniculata (Naum.) Gray. B 713. c 617. R 744. 

Horned Puffin. 

in the water, turning "heels over head," as we should say. In deriving the name of 
the family of grebes, some curious words have been ventured ; as Podici/>ince, as if the 
genitive were podicipis, or Podicipitince, as if the genitive were podicipitis. There is no 
doubt that podiceps, and everything derived from it, is absurd. We have not traced the 
word back of 1758, when it probably originated in a misprint. Going back further in 
the annals of ornithology, we soon come upon the word in its proper form, viz., podicipes, 
occurring repeatedly in Willughby and various writers of about that period. The word 
is the Latin podex, genitive podicis, the rump, buttocks, and pes, foot ; being simply a 
translation into Latin of a very vulgar English name. Having crystallized in the shape 
of podiceps, by Latham's employ of the word as a generic term, and then been used for a 
century, it will not be easy to eradicate ; but the attempt should be made to substitute 
the proper podicipes. The genitive of this is podicipedis, and the family name should be 
Podicipedidce. Lat. griseus, gray : gena, cheek. 

NOTE. There is no technical reason or excuse for using the word at all. For 
Colymbus, Brisson, 1760, is the proper name for the genus of grebes, having meant 
Grebe, not Loon, from the time of Aristotle to that of Linnaeus, when the latter used it 
for loons and grebes indiscriminately. The loons were called Mergus by Brisson ; and 
Eudytes, Illiger, 1811, seems to be the tenable generic name for them. 

848. P. cor-nu'-tus. Lat. cornutus, horned ; cornu, a horn ; in reference to the tufts of feathers 

on the head. 

849. P. aur-i'-tus. Lat. auritus, eared ; auris, an ear ; Gr. o$s, genitive ur6s, ear ; in allusion 

to the auricular tufts of feathers. 

Not in the orig. ed. Only North American as occurring in Greenland. 

850. P. cal-I-for'-ni-cus. To California. 

851. P. dSm-In'-I-cus. To the Island of St. Domingo. See Dendrceca, No. 129. 

853. Pdd-T-lyny-bus pod-l'-cl-pes. The word podilymbus, sometimes aggravated into pody- 
limbus, is a peculiarly villanous miscegenation of podi[ceps and co]lymbus ; see the latter 
word, No. 840, and Podicipes, No. 847. 

853. Fra-ter'-cu-la cor-nl-cul-a'-ta. " Fratercula " is a singular word, the application of which 
to this bird is not obvious, and the form of which seems absurd : a. feminine noun mean- 
ing "little brother." Fraterculus is a proper classical word, a diminutive of J rater, 
brother. But there is no larger bird sufficiently near this species for the latter to be 
called the "little brother." Fratercula in ornithological writing is much older than 
1760, when Brisson made a genus of it, and we are inclined to think that it is humorously 
used ; all the more so by being made feminine, in the same spirit that prompted the 
comic writer Plautus to invent the verb fraterculo, as he did sororio, to signalize the 
swellings of the breasts of boys, like ^m-brothers, at puberty. If there be anything in 


854. Fraterciila arctica (L.) Steph. B 715. c 618. R 743. 

Common Puffin ; Sea Parrot. 

855. Fratercula arctica glacialis (Leach) Coues. B 714. c 6i8a. R 743. 

Large-billed Puffin. 

856. Fratercnla cirrata (Pall.) Steph. B 712, 716. c 619. R 745. 

Tufted Puffin. 

857. Ceratorhina monocerata (Pall.) Cass. B 717, 718. c 620. R 746. 

Horn-billed Auk. 

858. Simorhynchus psittaculus (Pall.) Schl. B 725. c 621. R 747. 

Parroquet Auk. 

859. Simorhynchus cristatellus (Pall.) Merr. B 710, 720. c 622. R 748. 

Crested Auk. 

860. Simorhynchus pygmaeus (Gm.) Ridg. B 721. c 623. R 749. 

Whiskered Auk. 

861. Simorhynchus pusillus (Pall.) Coues. B 722, 723. c 624. R 750. 

Knob-billed Auk. 

862. Ptychorhamphus aleuticus (Pall.) Brdt. B 724. c 625. R 751. 

Aleutian Auk. 

this, the application of the word to the birds is to be sought in their stout puffy shape, 
that which appears to have caused the English word puffin. See Puffinus, No. 831. Lat. 
corniculata, horned, a diminutive of cornutus : referring to the acute epidermal process on 
the upper eyelid, which is deciduous, being shed like the horns of deer. 

854. F. arc'-tl-ca. See Sialia, No. 29. 

855. F. a. gla-cl-a'-lls. See Harelda, No. 728. 

856. F. cir-ra'-ta. Lat. cirratus or cirrhatus, having curled locks, or ringlets, curly-haired; 

cm-us or cirrhus, a curl of hair ; well applied to this oddly feather-tufted bird. 

857. C6r-at-6-rhi'-na mo-no-ce'r-a'-ta. Gr. Kepas, genitive iceparos, a horn, and pis, genitive 

pivos, the nose ; alluding to the prominent deciduous horn which grows up from the 
base of the bill, over the nostrils. Gr. jj.6vos, only, alone, single, transliterated as Lat. 
mono-, in composition, and Kepas, horn, Latinized as ce'ras, ceratis, whence an adjective 
form, ceratus, horned; that is, unicorn, one-horned. 

858. Si-mo-rhyn'-chus psit-ta'-cii-lus. Gr. ericas, flat-nosed, snub-nosed, like the negro ; pvyx os ' 

beak ; well applied to these birds, whose bills are singularly shaped. The same idea is 
expressed in the Latin simia, an ape, whence our English simian, become a common 
word since Darwinism has been so much discussed. Lat. psittaculus, a little parrot, 
diminutive of psittacus. See Sitta, No. 57. 

859. S. cris-ta-tel'-lus. Lat. diminutive of cristatus, crested. 

860. S. pyg-mae'-us. See Sitta, No. 61. 

This is S. camtschaticiis of the orig. ed. ; but Alca pygmcea Gm. is based on the young 
of the same species, called S. cassini by Coues. 

861. S. pus-il'-lus. See Sitta, No. 60. 

862. Pty-chS-rham'-phus a-leu'-tl-cus. Gr. wrrff, genitive trrvxos, a fold, and pdfjLQos, the 

beak ; well alluding to the wrinkled covering of the bill ; which, by analogy with what 
is known of other species, may be taken as an indication that the soft part concerned 
will be found to grow some kind of excrescence, not yet discovered. Lat. aleuticus, 
of the Aleutian Islands, the country of the people called Aleuts. 


863. Alle nigricans Link. B 738. c 626. R 752. 

Sea Dove; Dovekie. 

864. Synthliborhamphus antiqnus (Gra.) Coues. B 736. c 627. R753. 

Black-throated Auk. 

865. SynthliboramphTis umizTisiime (Temm.) Coues. B 737. c 628. R 754. 

Temminck's Auk. 

866. Brachyrhamphns marmorattis (Gm.) Brdt. B 732, 733. c 629. R 755. 

Marbled Murrelet. 

867. BrachyrhamphTis kittlitzi Brdt. B 735. c 630. R 756. 

Kittlitz's Murrelet. 

868. Brachyrhamphiis hypoleucus Xant. B . c . R 757. 

White-bellied Murrelet. 

869. Brachyrhamphus craverii (Salvad.) Coues. B . c . R 758. (?) 

Craveri's Murrelet. 

870. Brachyrhamphus brachypterus Brdt. B 734. c . R 759. (?) 

Short-winged Murrelet. 

863. AF-1S nig'-rl-cans. Alle is a local designation of this species and of Uria grylle. Its mean- 

ing we do not know. It was long the specific name of the bird, taken for the generic 
by Link in 1806. Lat. nigricans, present participle of a supposed verb nigrico, equivalent 
to nigresco, I grow black, am blackish. 

This stands in the orig. ed. as Mergulus alle : for the reason of the change, see Coues, 
Bull. Nutt. Club, iv, 1879, p. 244. 

864. Syn-thll-b6-rharn'-phus an-ti'-qii-us. Gr. <rvvQ\i$(a, I compress ; avv, with, and 0Aa>, 

I press; papfyos, beak. Lat. antiquus, antique, ancient ; with reference to the gray of 
the head, like an old man's. Antiquus is simply for anticuus, this a form of anticus, from 
ante, before ; one having retained the idea of being before in space, that is, in front of, 
the other having acquired the idea of priority in time, like antea; the opposition in 
either case is with post, postea, behind, after. 

865. S. u-ml-zu'-sii-me. This appalling word we know nothing about except that it is 

transliterated from the Japanese, Temminck having described the species from that 
country ; " son nom japonais est wumizusume," he says. We drop the w. 

866. Brach-y-rhanV-phus mar-m6-ra'-tus. Gr. Ppaxvs, short, and pap.<pos, beak. Lat. mar- 

moratus, marbled ; marmor, marble ; in allusion to the veined and clouded color. Marmor 
is the Gr., from /j-ap/uaipw, I shine, glitter, sparkle, as did the beautiful white 
stone which Praxiteles carved. Murrelet is a word coined by Coues in 1868 as a dimin- 
utive of murre, like rivulet from river. 

867. B. kltt'-lltz-i. To F. H. von Kittlitz, traveller and naturalist. 

868. B. hyp-6-leu'-cfis. Gr. VTTO, under, arrd \evic6s, white, meaning neither whitish nor under 

the white, but white underneath. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since recognized as probably valid. 

869. B. cra-ve'-rT-i. To Sig. Federico Craveri. 

Not in the orig. ed. ; since recognized as perhaps distinct. 

870. B. bra-chyp'-tS-rus. Gr. Ppax^s, short, and irTtpov, wing. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since recognized by Ridgway. Pacific Coast. 


871. Uria grylle (L.) Briiim. B 726. c 631. R 760. 

Black Guillemot; Sea Pigeon. 

872. Uria cohimba (Pall.) Cass. B 727. c 632. R 761. 

Pigeon Guillemot. 

873. Uria carbo (Pall.) Brdt. B 728. c 633. R 762. 

Sooty Guillemot. 

874. Lomvia troile (L.) Brdt. B 729, 730. c 634. R 763. 

Common Guillemot; Murre. 

875. Lorn. via troile californica (Bry.) Coues. B . c . R 763a. (?) 

California Guillemot. 

876. Lomvia arra (Pall.) Coues. B 731. c 635. R 764, 764<*. 

Thick-billed Guillemot. 

877. Utamania torda (L.) Leach. B 711. c 616. R 742. 

Razor-billed Auk. 

878. Alca impennis L. B 710. c 615. R 741. 

Great Auk. 

871. U'-rl-a gryl'-le. Gesner and others state that ovpia is the Greek name of a guillemot, 

or some other water-bird. Uria occurs all through ornithology from Gesner, and was 
made a genus by Brisson in 1760. The meaning we do not know; perhaps akin to 
urinari, Skr. ndri, water. Gylle is said to be from Gr. ypv\\ify, I grunt ; the bird has 
been called sibilans by some ; but grisla and grylle are N. European names. 

872. U. c81-um'-ba. Lat. columba, a pigeon, applied in the same way that we call the bird 

" sea-pigeon " in English. 

873. U. car'-bo. Lat. carbo, a coal, charcoal ; here used in allusion to the uniformly sooty 

color, as if the bird were charred. 

874. LonV-vI-a tro-i'-le. Lomwia and lomvia are two of many forms in which is found spelled 

the vernacular name of the bird, in Scotch, Faeroese, and related languages ; as Dan. 
lun, Dutch loen, Eng. loon or loom. It was taken by Linnaeus for the specific, and much 
later by Brandt for the generic name. Troile, on the contrary, may be of classic origin, 
Troilus being the son of Priam ; also used as synonymous with Trojan ; application in 
this case arbitrary, if any. Newton says "possibly a compliment to Troil, the Ice- 
lander." Brunnich wrote it Troitte in 1764 (Orn. Bor., p. 27). 

875. L. t. cal-I-for'-nl-ca. Pertaining to the State of California. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since recognized by Ridgway. 

876. L. ar'-ra. Lat. arra or arrha was purchase-money, or a pledge in earnest of a contract, 

and might have been applied by Pallas to a bird in such demand by the natives as to 
serve as a sort of unit or standard of exchange in barter. " Salerne says the great blue 
parrot of Brazil is called Arras or Aras ; this seems here transferred to the sea-parrot." 
(Wharton's MSS.) 

877. U-ta-man/-I-a tor'-da. Both these words are mere Latinizations of vernacular names. 

Utamania or utumania was in the bird-books long before Leach made a genus of it, and 
so was lord or tordmule. We do not know what these words mean, further than that they 
signify this species. Ray says (Syn., 1713, p. 119): "Ad litora Cretae invenitur; 
indigenis ' Utamania ' dicta." 

878. Al'-ca im-pen'-ms. Alca is not classic, being merely a Latinization of the vernacular 

name, found in several different forms, as alk, alck, alka, auk, awk. The third of these 


is found in the old treatises written in Latin, and the change to alca is of course imma- 
terial. The meaning of the word is in question. The form awk (which we observe some 
late English scholars use) might suggest a relationship with awkward, in view of these 
ungainly fowl ; but awkward means simply left-handed. Quite probably alk is related, 
and not distantly, to elk, the bird and the beast being the largest, or most notable, or 
most prevailing animals of their respective kinds in the consideration of the people. 
But elk is in Latin alee (quite like alca), and this is uniform with the Greek dA/c7?, mean- 
ing strength, prowess ; one of the names of Hercules, for example, being derived there- 
from. The probability that alk, elk, alee, and a\K-f) are radically if not still more closely 
related, is heightened by the other vernacular names of this bird, yare-fowl, goir-fuyel, &c., 
these qualifying prefixes being similar to those seen in gerfalcon, and recognized by 
Steenstrup in inventing his genus Gyralca, the idea of size, strength, or other predomi- 
nance being evident. If this be so, the alk, the 6rare-fowl, is the fowl, par excellence, as 
elk, alee, is the great beast, as GW-falco is the falcon ; with the implication of some honor 
or special esteem. We are thus led directly to Hierofalco, which see, No. 498. Lat. 
impennis, featherless, i. e., wingless, with reference to the diminutive wings, unfit for 
flight ; in, negative, and penna, a feather. 

Though the Great Auk is extinct in North America, and has doubtless disappeared 
from the face of the earth, we still keep the place in memoriam of this "most honourable 
and antient fowle." 



THE foregoing list of 878 names agrees with the analysis of the original and of 
the present edition of the Check List: 778 - 10 + 110 = 878.* But in the course 
of the 3 T ear during which this edition has been printing, the following ten addi- 
tions to the bird-fauna of North America have been announced : 

879. Parus meridionalis Scl. B 292. c . R 43. 

Mexican Titmouse. 

880. Myiarchus crinitus cooperi (Bd.) Coues. B 132. c . R 311. 

Mexican Great-crested Flycatcher. 

881. Antrostomus vociferus arizonae Brewst. B . c . R . 

Arizona Whippoorwill. 

882. Buteo brachyums V. B . c . R . (is. A.) 

Short-tailed Buzzard. 

879. Pa'-rus m-ri-dl-o-na'-lls. Lat. meridionalis, southern, southerly; for meridialis, from 

meridies, midday, noon. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since ascertained to occur in Arizona. Brewst., Bull. Nutt. 
Club, vi, No. 4, October, 1881, p. 252. 

880. Myl-ar'-chQs cri-m'-tus coo'-p6r-i. To William Cooper. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since ascertained to occur in Arizona. Brewst., Bull. Nutt. 
Club, vi, No. 4, October, 1881, p. 252. 

881. An-trS'-stS-miis vo-cl'-f6r-us a-r!-z5'-nae. To the Territory of Arizona. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since described from Arizona. Brewst., Bull. Nutt. Club, vi, 
No. 2, April, 1881, p. 69. 

882. Bu'-tg-o bra-chy-u'-rus. Gr. ppaxvs, short, and ofya, tail. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since ascertained to occur in Florida. See Ridg., Bull. Nutt. 
Club, vi, No. 4, October, 1881, p. 210. 

* The stereotyped plates of the introductory pages, indicating 878 names, with 110 additions, 
have been punched to give the total of 888 with 120 additions. 


833. Buteo fuliginosus Scl. B . c . R . (is. A.) (?) 

Sooty Buzzard. 

884. Eurynorhynchus pygmseus (L.) Pearson. B . c . R . (!A.) 

Spoon-billed Sandpiper. 

885. Fulica atra L. B . c . R . (G.) 

European Coot. 

886. Fuligula mfina (Pall.) Steph. B . c . R . (IE.) 

Rufous-crested Duck. 

887. CEstrelata gularis (Peale) Brewst. B . c . R . (!) 

Gular Petrel. 

888. Puffinus borealis Cory. B . c . R . (?) 

Northern Shearwater. 

883. B. fu-li-gTn-5'-sus. Lat. fuliginosus, sooty, of a dark sooty color; fuligo, soot. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since ascertained to occur in Florida (if really distinct from 
B. brachyurus). See Ridg., Bull. Nutt. Club, vi, No. 4, October, 1881, p. 212. 

884. Eu-ry-n6-rhyn'-chus pyg-mae'-Gs. Gr. fvptvca, I dilate, widen, spread out ; from evpvs, 

broad ; and ^tryxos, beak. It is found spelled in many different ways ; often euriu- or 
eurhin-, as if supposed to be eS and pis or piv, the nose. See Sitta, No. 61. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. Since given by Ridgway as occurring at Point 
Barrow, Arctic coast of Alaska, in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 21, 1881, p. 85. We 
are informed that the alleged occurrence is questionable. 

885. FiiF-I-ca a'-tra. Lat. ater, atra, atrum, black. 

Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. Since reported to have been obtained in 
Greenland in 1876. See Ridg., Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 21, 1881, p. 85, and Freke, 
Zoologist, September, 1881, p. 374. 

886. Ful-Ig'-ii-la ru-fi'-na. Late Lat. rufinus, reddened, reddish, formed from rufus, of same 


Not in the orig. ed. of the Check List. Specimen said to have been procured 
in Fulton Market, New York, February, 1872, and to be now in the Nat. Mus. at Wash- 
ington. Ridg., Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 21, 1881, p. 85; Allen, Bull. Nutt. Club, vi, 
1881, p. 173. 

887. Oes-tre'-la-ta gul-a'-rls. Lat. gularis, pertaining to gula, the throat. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since ascertained to occur in New York. See Brewst., Bull. 
Nutt. Club, vi, No. 2, April, 1881, p. 94. 

Only North American as astray on the high sea. 

888. Pfif-fln-Gs b6r-6-aMIs. Lat. borealis, northern. 

Not in the orig. ed. Since described as new from Massachusetts. See Cory, Bull. 
Nutt. Club, vi, No. 2, April, 1881, p. 84. 


Note (1). This Index contains matter additional to or corrective of that in the body of the text. 
Note (2). The figures refer, not to the pagination of the book, but to the numeration of the names : 

e. g., Turdus, No. 1, not page 1. 
Note (3). When a word occurs in the List more than once, as in cases of most generic and 

many specific or subspecific names, the reference is usually to the place where it is 

first or best defined. 

Note (4). Words differing only in termination, a,samerican-us,-a,-um, are usually not duplicated. 
Note (5). Generic names are distinguished by a capital initial letter. 

abbreviatus, 522 
aberti, 309 
acadicus, 384, 483 
Accipiter, 494 
accipitrinus, 473 
Actodromas, 614 
aculeata, 58 
acuminata, 619 
acutipennis, 402 
adamsi, 841 
JEchmophorus, 845 
^Egialites, 584 
^Egiothus, 207 
aegocephala, 630 
seneus, 315 
aestiva, 111 
aestivalis, 251 
aethereus, 762 
affinis, 64 
Agelaeus, 316 
agilis, 139 
aglaeus, 337 
agrestis, 271 
aikeni, 262 
Aix, 719 
Ajaja, 653 
alascensis, 78 
Alauda, 85 

alaudinus, 229 
alba, 86 
albatus, 696 
albeola, 727 
albicilla, 533 
albicollis, 275, 395 
albifrons, 542, 692 
albigula, 307 
albilora, 130 
albocaudatus, 513 
albolarvatus, 442 
Alca, 878 
alcyon, 423 
aleutica, 803, 862 
alexandri, 410 
aliciae, 12 
Alle, 863 
alleni (C. A.) 
alleni (J. A.) 
alpestris, 82 
alpina, 623 
altiloquus, 172 
Aluco, 461 
amabilis, 545 
amaurosoma, 838 
Amazilia, 419 
ambiguus, 422 
americana, 93 


Ammodramus, 238 

amoena, 294 

Ampelis, 166 

Amphispiza, 258 

anaesthetica, 805 

Anas, 707 

Ancylochilus, 625 

anglica, 792 

anglorum, 834 

angustifrons, 455 

anhinga, 760 

ani, 425. Said to be the Bra- 
zilian name of the bird 

annas, 414 

annectens, 264, 351 

Anorthura, 76 

Anoiis, 808 
Anser, 692 
anthinus, 228 
anthracina, 528 
Anthus, 88 
antillanun, 801 
antiquus, 864 
Antrostomus, 396 
Aphelocoma, 354 
Aphriza, 594 
Aquila, 532 
aquilus, 761 



Aramus, 671 

Archibuteo, 525 

arctica, 29 

arctoa, 206 

Ardea, 655 

Ardetta, 667 

arenaria, 627 

argentatus, 772 

arizonae, 253 

Arquatella, 620 

arra, 876. Both conjectures 

in the text wrong. Simply 

onomatopoeic; Russian arrie 

or arra 
arvensis, 85 
Asio, 472 
asio, 465 

Astragalinus, 213 
Astur, 496 
Asturina, 527 
Asyndesmus, 456 
ater, 313 
atrata, 201, 538 
atricapillus, 44, 185 
atricilla, 786 
atrigularis, 274 
atrocristatus, 42 
Atthis, 416. It is also a proper 


anduboni, 9, 120 
aura, 537 
aurantia, 121 
auratus, 457 
auricapillus, 135 
aurifrons, 451 
Auriparus, 56 
auritus, 849 
australis, 202 
autumnalis, 706 

bachmani, 103 
bahamensis, 153 
bairdi, 224 
barbatulus, 172 
Bartramia, 640 
Basilinna, 407 
bassana, 746 
belli, 183 
bendirii, 21 
berlandieri, 70 
Bernicla, 699 
bewicki, 71 
bicolor, 40, 286 
bicristatus, 757 
bilineata, 258 

blackburnae, 121. This proba- 
bly should stand D. aurantia, 

bonapartii, 617 

Bonasa, 565 

borealis, 32 

boscas, 707 

Botaurus, 666 

boucardi, 256. Peuccea ruficeps 
boucardi is not in the orig. ed. 
Since discovered in Arizona 
by H. W. Henshaw, Ornith. 
Wheeler's Surv., 1875, p. 117. 

Brachyrhamphus, 866 

brachyrhynchus, 780 

brachypterus, 870 

brachyura, 810 

brenta, 700 

brevirostris, 784 

breweri, 273 

brewsteri, 211. The dubious 
Linota brewsteri may be a 
hybrid between ^Egiothus li- 
naria and Chrysomitris pinus. 
See Brewst., Bull. Nutt. 
Club, vi, no. 4, Oct. 1881, 
p. 225 

brunneicapillus, 63 


buccinator, 688 

Budytes, 87 

buffoni, 767 

bullocki, 327 

bulweri, 820 

Buteo, 512 

Butorides, 663 

cabanisi, 424 
cachinnans, 775 
caerulea. See coerulea 
Calamospiza, 286 
calendula, 33 
Calidris, 627 
calliope, 417 
Callipepla, 577 
Calothorax, 418 
calurus, 517 
Calypte, 415 
Campephilus, 431 
Camptolaemus, 729 
Campylorhynchus, 63 
Canace, 555 
canadensis, 59, 149 
canagica, 698 
candicans, 501 

candissima, 659 

caniceps, 265 

cantiaca, 796 

cantianus, 591 

canus, 779 

canutus, 626 

capense, 818 

capitalis, 362 

carbo, 873 

Cardellina, 150 

Cardinalis, 299 

Carolina, 450, 679 

carolinensis, 16 

carpalis, 257 

Carpodacus, 194 

caspia, 793 

cassini, 178 

castanea, 123 

Catharista, 538 

Cathartes, 537 

Catherpes, 66 

caudacutus, 240 

caurinus, 342 

cedrorum, 166 

celata, 107 

Centrocercus, 560 

Centrophanes, 220 

Centurus, 450 

Ceratorhina, 857 

Certhia, 62 

Certhiola, 153 

cerviniventris, 420 

Ceryle, 423 

Chaatura, 405 

Chamaea, 39 

Chamaepelia, 547 

Charadrius, 581 

Chaulelasmus, 711 

Chen, 694 

cheriway, 535 

Chloephaga, 698 

chlorurus, 310 

Chondestes, 281. P. 57, penul- 
timate line, for chondrestes f 
read chondredestes ? 

Chordediles, 399 

Chroicocephalus, 786 

chrysaetus, 532 

chryso'ides, 458 

chrysolaema, 84 

Chrysomitris, 212 

chrysoparia, 115 

chrysoptera, 102 

cincinnatiensis, 101. Helmm- 
thophaga cincinnatiensis may 



be a hybrid between H. pinus 
and Oporornis Jbrmosa. See 
Ridg., Bull. Nutt. Club, v, 
1880, p. 237 

cincinnatus, 752 

Cinclus, 30 

cinctus, 52. Parus cinctus is not 
in the orig. ed. Since ascer- 
tained to occur in Alaska. 
See Bull. Nutt. Club, ii, no. 
1, Jan. 1877, p. 37 

cinerescens, 375 

cinereus, 22, 250 

circumcinctus, 588 

Circus, 489 

ciris, 292 

cirrata, 856 

Cistothorus, 81 

citrea, 95 

Clangula, 725 

clypeata, 718 

Coccygus, 428 

ccerulea, 36 

coerulescens, 117 

Colaptes, 457 

collaris, 722 

colubris, 409 

Columba, 539 

columba, 872 

columbarius, 505 

columbianus, 344 

Colymbus, 840 

confinis, 3, 233 

conspersus, 67 

Contopus, 380 

Conurus, 460 

cooperi, (J. G.) 156 

cooperi, (Wm.) 495 

corax, 338 

corniculata, 853 

cornutus, 848 

coronata, 119, 279 

Corvus, 338 

costse, 415 

Cotile, 163 

Coturniculus, 234 

coturniculus, 682 

coturnix, 579 

couchi, 372 

couesi, 621 

craverii, 869 

creatopus, 833 

crecca, 714 

crepitans, 673 

Crex, 683 

crinitus, 373 
crissalis, 25, 308 
cristata, 349 
cristatellus, 859 
Crotophaga, 425 
cryptoleucus, 339 
cucullatus, 328, 745 
cunicularia, 487 
cupido, 563 
Cupidonia, 563 
curonicus, 590 
curvirostra, 199 
curvirostris, 19 
cyanea, 295 
Cyanecula, 31 
cyaneus, 489 
cyanocephalus. 332 
Cyanocitta, 349 
cyanoptera, 717 
Cygnus, 688 
Cymochorea, 823 
Cyrtonyx, 578 

dactylisonans, 579 

Dafila, 710 

Daptium, 818 

delawarensis, 778 

Dendrocygna, 705 

Dendrceca, 111 

derbianus, 364 

Dichromanassa, 661 

difficilis, 389. Empidonax flavi- 
ventris difficilis was not recog- 
nized in the orig. ed. 

dilophus, 751 

Diomedea, 810 

discolor, 127 

discors, 716 

Dolichonyx, 312 

domesticus, 74 

dominica, 129 

dominicensis, 369 

dorsalis, 266 

dougalli, 800 

dresseri, 734 

eburnea, 785 
Ectopistes, 543 
egretta, 658 
Elano'ides, 493 
Elanus, 492 
elegans, 521, 676 
Embernagra, 311 
Empidonax, 384 
Engyptila, 542 

enucleator, 190 

Sremoe'ea, 256 bis. Peuccea r. e., 

Brown, Bull. Nutt. Club, vii, 

Jan. Itf82,p. 26, Texas. (?) 

Gr. fpri/j.os, a desert ; 


Eremophila, 82 
Ereunetes, 612 
Erismatura, 741 
erythrina, 540 
erythrocephalus, 453 
erythrocercus, 374 
erythrophthalmus, 301 
Eudocimus, 651 
Eugenes, 408 
Eurynorhynchus, 884 
excubitorides, 188 
exilipes, 210 
exilis, 667 

falcinellus, 649 
Falco, 497 
fallax, 245 
familiaris, 62 
fasciata, 39, 244 
ferina, 723 
ferrugineus, 331, 485 
fischeri, 732 
flammeolus, 471 
flammeus, 461 
flaviceps, 56 
flavifrons, 176 
flavipes, 634 
flavirostris, 211 
flaviventris, 388 
flaviviridis, 171 
flavus, 87 
Florida, 662 
floridanus, 341 
foeda, 628 
forficatus, 367 
formicivorus, 454 
formosa, 140 
forsteri, 798 
franklini, 556 
Fratercula, 853 
Fregetta, 829 
frontalis, 353, 196 
frugivorus, 340 
fulgens, 408 
Fulica, 686 
fulicarius, 604 
fuliginosa, 559 
Fuligula, 720 
Fulraarus, 814 



f ulvifrons, 392 
f ulvigula, 709 
fulvus, 582 
f umifrons, 360 
f unerea, 480 
furcata, 791, 826 
fuscescens, 7 
fuscicoerulescens, 511 
f uscocaudata, 419 

gairdneri, 441 

galbula, 326 

galeata, 684 

Gallinago, 607 

Gallinula, 684 

gallipavo, 553 

gambeli, 278 

Garzetta, 659 

Geococcj'x, 427 

Geothlypis, 141 

Geotrygon, 550 

gigantea, 813 

gilvus, 174. Should probably 

stand as Vireo ochrokucus, 


glacialis, 728 
glottis, 635 
glaucescens, 770 
Glaucidium, 484 
glaucium, 725 
glaucus, 492, 768 
gnoma, 484 
gracise, 128 
grallaria, 829 
graraineus, 232 
grammicus, 281 
griseigena, 847 
griseinucha, 205 
griseus, 609 
gruberi, 529 
Grus, 668. See Miiller, Nat. 

Syst. Suppl., 1776, p. 110; 

Cass., Pr. Phila. Acad., 1864, 

p. 245 
grylle, 871 
guarauna, 650 
gubernator, 317 
Guiraca, 291 
gularis, 887 
guttatus, 231 
Gymnocitta, 345 
gymnostoma, 672 

hsemastica, 629 
Hsematopus, 595 

haesitata, 819 

Haliaetus, 533 

haliaetus, 530 

Halocyptena, 821 

hammondi, 390 

Harelda, 728 

harlani, 515 

Harporhynchus, 17 

harpyia, 531 

harrisi, 439 

heermanni, 248 

Helmintherus, 96 

Helminthophaga, 98. Accord- 
ing to Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. 
Club, vii. no. 1, Jan. 1882, p. 
53, the name Helminthophaga 
is preoccupied, and it has con- 
sequently been changed by 
him to Helminthophila 

heloisse, 416 

helvetica, 580 

henryi, 400 

henslowi, 236 

hepatica, 157 

Herodias, 658 

herodias, 655 

Hesperocichla, 5 

Hesperophona, 189 

Heteroscelus, 642 

hiaticula, 589 

hiemalis, 76 

Himantopus, 601 

himantopus, 611 

Hirundo, 159 

hirundo, 797 

Histrionicus, 730 

holboelli, 208 

homochroa, 825 

hornbyi, 827 

hornemanni, 209 

horreorum, 159 

hudsonicus, 49, 645 

hutchinsi, 704 

huttoni, 182 

Hydranassa, 660 

Hydrochelidon, 806 

hyemalis, see hiemalis 

Hylocichla, 6 

Hylotomus, 432 

hyperboreus, 603 

hypochrysea, 133 

hypogaea, 487 

hypoleucus, 868 

lache, 421 

Icteria, 144 

icterocephalus, 319 

Icterus, 323 

Ictinia, 491 

ignea, 300 

iliacus, 4, 282. Turdus iliacus 
is not in the orig. ed. Green- 
land. Reinh., Ibis, 1861, p. 6 

illinoensis, 252 

imberbe, 393 

impennis, 878 

inca, 549 

incanus, 642 

inornatus, 41 

intermedia, 277 

interpres, 598 

lonornis, 685 

Iridoprocne, 160 

islandicus, 500 

jama'icensis, 681 
Junco, 261 

kirtlandi, 131 
kittlitzi, 867 
kotzebuii, 783 
krideri, 519 
kuhli, 831 

labradorius, 729 

Lagopus, 568 

lagopus, 525 

lapponicus, 220 

lariformis, 806 

Larus, 768 

latirostris, 421 

lawrencii, 99. Helminthophaga 
lawrencii may be a hybrid 
between H. pinus and H. 
chrysoptera. See Brewst. Bull. 
Nutt. Club, vi, no. 4, Oct. 
1881, p. 218. 

lecontii, 24 

lecontii, 237 

leucobronchialis, 100. Eelmin- 
thopaga leucobronchialis may be 
a hybrid between H. pinus 
and H. chrysoptera. See 
Brewst., Bull. Nutt. Club, vi, 
no. 4, Oct. 1881, p. 218 

leucocephalus, 534 

leucogaster, 72, 747 

leucolaema, 83 

leucoparia, 703 



leucophrys, 276 
leucopsis, 699 
leucoptera, 198, 646 
leucorrhoa, 823 
Leucosticte, 201 
leucurus, 570 
Limosa, 628 
linaria, 207 
lincolni, 242 
lineatus, 520 
Linota, 211 
litoralis, 204 
Lobipes, 603 
loculator, 648 
Lomvia, 874 
longicauda, 145 
longirostris, 18 
Lophophanes, 40 
Lophortyx, 575 
Loxia, 198 
lucasanus, 436 
luciae, 104 
lucifer, 418 
ludovicianus, 68, 187 
lunifrons, 162 
luteiventris, 365 
lutescens, 108 
luxuriosa, 358 

maccalli, 468 
maccowni, 223 
macgillivrayi, 143 
Machetes, 639 
macrolopha, 352 
Macrorhamphus, 609 
macrurus, 333, 799 
macularius, 638 
maculata, 616 
maculosa, 125 
magna, 320 
major, 334, 832 
Mareca, 712 
marila, 720 
marinus, 771 
maritimus, 238 
marmoratus, 866 
martinica, 550, 685 
maruetta, 678 
massena, 578 
maxima, 794 
maxwells, 467 
media, 607 
megalonyx, 305 
megarhyncha, 285 
melaena, 824 

melancholicus, 372 
Melanerpes, 453 
melanocephalus, 599, 290 
melanoleucus, 633 
melanotis, 55. Psaltriparus 
melanotis has lately been 
definitely ascertained to oc- 
cur in Arizona 

melanura, 37. According to 
Brewster, Polioptila melanura 
sh ould r ead P. calif ornica . See 
Bull. Nutt. Club, vi, p. 103 
melanurus, 830 
Meleagris, 553 
melodus, 587 
Melopelia, 546 
Melospiza, 242 
merganser, 744 
Mergus, 743 
meridionalis, 879 
mesoleucus, 306 
mexicana, 28 

miamiensis, 69. Thryothorus 
ludovicianus miamiensis is not 
in the orig. ed. Since de- 
scribed from Florida. Am. 
Nat, ix, 1875, p. 469 
Micrathene, 486 
Micropalama, 611 
microsoma, 821 
migratorius, 1 
Milvulus, 366 
Mimus, 15 
minimus, 53, 387 
minor, 605, 401 
minutilla, 614 
minutus, 730 
mitratus, 146 

Mitrephorus, 392. This generic 
term being preoccupied in 
Coleoptera, Mitrephanes is 
substituted (Gr. /UI'T^TJ, mitre, 
<j>aiv<a, I appear). See Coues, 
Bull. Nutt. Club, vii, no. 1, 
Jan. 1882, p. 55 
Mniotilta, 91 
mollissima, 733 
Molothrus, 313 
monocerata, 857 
montanus, 14 
monticola, 268 
moreleti, 296 
morio, 346 
Motacilla, 86 
motacilla, 138 

mugitans, 666 
musicus, 690 
mustelinus, 6 
Mycteria, 654 
Myiadestes, 169 
Myiarchus, 373 
Myiodioctes, 146 
Myiodynastes, 365 

nasvius, 5, 136 

nanus, 10 

nebulosa, 476 

neglectus, 51. Parus rufescens 

neglectus is not in the orig. 

ed. Since described by Ridg- 

way, Pr. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 

p. 485. California 
nelsoni, 241 
Neocorys, 90 
Nephoecetes, 404 
Nettion, 715 
nevadensis, 260 
niger, 404 

nigrescens, 116, 237 
nigricans, 378, 701, 863 
nigrilora, 94 
nigripes, 811 
nitens, 167 
nivalis, 219 
nivosus, 591 
Nomonyx, 742 
notabilis, 137 
notatus, 218 
noveboracensis, 181 
nuchalis, 447 
Numenius, 643 
nuttalli, 348 
Nyctala, 482 
Nyctea, 479 
Nycterodius, 665 
Nyctiardea, 664 
Nyctidromus, 395 

obscurus, 314 
obsoletus, 65, 499, 674 
occidental-Is, 46, 113, 478 
oceanicus, 828 
Oceanites, 828 
Oceanodroma, 826 
ochropus, 636 
CEdemia, 737 
(Enanthe, 26 
CEstrelata, 819 
olivaceus, 170 
Onychotes, 529 



opisthomelas, 836 
Oporornis, 139 
oregonus, 263 
ornatus, 222 
Ornithium, 393 
Orortyx, 574 
Oroscoptes, 14 
Ortalis, 552 
Ortyx, 571 
oryzivorus, 312 
Ossifraga, 813 
ostrilegus, 595 

pacificus, 77, 464 
Pagophila, 785 
palliatus, 596 
pallida, 272 . 
pallidicincta, 564 
palmarum, 132 
palmeri, 20 
paludicola, 80 
palustris, 79, 243 
Pandion, 530 
Panyptila, 403 
parasiticus, 766 
parisiorum, 329 
parkmani, 75 
Parra, 672 
Parula, 93 
Parus, 44 
Passer, 192 
Passerculus, 224 
Passerella, 282 
Passerina, 292 
passerinus, 234, 547 
pealii, 504 
Pedioecetes, 561 
pelagica, 822 
pelasgica, 405 
Peleeanus, 748 
Pelidna, 623 
penelope, 712. Qu. 
penicillatus, 755 
pennsylvanica, 124 
peregrina, 109, 603 
Perisoreus, 359 
perpallidus, 235 
perspicillata, 739, 756 
pertinax, 381 
Petrochelidon, 162 
Peucaea, 251 
Peucedramus, 110 
phaeopus, 644 
Phaethon, 762 
Pha'inopepla, 167 

Phalacrocorax, 750 

Phalaenoptilus, 398 

Phalaropus, 601 

phasianellus, 661 

Philadelphia, 142 

philadelphicus, 173 

Philohela, 605 

Phoebetria, 812 

phceniceus, 316 

Phoenicopterus, 687 

Phonipara, 297 

Phylloscopus, 32 

Pica, 347 

Picicorvus, 344 

Pico'ides, 443 

picta, 151,221,574 

Picus, 433 

pileatus, 432 

pileolatus, 148 

Pinicola, 190 

pinus, 98 

Pipilo, 301 

Pitangus, 364 

plagata, 527 

platycercus, 413 

Plectrophanes, 219 

Plegadis, 649 

Plotus, 760 

plumbea, 38 

pluvialis, 583 

Podasocys, 592 

Podicipes, 848 

podicipes, 852 

Podilymbus, 852 

Polioptila, 36 

Polyborus, 535 

polyglottus, 15 

pomatorhinus, 765 

Pooecetes, 232 

popetue, 399 

Porzana, 678 

pratensis, 88, 670 

pratincola, 461 

princeps, 225 

principalis, 431 

Priocella, 817 

Priofinus, 830 

Procellaria, 822 

Progne, 165 

propinquus, 2. Turdus migra- 
torius propinquus is not in 
the orig. ed. Since de- 
scribed by Ridgway, Bull. 
Nutt. Club, ii, no. 1, Jan. 
1877, p. 9. Western U. S. 

Proton otaria, 95 

psaltria, 215 

Psaltriparus, 53 

Pseudogryphus, 536 

Psilorhinus, 346 

psittaculus, 858 

ptilocnemis, 622 

Ptychorhamphus, 862 

pubcscens, 440 

Puffinus, 831 

pugnax, 639 

purpureus, 194 

pusilla, 60 

pygmsea, 61 

Pyranga, 154 

Pyrocephalus, 394 

Pyrrhula, 191. The difficulty 
with P. cassini may be owing 
to wrong sexing of the single 
known specimen 

Pyrrhuloxia, 298 

Querquedula, 713 
querula, 230 
Quiscalus, 333 

Rallus, 673 

Recurvirostra, 600 

redivivus, 23 

Regulus, 33 

resplendens, 759 

rhodocolpus, 197 

Rhodostethia, 789 

Rhyacophilus, 636 

Rhynchophanes, 223 

Rhynchops, 809 

richardsoni, 383 

riparia, 163 

Rissa, 782 

rodgersi, 816 

rosea, 653, 789 
rossi, 697 
rostratus, 230 
Rostrhamus, 490 
ruber, 448, 652 
rubida, 741 
rubineus. 394 
rubra, 154 
rubrifrons, 150 
rufescens, 50 
ruficapilla, 106 
ruficeps, 255 
rufina, 247, 886 
rufovirgata, 311 
rufus, 17 



rupestris, 569 
rustica, 347 
rusticula, 606 
rutioilla, 152 

sabinii (J.), 567 
sabinii (E.), 790 
sacer, 498 
Salpinctes, 65 
sanmelis, 249 
sancti-johannis, 525 
sandvicensis, 226 
satrapa, 34 
saturatus, 675 
savana, 227 
saxatilis, 403 
Saxicola, 26 
sayi, 377 
Sayiornis, 377 
scalaris, 434 
scandiaea, 479 
Scardafella, 549 
schistacea, 284 
Scolecophagus, 331 
scolopaceus, 610 
Scolopax, 606 
Scops, 465 
Scotiaptex, 474 
Selasphorus, 411 
semipalraatus, 586 
seniculus, 430 
septentrionalis, 45 
serrator, 744 
serripennis, 164 
Setophaga, 151 
Sialia, 27 
sialis, 27 

Simorhynchus, 858 
sinuata, 298 
Sitta, 57 
Siurus, 135 
skua, 764 

smithsonianus, 773 
sociabilis, 490 
solitarius, 177, 637 
Somateria, 731 
sparverio'ides, 510 
sparverius, 509 
spectabilis, 736 
Speotyto, 487 
Spermophila, 296 
Sphyropicus, 446 
spilurus, 73 
Spiza, 287 
Spizella, 268 

sponsa, 719 

spraguii, 90 

spurius, 324 

squamata, 577 

Squatarola, 580 

Starnoenas, 551. Ital. starna, a 

Steganopus, 602 
Stegidopteryx, 164 
stellaris, 81 
stelleri, 350, 731 
Stellula, 417 
Stercorarius, 764 
Sterna, 792 
stolidus, 808 
streperus, 711 
Strepsilas, 598 
striata, 122 
striatulus, 497 
Strickland!, 437 
Strix, 474 
Sturnella, 320 
Sturnus, 363 
subarquatus, 625 
subcoerulea, 491 
subis, 165 
subviridis, 384 
suckleyi, 506 
suecica, 31 
Sula, 746 
sulcirostris, 426 
superciliaris, 801 
Surnia, 480 
swainsoni, 13, 97 
Symphemia, 632 
Synthliboramphus, 865, pessimf, 

Synthliborhamphus, 864 

Tachycineta, 161 
Tachypetes, 761 
ta'itensis, 647 
Tantalus, 648 
Telmatodytes, 79 
tengmalmi, 482 
tenuirostris, 817, 839 
tephrocotis, 203 
Tetrao, 563 
texensis, 402 
thalassina, 161 
Thrasyaetus, 531 
Thryothorus, 68 
thyro'ides, 449 
tigrina, 126 
torquatus, 456 

Totanus, 633 
townsendi, 114, 169 
trachyrhynchus, 748 
trailli, 385 
trichas, 141 
trichopsis, 470 
tricolor, 318 
tridactyla, 782 
Tringa, 626 
Tringoides, 688 
tristis, 213 
Trochilus, 409 
Troglodytes, 74 
Trogon, 422 
troile, 874 
trowbridgii, 740 
trudeaui, 802 
Tryngites, 641 
Turdus, 1. 
Tyrannus, 368 
tyrannus, 366 

ultramarina, 357 

ulula, 481 

umbella, 565 

umbelloides, 566 

umizusume, 865 

unalasca?, 8 

unalascensis, 283 

unicinctus, 512 

Uria, 871 

urophasianus, 560 

uropygialis, 452 

Urubitinga, 528. U. anthracina 

is not in the orig. ed. Since 

discovered iin Arizona by H. 

W. Henshaw, Am. Sportsm., 

v, Feb. 1878, p. 328 
ustulatus, 11 
Utamania, 877 

vallisneria, 724 
Vanellus, 693 
varia, 91 
varius, 446 
vauxi, 406 
vermivorus, 96 
versicolor, 293 
verticalis, 370 
vespertina, 189 
vicinior, 180 
villosus, 438 
violaceus, 665, 758 
virens, 112, 144 
Vireo, 170 



virescens, 663 
virgata, 594 
virginiae, 105 
virginiana, 299 
v-nigra, 735 
vociferans, 371 
vociferus, 397, 584 
vulgaris, 363 

whitneyi, 486 
wilsonius, 585 
wilsonianus, 472 
wollweberi, 43 
woodhousii, 355 

Xanthocephalus, 319 
Xanthura, 358 

xantusi, 407 
Xema, 790 
Xenopicus, 442 

Zamelodia, 289 
Zenaida, 545 
Zenaidura, 544 
Zonotrichia, 275 


PUBLICATIONS, 1861-1881. 



1. *Ornithology. Washington Described, pp. 24-27. (12mo. Washington ,. 

Philp & Solomons, 1861.) 

A slight sketch of the Birds of the District of Columbia. 

2. A Monograph of the Tringese of North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci* 

Phila., xiii, July, 1861, pp. 170-205. 

3. Notes on the Ornithology of Labrador. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xiii,. 

August, 1861, pp. 215-257. 

4. A Monograph of the Genus jEgiothus, with descriptions of new Species. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xiii, November, 1861, pp. 373-390. 


5. List of Birds ascertained to inhabit the District of Columbia, with the times* 

of Arrival and Departure of such as are non-residents, and Brief Notices 
of Habits, etc. By Elliott Coues and D. Webster Prentiss. Sixteenth 
Ann. JRep. Smiths. Inst., for 1861, 1862, pp. 399-421. 

6. Synopsis of the North American Forms of the Colymbidae and Podicipidae. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xiv, April, 1862, pp. 226-233. 
Abstract of a monograph published in full in Birds of the Northwest, 1874. 

7. Revision of the Gulls [Larinae] of North America ; based upon specimens in 

the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci~ 
Phila., xiv, June, 1862, pp. 291-312. 

Abstract of a monograph published in full in the Birds of the Northwest, 1874, pp. 


8. Supplemental Note to a " Sy nopsis of the North American Forms of the 

Colymbidse and Podicepidse." JProc. Acad. Nat. 8ci. Phila., xiv, Septem- 
ber, 1862, p. 404. 

9. A Review of the Terns [Sterninse] of North America. JProc. Acad. Nat. 

SGI. Phila., xiv, December, 1862, pp. 535-559. 


10. Additional Remarks on the North American ^Egiothi. Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., xv, February, 1863, pp. 40, 41. 

11. On the Lestris richardsoni of Swainson ; with a Critical Review of the Sub- 

family Lestridinae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xv, May, 1863, pp. 

12. [On the specific validity of Larus smithsonianus.] The Ibis, v, July, 

1863, p. 367. 


13. The Crania of Colymbus torquatus and C. adamsii compared. Proc. Acad. 

Nat. /Sci. Phila., xvi, February, 1864, pp. 21, 22. 

14. A Critical Review of the Family Procellaridae ; Part I., embracing the 

Procellarieae, or Stormy Petrels. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xvi, 
March, 1864, pp. 72-91. 

15. A Critical Review of the Family Procellaridae: Part II.; Embracing the 

Puffinese. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xvi, April, 1864, pp. 116-144. 

16. Notes on certain Central- American Laridse, collected by Mr. Osbert Salvin 

and Mr. F. Godman. The Ibis, vi, July, 1864, pp. 387-393. 


17. Ornitholog3 r of a Prairie- Journey, and Notes on the Birds of Arizona. The 

Ibis, 2d sen, i, April, 1865, pp. 157-165. 

18. [Notes on Birds observed at Fort Whipple, Arizona.] The Ibis, 2d ser., 

i, October, 1865, pp. 535-538. 


19. Field Notes on Lophortyx Gambeli. The Ibis, 2d ser., ii, January, 1866, 

pp. 46-55. 

20. List of the Birds of Fort Whipple, Arizona : with which are incorporated all 

other species ascertained to inhabit the Territory ; with brief critical and 
field Notes, descriptions of new species, etc. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., xviii, March, 1866, pp. 39-100. 

Fifty copies reissued, repaged, under the title : [Reprinted from the Proceedings of the 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, January 1866.] | | Prodrome of a Work J 


on the | Ornithology | of | Arizona Territory. | By Elliott Coues, M.A., M.D. | (Ass't Sur- 
geon U. S. Army.) | | Philadelphia : | Merrihew & Son, Printers. | 1866. 8vo. pp. 1-64. 
NOTE. Part I. of the work here forecast pub. 1877 under the title: Birds of the 
Colorado Valley, etc. 

21. A Critical Review of the Family Procellariidse : Part III ; embracing the 

Fulmareae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xviii, March, 1866, pp. 25-33. 

22. Critical Review of the Family Procellariidse : Part IV ; Embracing the JEstre- 

latese and Prioneae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xviii, May, 1866, 
pp. 134-172. 

23. Critical Review of the Family Procellariidse ; Part V ; embracing the Diome- 

deinae and the Halodrominae. With a General Supplement. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., xviii, May, 1866, pp. 172-197. 

24. From Arizona to the Pacific. The Ibis, 2d ser., ii, July, 1866, pp.259-275. 

Notes on the birds observed during the journey. 

25. The Osteology of the Coly mbus torquatus ; with Notes on its Myology. 

Mem. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., i, pt. ii, November, 1866, pp. 131-172, 
figg. 2, pi. 5. 

Separately reissued, under the title : On the | Osteology and Myology | of | Colymbus 
torquatus. | By Elliott Coues, A.M., M.D., | Brevet Captain and Assistant Surgeon 
United States Army. | [From the Memoirs read before the Boston Society of Natural 
History, vol. i, part ii.] | Cambridge : | printed at the Riverside Press. | November, 1866. 
4to. pp. 131-172, figg. 2, pi. 5. 


26.*|The Birds of New England. The Round Table, No. 140, Sept. 28, 1867, 
pp. 213, 214. 

E. A. Samuels' work. 


27. A Monograph of the Alcidse. Proc. Acad. Nat. Soc. Phila., xx, January, 

1868, pp. 2-81, figg. 1-16. 

Also separate, retided : A Monograph | of | the Alcidae. | By | Elliott Coues, A.M., 
M.D. | (Ass't. Surgeon U. S. Army.) | | Philadelphia: | Merrihew & Son, printers, I 
No. 243 Arch Street, | 1868. 8vo, pp. and figg. as above. 

See also -under 1870. 

28. List of Birds collected in Southern Arizona by Dr. E. Palmer ; with remarks. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xx, January, 1868, pp. 81-85. 

29. Synopsis of the Birds of South Carolina. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xii, 

October 7, 1868, pp. 104-127. 

30. Catalogue of the Birds of North America contained in the Museum of the 

Essex Institute ; with which is incorporated A List of the Birds of New 
England. With Brief Critical and Field Notes. Proc. (Comm.) Essex 
Inst., v, 1868, pp. 249-314. 

Fifty copies reissued, with new index, repaged, retitled : A List | of the | Birds of 
New England. | By Elliott Coues, | Asst. Surgeon, U. S. A. | | [Reprinted from the 


Proceedings of the Essex Institute, Vol. v.] | | Salem, Mass. | Essex Institute Press. | 
1868. 8vo. pp. 1-71. 

31. Instances of Albinism among our Birds. Amer. Nat., ii, No. 3, May, 1868, 

pp. 161, 162. 

About a dozen cases, chiefly of North American species. 

32. Bird's-Eye Views. Amer. Nat., ii, No. 10, December, 1868, pp. 505-513 ; 

ii, No. 11, January, 1869, pp. 571-583, figg. 
On the structure of the eye in Birds. 


33. On a Chick with supernumerary Legs. Proc. Host. Soc. Nat. Hist., May 

19, 1869, pp. 78-82. 

34. *Of Doves and Thorns. The Liberal Christian, July 24, 1869. 

Breeding of Zenaidura carolinensis. 

35. *Of a "Fast" Bird [Geococcyx californianus] . The Liberal Christian, 

Aug. 14, 1869. 

36. *A Skeleton in the House. The Liberal Christian, Sept. 11, 1869. 

Molothrus ater X Polioptila ccerulea. 

37. Sea-side Homes. Amer. Nat., iii, No. 7, September, 1869, pp. 337-349. 

On the breeding of Sterna antillarum and JEgialites wilsonius. 

38. On Variation in the Genus JEgiothus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xxi, 

October, 1869, pp. 180-189. 

Supplementary to the article in op. cit., 1861, p. 373. 

39. *Structure of Feathers. The Liberal Christian, Oct. 9, 1869. 

40. On the Classification of Water Birds. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xxi, 

December, 1869, pp. 193-218. 

Reissued, repaged. On the | Classification | of | Water Birds. | By Elliott Coues, 
A. M., M. D., Ph. D., | [etc., 4 lines.] | | [Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Phila- 
delphia Academy of Natural Sciences | for December, 1869.] | | Philadelphia: | Mer- 
rihew & Son, printers. | No. 213 Arch Street. | 1870. 8vo. pp. 28. 


41. Extracts from a Memoir intituled 'A Monograph of the Alcidae.' Zoologist, 

2d ser., v, 1870, pp. 2004-2016, 2081-2090, 2124-2132, 2155-2163, 2205- 
2214, 2245-2253, 2289-2296, 2327-2334, 2369-2378, 2396-2403. 
Reprinted, modified, from Proc. Phila. Acad., 1868, pp. 2-81. 

42. The Clapper Rail [Rallus crepitans]. Amer. Nat., iii, No. 11, January, 

1870, pp. 600-607. 

43. The Great Auk [Alca impennis]. Amer. Nat., iv, No. 1, March, 1870, 

p. 57. 


44. The Cow Bird [Molothrus ater]. Amer. Nat., iv, No. 1, March, 1870, 

p. 58. 

45. Foot-notes from a Page of Sand. Amer. Nat., iv, No. 5, July, 1870, 

pp. 297-303. 

Tracks made by Sandpipers, &c. 

46. The Natural History of Quiscalus major. The Ibis, 2d ser., vi, July, 1870, 

pp. 367-378. 

47. tOrnithological Results of the Exploration of the North-west. Amer. Nat., 

iv, No. 6, August, 1870, pp. 367-371. 

Review of Ball and Bannister's and Baird's papers on the Birds of Alaska, in Trans. 
Chicago Acad., 1869. 


48. Notes on the Natural History of Fort Macon, N. C., and Vicinity. (No. 1.) 

[Vertebrates.] Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xxiii, May 2, 1871, 
pp. 12-49. 

Birds, pp. 18-47. There are 5 Nos. of this, 1871-1879, the 1st and 4th relating to Birds. 

49. The Yellow-headed Blackbird [Xanthocephalus icterocephalus]. Amer. Nat., 

v, No. 4, June, 1871, pp. 195-200, fig. 

Biography of the species, with references to other birds observed in Kansas. 

50. jRecent Ornithological Publications. Amer. Nat., v, No. 4, June, 1871, 

pp. 234-238. 

Bannister on Anserinae, Pr. Phila. Acad., 1870, p. 130 ; Ridgway on Falconidae, ibid., 
p. 138. 

51. f Progress of American Ornithology. Amer. Nat. v, No. 6, August, 1871, 

pp. 364-373. 

Review of J. A. Allen's memoir on Florida Birds, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 1871. 

52. Mechanism of Flexion and Extension in Birds' Wings. Amer. Nat., v, 

Nos. 8 and 9, September, 1871, pp. 513, 514. 

Abstract of the paper in the Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1871. 

53. Bullock's Oriole [Icterus bullocki]. Amer. Nat. v, No. II, November, 

1871, pp. 678-682, fig. 120. 

54. Singular Albino [Dolichonyx oryzivorus]. Amer. Nat., v, No. 11, Novem- 

ber, 1871, p. 733. 

55. The Long-crested Jay [Cyanocitta macrolopha]. Amer. Nat., v, No. 12, 

December, 1871, pp. 770-775, fig. 

56. fGray's Hand List of Birds. Amer. Nat., v, No. 12, December, 1871, 

pp. 775-779. 


57. Mechanism of Flexion and Extension in Birds' Wings. Proc. Amer. Assoc. 

Adv. Sci., xx, for 1871, 1872, pp. 278-284, figg. 


58. Observations on Picicorvus Columbianus. The Ibis, 3d ser., ii, January, 

1872, pp. 52-59. 

59. Ornithological Query [Turdus migratorius] . Amer. Nat., vi, No. 1, Jan- 

uary, 1872, p. 47. 

60. fTwo Late American Papers on Ornithology. Amer. Nat., vi, No. 3. March, 

1872, pp. 165, 166. 

Ogden on Chettusia, Pr. Phila. Acad., 1871, p. 191 ; Lawrence on New Troglodytidje 
and Tyrannidae, ibid., p. 233. 

61.*|An Ornithological Blunder [Bonasa jobsii] . Amer. Nat., vi, No. 3, March, 
1872, pp. 172, 173. 

62. Contribution to the History of the Blue Crow [Gymnokitta cyanocephala] of 

America. The Ibis, 3d ser., ii, April, 1872, pp. 152-158. 

63. tNewton's Ornithological Register. Amer. Nat., vi, No. 6, June, 1872, 

pp. 360, 361. 

64. The Nest, Eggs, and Breeding Habits of Harporhynchus crissalis. Amer. 

Nat., vi, No. 6, June, 1872, pp. 370, 371. 

65. A New Bird [Glaucidium ferrugineum] to the United States. Amer. Nat., 

vi, No. 6, June, 1872, p. 370. 

66. Studies of the T3Tanmdae. Part I. Revision of the Species of Myiarchus. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., xxiv, June 25-July 16, 1872, pp. 56-81. 

67. fThe Boston Society's Ornithological Catalogue. Amer. Nat., vi, No. 8, 

August, 1872, pp. 472, 473. 

Review of A. Hyatt's paper on Spheniscidae. 

68. Nest and Eggs of Helminthophaga luciae. Amer. Nat., vi, No. 8, August, 

1872, p. 493. 

69. Occurrence of Couch's Flycatcher [Tyrannus melancholicus couchi] in the 

United States. Amer. Nat., vi, No. 8, August, 1872, p. 493. 

70. fGiebel's Thesaurus. Amer. Nat., vi, No. 9, September, 1872, pp. 549-551. 

71. Material for a Monograph of the Spheniscidae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., xxiv, September, 1872, pp. 170-212, pll. 4, 5. 

72. f Recent Discoveries in Ornithotom} T . Amer. Nat., vi, No. 10, October, 1872, 

pp. 631-635. 

Morse on the Carpus and Tarsus of Birds, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., N. Y., 1872 ; and Rein- 
hardt, Cranial Bone of Musophagidae, Vidd. Meddel. Nat. Fork. Kj$b., 1871. 

73. Key | to | North American Birds | containing a concise account of every 

species of | Living and Fossil Bird | at present known from the continent 
north of the Mexican | and United States Boundary. | Illustrated by 6 steel 
plates, and upwards of 250 woodcuts. | By | Elliott Coues, | Assistant Sur- 
geon United States Army. | | Salem : Naturalists' Agency. | New York : 
Dodd and Mead. | Boston : | Estes and Lauriat. | 1872. 1 vol. imp. 8vo. 


4 prel. 11., pp. 1-361, 1 1., pll. 1-6, figg. 1-238. (Pub. Oct. 1872. Ed. 
of 2,200 cop. Copyright, Putnam and Coues.) 

74. [Contributions to] Sharpe and Dresser's Hist, of the Birds of Europe, Parts 

xi, xii, xv, 1872. 


75. [Contributions to] Sharpe and Dresser's Hist, of the Birds of Europe, Parts 

xvi, xx, xxi, 1873. 

76. fDubois' Conspectus. Amer. Nat., vii, No. 1, January, 1873, pp. 40-42. 

Review of C. F. Dubois' Conspectus Avium Europaearum. 

77. -j\New England Ornithology. Amer. Nat., vii, No. 1, January, 1873, 

pp. 42, 43. 

Review of C. J. Maynard's paper in Pr. Bost. Soc., xiv, 1872, p. 356. 

78. [Circular relating to the "Birds of the Northwest."] Headquarters Depart- 

ment of Dakota, Feb. 14, 1873. 

79. f Handbook of British Birds. Amer. Nat., vii, No. 3, March, 1873, pp. 


Review of J. E. Harting's work of that name. 

80. -(-Ornithology of the West. Amer. Nat., vii, No. 4, April, 1873, pp. 220-223. 

Review of J. A. Allen's paper in Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.,\\\, 1872, p. 113. 

81. t African Ornithology. Amer. Nat., vii, No. 4, April, 1873, pp. 226, 227. 

Review of J. H. Gurney, Sr.'s, Andersson's Birds of Damara Land. 

82. Some United States Birds, New to Science, and other Things Ornithological. 

Amer. Nat., vii, No. 6, June, 1873, pp. 321-331, figg. 65-70. 

83. New Avian Subclass [Odontornithes]. Amer. Nat., vii, No. 6, June, 1873, 

p. 364. 

84. Color-variation in Birds Dependent upon Climatic Influences. Amer. Nat., 

vii, No. 7, July, 1873, pp. 415-418. 

Criticism of R. Ridgway's papers in Am. Journ. Sci., iv, 1872, p. 454 ; v, 1873, p. 39. 

85. fLate Local Lists. Amer. Nat., vii, No. 7, July, 1873, pp. 418-421. 

Reviews of W. H. Dall, Pr. Cola. Acad., 1873; C. H. Holden and C. E. Aiken, Pr. 
Bost. Soc., xv, 1872, p. 193 ; W. D. Scott, ibid., p. 219. 

83. " Birds walking under Water." Forest and Stream, Oct. 16, 1873. 

87. Notes on Two little-known Birds of the United States [Passerculus bairdi, 

Neocorys spraguii]. Amer. Nat., vii, No. 11, November, 1873, pp. 

88. Use of small shot. Amer. Sportsm., Nov. 22, 1873, p. 117. 

89. Specimens of Bird Architecture [Icterus]. Amer. Sportsm., Nov. 29, 1873, 

p. 129. 


90. Range of the Eared Grebe [Podiceps auritus californicus]. Amer. Nat., 

vii, No. 12, December, 1873, p. 745. 

91. Notice of a Rare Bird [Coturniculus lecontii]. Amer. Nat., vii, No. 12, 

December, 1873, pp. 748, 749. 

92. Report | on the | Piybilov Group, or Seal Islands, of Alaska. | By | Henry 

"W. Elliott, | Assistant Agent Treasury Department. | | Washington : | 
Government Printing Office. | 1873. 1 vol. oblong 4to. (Appendix. 
Ornithology of the Prybilov Islands. By Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A.) 
This is the orig. ed., very scarce (150 copies.). See 1875. 

93. A | Check List | of | North American Birds. | | By | Elliott Coues. | | 

Salem. | Naturalists' Agency. | 1873. 8vo. 2 prel. 11., pp. 1-137, 2 11. 

This is the orig. ed. Separately published December, 1873. Also published with 
" Field Ornithology," 1874. 


94. Field Ornithology. | Comprising a | Manual of instruction | for | procuring, 

preparing, and preserving Birds, | and a | Check List of North American 
Birds. | By | Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. | [Monogram.] | Salem : | Natu- 
ralists' Agency. | Boston : Estes & Lauriat. | New York : Dodd & Mead. | 
1874. 1 vol. 8vo. pp. i-iv, 1-116, 1-137, 2 11. 

Published January, 1874. The "Check List" originally published separately, 1873. 

95. [On the Classification of Birds, with Characters of the Higher Groups, and 

Analytical Tables of North American Families.] Baird, Brewer, and 
Ridgway's Hist. N. A. Birds, i, 1874, pp. xiv-xxviii. 

96. Glossary of Technical Terms used in Descriptive Ornithology. Including a 

number of prominent Anatomical and Physiological Terms. Baird, 
Brewer, and Ridgwaifs Hist. N. A. Birds, iii, 1874, pp. 535-560. 

97. Specimens of Bird Architecture [Cinclus mexicanus]. Amer. Sportsm., iii, 

Jan. 17, 1874, p. 245. 

98.*tThe Birds of North America. The Nation, No. 447, Jan. 22, 1874, p. 65. 
Review of Theodore Jasper's work. 

99. Specimens of Bird Architecture [Chsetura pelasgica]. Amer. Sportsm., iii, 
Feb. 14, 1874, p. 313. 

100. Hybrid Ducks [Anas boscas x Hyonetta moschata] . Forest and Stream, 

Feb. 19, 1874. 

101. Hybrid Ducks [Anas boscas x Dafila acuta]. Forest and Stream, March 

5, 1874. 

102. Pet Owls [Bubo virginianus] . Amer. Sportsm., iii, March 7, 1874, p. 354. 

103. |The New Work on Birds. Amer. Sportsm., iii, March 28, 1874, p. 412. 

Review of Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway's work. 


104. t Avifauna of Colorado and Wj-oming. Amer. Nat., viii, No. 4, April, 

1874, p. 240. 

105. The Snow-bird [Junco hiemalis] as a Sparrow. Field and Stream, 

April 4, 1874. 

With reference to the construction of a game law. 

106. Powder-down. Forest and Stream, ii, April 9, 1874, p. 134. 

Luminosity of these feathers in Ardeidse. 

107. Specimens of Bird Architecture [hole-breeders]. Amer. Sportsm., iv, 

April 11, 1874, p. 19. 

108.*fNorth American Ornithology. The Nation, No. 460, April 23, 1874, p. 270 / 
Review of Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway's work. 

109.*tHistory of North American Birds. Forest and Stream, April 30, 1874, 
p. 179. 

Review of Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway's work. 

110. Habits and Characteristics of Swainson's Buzzard [Buteo swainsoni]. 

Amer. Nat., viii, No. 5, May, 1874, pp. 282-287. 

111. fBirds of Illinois. Field and Stream, May 2, 1874. 

Review of R. Ridgway's paper, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, p. 364. 

112. Small Shot. Reply to " Arrow." Amer. Sportsm., May 30, 1874. 

113. The Californian Vulture [Cathartes californianus] . Amer. Sportsm., iv, 

June 13, 1874, p. 160, fig. 

114. Wild Turkeys [Meleagris gallipavo americana] Grouse. Field and 

Stream, June 13, 1874. 

115. Dusky Grouse ; Blue Grouse ; Pine Grouse [Canace obscura] . Field and 

Stream, June 27, 1874, p. 154 ; July 11, 1874, p. 170. 

116. English Sparrows [Passer domesticus] . Amer. Nat. viii, No. 7, July, 

1874, p. 436. 

cf. Bull U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv Terr., v, No. 2, 1879, p. 178. 

117. Shooting Wood Ibises [Tantalus loculator]. Amer. /Sportsm., iv, July 11, 

1874, p. 225. 

118. Plumed Quail [Lophortyx gambeli]. Field and /Stream, July 25, 1874, 

p. 187 ; Aug. 8, 1874, p. 203 ; Aug. 22, 1874, p. 224. 

119. New Species of North American Bird [Tringa ptilocnemis] . Amer. Nat. 

viii, No. 8, August, 1874, pp. 500, 501. 

120. The Cranes [Gruidae] of America. Forest and Stream, iii, Aug. 20, 1874, 

p. 20. 

121. The Blue Quail [Callipepla squamata]. Field and Stream, Aug. 29, 



122. f Recent Publications in Ornithology. Amer. Nat., viii, No. 9, September, 

1874, pp. 541-546. 

Reviews of several papers, chiefly on N. Am. Birds. 

1 23. New Variety of the Blue Grosbeak [Guiraca coerulea eurhyncha] . Amer. 

Nat., viii, No. 9, September, 1874, p. 563. 

1 24. How to Shoot. Field and Stream, Sept. 26, 1874. 

125. On the Nesting of Certain Hawks, etc. Amer. Nat., viii, No. 10, October, 

1874, pp. 596-603. 

Falco coramunis, Buteo swainsoni, Archibuteo ferruginous, and other birds of Montana. 
126.*fA History of North American Birds. Field and Stream, Oct. 31, 1874. 
Review of Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway's work. 

127. The Rails Family Rallidse. Amer. Sportsm., v, Oct. 31, 1874, p. 65. 

128. The Sparrow [Passer domesticus] War. Amer. Sportsm., v, Nov. 21, 

1874, p. 113. 

cf. Bull U. S. Geol and Geogr. Surv. Terr., v, No. 2, 1879, p. 178. 

1 29. Shells Paper or Brass ? Forest and Stream, Dec. 24, 1874. 

130. Department of the Interior. | United States Geological Survey of the Terri- 

tories. | F. V. Hayden, U. S. Geologist-in-Charge. | | Miscellaneous Pub- 
lications No. 3. | | Birds of the Northwest : | A Hand-book | of | The 
Ornithology | of the | Region drained b}' the Missouri River | and its Tribu- 
taries. | | By Elliott Coues, | Captain and Assistant Surgeon U. S. 
Army. | | Washington : | Government Printing Office. | 1874. 1 vol. 
8vo. pp. i-xii, 1-791. 

Pub. Dec. 1874. Ed. of 2,200 copies. 214 copies rebound, reissued, retitled: Birds of 
the North- West : | a Handbook | of | American Ornithology, | containing accounts of all 
the birds inhabiting the | Great Missouri Valley, | and many others, together representing 
a large majority of the | Birds of North America, | with copious biographical details from 
personal | observation, and an extensive synonymy. | . . . Boston : | Estes & Lauriat, 1 
Salem Naturalists' Agency, | 1877. 

131. Monograph of the North American Laridae. Birds of the Northwest, 

December, 1874, pp. 589-717. 


132. A Report | upon the | Condition of Affairs | in the | Territory qf Alaska. | 

| By Henry W. Elliott, | Special Agent Treasury Department. | | 
Washington: | Government Printing Office. | 1875. 1vol. 8vo. pp.277. 
(Chap. IX. Ornithology of the Prybilov Islands. By Dr. Elliott Coues, 
U. S. A. pp. 166-212.) 

Reprinted from the orig. ed., 1873. 

133. The Fauna | of the | Prybilov Islands | abridged from the | " Report on the 

Prybilov Group or Seal Islands of Alaska," | by Henry W. Elliott ; with 
an Appendix on the | Ornithology by Dr. Elliott Coues (Washington, 1873). 


| By J. E. Halting, F. L. S. F. Z. S. | London | reprinted from the Natural 
History columns of | "The Field" for private circulation | 1875 8vo. 
pp. 38, pi. 1. 

134. The Sparrows [Passer domesticus]. Amer. Sportsm., v, Jan. 23, 1875, 

p. 264. 

135. On the Breeding of certain Birds [of Montana Territory]. Amer. Nat., 

ix, No. 2, February, 1875, pp. 75-78. 

136. [On the Nest and Eggs of Gymnocitta cyanocephala.] The Ibis, 3d ser., 

v, April, 1875, pp. 270, 271. 

137. Albino Black-Bird [Xanthocephalus icterocephalus] . Rod and Gun, vi, 

April 10, 1875, p. 24. 

138. Duck Shooting a Cheval. Amer. Sportsm., April 24, 1875. 

139. Sparrows [Passer domesticus] more evidence. Hod and Gun, vi, July 

17, 1875, p. 249. 

140. Ornithology of the Transit-of- Venus " Centennial." Forest and Stream, 

Aug. 19, 1875. 

141 . Fasti Ornithologise Redivivi. No. I. Bartram's 4 Travels.' Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Phila., May-September, 1875, pp. 338-358. 

142.*t [Notice of Brewer's Catalogue of the Birds of New England.]^ Y. 
Independent, Oct. 7, 1875. 

143. fA l^e paper on Birds. Amer. Nat., ix, No. 10, November, 1875, 

pp. 570, 571. 

W. Brewster's, in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., N. Y. xi, 1875, p. 129. 

144. Contributions | to the | Natural Historj 7 " | of | Kerguelen Island, | made in 

connection with the American Transit-of-Venus | Expedition, 1874-75. | 
By | J. H. Kidder, M.D., | Passed Assistant Surgeon U. S. Navy. | | 
I. | Ornithology. | Edited by Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. | | Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., No. 2, 1875, pp. i-ix, 1-51. Washington: Government 
Printing Office. 1875. 
Published November, 1875. 


145. [Peucedramus, g. n., Coues MS.] Rep. Expl. W. 100 Merid., Vol. v, 

1875, p. 202. (Pub. 1876.) 

146. On the Breeding-Habits, Nest, and Eggs, of the White-tailed Ptarmigan 

(Lagopus leucurus). Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., 
2d ser., No. 5, Jan. 8, 1876, pp. 263-266. 
Also published separately. 8vo. Washington, 1876. 

147. Bewick's Wren, Thryothorus Bewicki. Amer. Nat., x, No. 1, January, 

1876, p. 48. 


148. Range of the Bay Ibis [Plegadis falcinellus]. Amer. Nat., x, No. 1, 

January, 1876, p. 48. 

149. Coues to "Boone" [on Brant]. Hod and Gun, vii, Jan. 15, 1876, p. 248. 

150. An Account of the various Publications relating to the Travels of Lewis and 

Clarke, with a Commentary on the Zoological Results of their Expedition. 
Butt. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., 2d ser., No. 6, Feb. 8, 
1876, pp. 417-444. 

Also separate. 8vo. Washington, 1876. 

151. Contributions to the Natural History of Kergiielen Island, [etc.]. Oology, 

etc. By J. H. Kidder and Elliott Coues. Butt. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 3, 
February, 1876, pp. 7-20. 

152. A Study of Chionis minor with reference to its Structure and Systematic 

Position. By J. H. Kidder, U. S. N., and Elliott Coues, U. S. A. 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 3, February, 1876, pp. 85-116. 

153. Reply to Mr. J. A. Allen's ''Availability of certain Bartramian Names in 

Ornithology." Amer. Nat., x, No. 2, February, 1876, pp. 98-102. 

154. Breeding Range of the Snow-Bird [Junco hiemalis]. Amer. Nat., x, 

No. 2, February, 1876, pp. 114, 115. 

155. Unusual Nesting Sites of the Night Hawk [Chordediles popetue] and 

Towhee Bunting [Pipilo erythrophthalmus]. Amer. Nat., x, No. 4, 
April, 1876, p. 239. 

156. Dr. Coues upon Quail, etc. Rod and Gun, viii, April 1, 1876, p. 9. 

157. Dr. Coues on Brant, etc. Rod and Gun, viii, April 1, 1876, p. 8. 

158. fMr. Gentry's Book about Birds. Rod and Gun, viii, April 29, 1876, 

p. 71. 
Review of Life Histories of the Birds of Eastern Pennsylvania, Vol. I. 

159. The Labrador Duck [Camptolsemus labradorius] . Amer. Nat., x, No. 5, 

May, 1876, p. 303. 

160.*tLife-Histories of the Birds of Eastern Pennsylvania. The Nation, May 4, 

Review of Vol. I. of T. G. Gentry's work. 

161. The European Woodcock [Scolopax rusticula] shot in Virginia. Amer. 

Nat., x, No. 6, June, 1876, p. 372. 

162. Notable Change of Habit of the Bank Swallow [i. e., Stelgidopteryx serri- 

pennis]. Amer. Nat., x, No. 6, June, 1876, pp. 372, 373. 

163. Letters on Ornithology. No. 1. The Oregon Robin [Turdus naevius]. 

Chicago Field, June 24, 1876, fig. 

This illustrated series of 30 Letters, running from above date to July, 1879, at various 
intervals, is in part new, partly from the " Birds of the Northwest." 


164. Tarsal Envelope in Campylorhynchus and allied Genera. Bull. Nutt. Orn. 

Club, i, No. 2, July, 1876, pp. 50, 51. 

165. Brant once more. Rod and Gun, July 8, 1876. 

166. Letters on Ornithology. No. 2. The American Tree-Creeper [Certhia 

familiaris]. Chicago Field, Aug. 12, 1876, fig. 

167. Letters on Ornithology. No. 3. The Blue-gray Gnatcatcher [Polioptila 

coerulea]. Chicago Field, Aug. 26, 1876, fig. 

168. On the Number of Primaries in Oscines. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, i, No. 3, 

September, 1876, pp. 60-63. 

169. Letters on Ornithology. No. 4. The Horned or Shore Lark [Eremophila 

alpestris]. Chicago Field, Oct. 7, 1876, fig. 

170. Peculiar Nesting-Site of the Bank-Swallow [i. e., Stelgidopteryx serripennis]. 

Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, i, No, 4, November, 1876, p. 96. 

171. Dr. Coues on " Partridge," " Quail," Etc. Rod and Gun, Nov. 11, 1876. 

172. Letters on Ornithology. No. 5. Marsh Wrens [Telmatodytes palustris, 

Cistothorus stellaris]. Chicago Field, Nov. 18, 1876, figg. 

173. *Anecdote of a Crow's [Corvus maritimus] Intelligence. N. Y. Indepen- 

dent, Nov. 23, 1876. 

174. The Destruction of Birds by Telegraph Wire. Amer. Nat., x, No. 12, 

December, 1876, pp. 734-736. 
Copied abridged by the press at large. 

175. Letters on Ornithology. No. 6. The Shrike, or Butcher Bird [Lanius 

borealis]. Chicago Field, Dec. 2, 1876, fig. 

176.*fRecent Text-books of Zoology. N". T. Independent, Dec. 2, 1876. 
Reviews of E. S. Morse's and S. Tenney's works. 

1 77. Letters on Ornithology. No. 7. The Catbird (Mimus carolinensis] . 

Chicago Field, Dec. 9, 1876, fig. 

178. Letters on Ornithology. No. 8. Nuthatches [Sittidae]. Chicago Field, 

Dec. 16, 1876, fig. 

179.*tLife-Histories o f Animals, including Man. The Nation, No. 369, 1876. 
Review of A. S. Packard's work. 

180. Letters on Ornithology. No. 9. The Red-tailed Buzzard [Buteo borealis] 
and other Hawks. Chicago Field, Dec. 23, 1876, fig. 

181.*tThe Land-Birds and Game-Birds of New England. The Nation, Dec. 28, 

Review of H. D. Minot's work. 

182. Letters on Ornithology. No. 10. Titmice, Tomtits, or Chickadees 
[Paridae]. Chicago Field, Dec. 30, 1876, figg. 



183. Note on Podiceps dominicus. Ball. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, No. 1, January, 

1877, p. 26. 

1 84. Eastward Range of the Ferruginous Buzzard [Archibuteo ferrugineus] . 

Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, No. 1, January, 1877, p. 26. 

185. Letters on Ornithology. No. 11. Swallows [Hirundinidse] . Chicago 

Field, Jan. 6, 1877, figg. 

186. Letters on Ornithology. No. 12. Woodpeckers [Picidaj]. Chicago 

Field, Jan. 13, 1877, 6 figg. 

187.*|The Land Birds and Game Birds of New England. Forest and Stream, 
Jan. 25, 1877. 

Review of H. D. Minot's work. 

188.*|Land Birds and Game Birds of New England. Rod and Gun, Jan. 27, 

Review of H. D. Minot's work. 

189. Letters on Ornithology. No. 13. The Harrier [Circus cyaneus hud- 

sonius]. Chicago Field, Feb. 3, 1877. 

190. To the Swallow. Hod and Gun, Feb. 3, 1877. 

191. Letters on Ornithology. No. 13 [bis = 14]. Grasshoppers [in connec- 

tion with habits of the Sharp-tailed Grouse, Pedioecetes phasianellus 
coluinbianus] . Chicago Field, March 17, 1877, fig. 

1 92. Corrections of Nomenclature in the Genus Siurus. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 

ii, No. 2, April, 1877, pp. 29-33. 

193. fMinot's " Birds of New England." Bull Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, No. 2, 

April, 1877, pp. 49, 50. 
Review of H. D. Minot's work. 

194. Western Range of Conurus carolinensis. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 

No. 2, April, 1877, p. 50. 

195. Note on the Cinnamon Teal (Querquedula cyanoptera). Bull. Nutt. Orn. 

Club, ii, No. 2, April, 1877, p. 51. 

1 96. Remarks on the Birds of the District of Columbia. By Drs. E. Coues and 

D. W. Prentiss. Field and Forest, ii, No. 11, May, 1877, pp. 191-193. 

Also in a separate pamphlet entitled: Catalogue of the Birds of the District of 
Columbia, prepared by Pierre Louis Jouy, with Remarks on the Birds of the District, by 
Drs. Coues and Prentiss. 8vo. Washington, 1877, pp. 11. 

197. The Song that the Bluebird Sings. Harper's Magazine, Ma}', 1877, p. 891. 

Reprinted in many places. 

1 98. Notes on the Ornithology of the Region about the Source of the Red River 

of Texas, from Observations made during the Explorations conducted by 
Lieut. E. H. Ruffner, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. By C. A. H. 


McCauley, Lieut. Third United States Artillery. Annoted by Dr. Elliott 
Coues, U. S. A. .Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., ii, No. 3, 
May, 1877, pp. 655-695. 

Also separate, new cover-title, same pagination. 

199. Birds [etc.]. The (Baltimore) Mirror, June 1, July 1, Aug. 1, Sept. 1, 

Oct. 1, Nov. 1, Dec. 1, 1877. 
From the " Birds of the Northwest." 

200. Leptoptila \_lege Engyptila] albifrons, a Pigeon new to the United States 

Fauna. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, No. 3, July, 1877, pp. 82-83. 

201. Melopelia leucoptera in Colorado. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, No. 3, July, 

1877, p. 83. 

202. Dr. Coues replies to Dr. Brewer [in the Sparrow (Passer domesticus) contro- 

versy]. Washington Gazette, July 8, 1877. 

203. Letters on Ornithology. No. 15. Curious Crows [Picicorvus columbianus, 

Gymnocitta C3~anocephala] . Chicago Field, July 14, 1877, figg. 

204. Letters on Ornithology. No. 16. The English Sparrow [Passer domes- 

ticus]. Chicago Field, July 21, 1877. 
Many reprints elsewhere. 

205.*tOur Birds of Prey ; or, the Eagles, Hawks, and Owls of Canada. The 
Nation, 1877, p. 341. 
Review of H. G. Vennor's work. 

206. Letters on Ornithology. No. 16 [bis]. The American Warblers. Fam- 
ily Sylvicolidae. Chicago Field, Dec. 15, 1877, fig. 


207. Department of the Interior | United States Geological Survey of the Terri- 

tories | F. V. Hayden, U. S. Geologist-in-Charge | | Miscellaneous 
Publications No. 1 1 | | Birds of the Colorado Valley j A Repository 
of | Scientific and Popular Information | concerning | North American Or- 
nithology By | Elliott Coues | | V/itf', r^&s %&t8wv xalag wQag ayovaa \ 
| Part First | Passeres to Laniidse | Bibliographical Appendix | Seventy 
Illustrations | | Washington | Government Printing Office | 1878 8vo. 
pp. i-xvi, 1-807, figg. 70. 

208. List of Faunal Publications relating to North American Ornithology. 

Birds Colorado Valley, Part I, 1878, Appendix, pp. 567-784 or [1] 

This constitutes the First Instalment of Ornithological Bibliography ; for 2d, 3d, and 
4th, see 1879 and 1880. 


209. Notes on the Natural History of Fort Macon, N. C., and Vicinity. (No. 4.) 

By Drs. Elliott Coues and H. C. Yarrow. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1878, pp. 21-28. 

Supplementary to No. 1, Vertebrates, 1871. Birds, pp. 22-24. (No. 3, Fishes, is by 
Dr. Yarrow.) 

210. Note on Passerculus bairdi and P. princeps. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii. 

No. 1, January, 1878, pp. 1-3, pi. col'd. 

211. The Northern Phalarope [Lobipes hyperboreus] in North Carolina. Bull. 

Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, No. 1, January, 1878, pp. 40, 41. 

212. The Willow Grouse [Lagopus albus] in New York. Bull. Nutt. Orn. 

Club, iii, No. 1, January, 1878, p. 41. 

213. Pipilo erythrophthalmus with spotted Scapulars. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 

iii, No. 1, Januarj', 1878, pp. 41-42. 

214. Melanism in Turdus migratorius. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, No. 1, Jan- 

uary, 1878, pp. 47, 48. 

215. The Sparrow [Passer domesticus] Pest. The Country, Jan. 19, 1878. 

216. Letters on Ornithology. No. 17. The Aquatic Wood-Wagtail, or New 

York Water Thrush. (Siurus nsevius.) Chicago Field, Feb. 2, 1878. 

217. Notes on the Ornithology of the Lower Rio Grande of Texas, from Obser- 

vations made during the season of 1877. By George B. Sennett. Edited, 
with Annotations, by Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. Bull. IT. 8. Geol. and 
Geogr. Surv. Terr., iv, No. 1, Feb. 5, 1878, pp. 1-66. 
Also separate, new cover-title, same pagination. 

218. Peculiar Feathers of Young Ruddy Duck [Erismatura rubida]. Amer. 

Nat. xii, No. 2, February, 1878, pp. 123, 124, fig. 

219. Justice to the English Sparrows [Passer domesticus]. The Country, Feb. 

16, 1878. 

220. fA Book on Bird- Architecture. The Country, March 16, 1878. 

Ernest Ingersoll's proposed treatise. 

221. On the Moult of the Bill and Palpebral Ornaments in Fratercula arctica. 

Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, No. 2, April, 1878, pp. 87-91. 

222. Habits of the Kingfisher [Cerjle alcyon] . Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 

No. 2, April, 1878, p. 92. 

223. Nesting of Vireo olivaceus. Bull Nutt. Orn, Club, iii, No. 2, April, 1878, 

p. 95. 

224. Nest and Eggs of Selasphorus platycercus. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 

No. 2, April, 1878, p. 95. 

225. Meaning of the word " Anhinga." Bull. Nut. Orn. Club, iii, No. 2, April, 

1878, p. 101. 


226. Letters on Ornithology. No. 18. The Yellow-breasted Chat. Chicago 

Field, June 29, 1878. 

227. The Eave, Cliff, or Crescent Swallow (Petrochelidon lunifrons). Bull. 

Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, No. 3, July, 1878, pp. 105-112. 

228. fMr. H. Saunders on the Sterninae. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, No. 3, 

July, 1878, pp. 140-144. 

Review of the paper in the Proc. Zool Soc. Lond , 1876, p. 638. 

229. Swallow-tailed Kite [Elanoides forficatus] in Dakota in Winter. Bull. 

Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, No. 3, July, 1878, p. 147. 

230. New Birds [five species] for the United States Fauna. The Country, 

July, 13, 1878, p. 184. 

231. Field-Notes on Birds observed in Dakota and Montana along the Forty-ninth 

Parallel during the Seasons of 1873 and 1874. Bull. U. S. Geol. and 
Geogr. Surv. Terr., iv, No. 3, July 29, 1878, pp. 545-662. 
Also separate, new cover-title, same pagination, 8vo, Washington, 1878. 

232. The Ineligibility of the European House Sparrow [Passer domesticus] in 

America. Amer. Nat., xii, No. 8, August, 1878, pp. 499-505. 

Reprinted, Chicago Field, Aug. 31, 1878; reprinted, The Country, Aug. 3, 1878; and 

233. A Hint to Egg-Collectors. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, No. 4, October, 

1878, p. 191, cut. 

234. Nest and Eggs of Helminthophaga pinus. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, No. 

4, October, 1878, p. 194. 

235. fWilson's and Bonaparte's American Ornithology. The Nation, Nov. 7, 


Review of the Porter and Coates' edition of 1878. 


236. fJones and Shulze's Illustrations of the Nest and Eggs of the Birds of Ohio. 

Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, No. 1, January, 1879, p. 52. 

237. [Note on Dendroaca chrysoparia] . Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, No. 1, Jan- 

uary, 1879, p. 60. 

238. Nests and Eggs of the Clay-colored Bunting [Spizella pallida]. The Oolo- 

gist, iv, No. 7, February, 1879, p. 50. 

239. Coues on the Nest and Eggs of the Water Thrush [Siurus naevius]. The 

Oologist, iv, No. 8, March, 1879, p. 57. 

240. The Sparrow [Passer domesticus] Nuisance. The Washington World, 

March 17, 1879. 


241. Histor} 7 of the Evening Grosbeak [Hesperophona vespertina], Bull. Nutt. 

Orn. Club, iv, No. 2, April, 1879, pp. 65-75. 

242. fLangdon's Revised List of Cincinnati Birds. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 

No. 2, April, 1879, pp. 112, 113. 

243. Note on Dendroeca townsendi. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, No. 2, April, 

1879, p. 117. 

244. Note on Bucephala islandica. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, No. 2, April, 

1879, pp. 126, 127. 

245. Letters on Ornithology. No. 19. The Curlews [Numenius] of North 

America. The Chicago Field, April, 26, 1879. 

246. Letters on Ornitholog} r . No. 20. The American Bittern [Botaurus mugi- 

tans]. Chicago Field, May 10, 1879. 

247. Letters on Ornithology. No. 21. History of the Red-breasted, or Cinna- 

mon Teal [Querquedula cyanoptera]. Chicago Field, May 17, 1879. 

248. Letters on Ornithology. No. 22. The Snow Goose, or White Brant 

[Chen hyperboreus] . Chicago Field, May 24, 1879. 

249. Private Letters of Wilson, Ord and Bonaparte. Penn Monthly, June, 

1879, pp. 443-455. 

250. Letters on Ornithology. No. 23. The American Coot [Fulica americana]. 

Chicago Field, June 9, 1879. 

25 1 . Letters on Ornithology. No. 24. The Wood Ibis [Tantalus loculator] . 

Chicago Field, June 14, 1879. 

252. Letters on Ornithology. No. 25. The Solitary Tattler; Wood Tattler 

[Rhyacophilus solitarius]. Chicago Field, June 21, 1879. 

253. Letters on Ornithology. No. 26. Semipalmated Tattler, Willet, Stone 

Snipe [Symphemia semipalmata]. Chicago Field, June 28, 1879. 

254. To prevent Grease from injuring the Plumage of Birds. Amer. Nat., xiii, 

No. 7, Jury, 1879, p. 456. 

255. [On the Use of Trinomials in Zoological Nomenclature], Bull. Nutt. Orn. 

Club, iv, No. 3, July, 1879, p. 171. 

256. Le Conte's Thrasher (Harporhynchus lecontii). The Oologist, iv, No. 12, 

July, 1879, pp. 99-100. 

257. Letters on Ornithology. No. 27. Bartramian Sandpiper or Tattler; Up- 

land Plover [Bartrarnia longicauda]. Chicago Field, July 5, 1879. 

258. Letters on Ornithology. No. 28. The Buff-breasted Sandpiper [Tryngites 

rufescens]. Chicago Field, July 12, 1879. 


259. Letters on Ornithology. No. 29. Great Marbled God wit [Limosa foeda]. 

Chicago Field, July 19, 1879. 

260. Letters on Ornithology. No. 30. The Great White Egret [Herodias 

egretta]. Chicago Field, July 26, 1879. 

261. -f-Ingersoll's Nests and Eggs of American Birds. Amer. Nat., xiii, No. 8, 

Aug. 1879, pp. 515, 516. 

262. fTexan Ornithology. Amer. Nat., xiii, No. 8, August, 1879, pp. 516-519. 

263. Nesting of the Great Blue Heron [Ardea herodias] in the West. Chicago 

Field, Aug. 2, 1879. 

264. On the Present Status of Passer domesticus in America, with Special Refer- 

ence to the Western States and Territories. Bull. IT. S. Geol. and 
Geogr. Surv. Terr., v, No. 2, Sept. 6, 1879, pp. 175-193. 
Including the bibliography of the subject. Also sep. pamphlet. 

265. Second Instalment of American OrnithologicaJ Bibliography. Bull. U. S. 

Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., v, No. 2, Sept. 6, 1879, pp. 239-330. 

The First Instalment forms the Appendix of " Birds of the Colorado Valley," Part I, 
1878. Also sep. pamphlet, new cover-title, same pagination. 

266. Note on the Black-capped Greenlet, Vireo atricapillus of Woodhouse. 

Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, No. 4, October, 1879, pp. 193, 194, pi. I 

267. Southward Range of Centrophanes lapponica. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 

No. 4, October, 1879, p. 238. 

268. Obituary. [Miss Genevieve E. Jones.] Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, No. 

4, October, 1879, p. 228. 

269. A Correction [respecting Buteo borealis] . Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 

No. 4, October, 1879, p. 242. 

270. Note on Alle nigricans, Link. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, No. 4, October, 

1879, p. 244. 

271. Destructiveness of English Sparrows [Passer domesticus]. Amer. Nat., 

xiii, No. 11, November, 1879, p. 706. 

272. Further Notes on the Ornithology of the Lower Rio Grande of Texas, from 

Observations made during the Spring of 1878. By George B. Sennett. 
Edited, with Annotations, by Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. Bull. U. S. 
Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., v, No. 3, Nov. 30, 1879, pp. 371-440. 
Also separate, new cover-title, same pagination. 


273. The Origin of the Turkey [Meleagris gallipavo]. Forest and Stream, xiii, 

No. 22, Jan. 1, 1880, p. 947. 


274. Sketch of North American Ornithology in 1879. Amer. Nat., xiv, No. 1, 

January, 1880, pp. 20-25. 

275. On the Nesting in Missouri of Ernpidonax acadicus and Empidonax trailli. 

Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, v, No. 1, January, 1880, pp. 20-25. 

276. flngersoll's Nests and Eggs of American Birds. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 

v, No. 1, January, 1880, pp. 38, 39. 

277. t Tne Misses Jones and Shulze's Nests and Eggs of Ohio Birds. Bull. Nutt. 

Orn. Club, v, No. 1, January, 1880, pp. 39, 40. 

278. Description of the Female Dendroeca kirtlandi. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 

v, No. 1, January, 1880, pp. 49, 50. 

279. Note on Limosa haemastica. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, \, No. 1, January, 

1880, pp. 59, 60. 

280. Capture of Phaethon flavirostris in Western New York. Butt. Nutt. Orn. 

Club, v, No. 1, January, 1880, p. 63. 

281. Depredations of the European Sparrow [Passer domesticus]. Amer. Nat., 

xiv, No. 2, February, 1880, p. 130. 

282. Advent of Passer domesticus in North Carolina. Amer. Nat., xiv, No. 3, 

March, 1880, p. 213. 

283. Notes and Queries concerning the Nomenclature of North American Birds. 

Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, No. 2, April, 1880, pp. 95-102. 

284. Further Light on the Moult of the Bill in certain Mormonidae. Bull. Nutt. 

Orn. Club, v, No. 2, April, 1880, pp. 127-128. 

285. Fourth Instalment of Ornithological Bibliography : being a List of Faunal 

Publications relating to British Birds. Proc. U. S. Nat. JMus., ii, 
May 31, 1880, pp. 359-482. 

This Instalment antedates the Third, below. Also separate, with new cover-title. 

286. [Letters on Passer domesticus in America and Australia.] Forest and 

Stream, April 15, 1880, p. 204. 

287. Shufeldt's Memoir on the Osteologj 1 of Speotyto cunicularia hj-pogaea. 

Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, No. 3, July, 1880, pp. 129, 130, pll. I-III. 

288. fGentry's Nests and Eggs of the Birds of Penns3 T lvania. Bull. Nutt. Orn. 

Club, v, No. 3, July, 1880, p. 179. 

289. fOber's Camps in the Caribees. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, No. 3, July, 

1880, p. 179. 

290. Nest and Eggs of Catherpes mexicanus conspersus. Bull. Nutt. Orn. 

Club, v, No. 3, July, 1880, pp. 181, 182. 

291. Number of Eggs of Ardea herodias. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, No. 3, 

July, 1880, p. 187. 


292. Note on Grus fraterculus of Cassin. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, No. 3, 

July, 1880, p. 188. 

293. Third Instalment of American Ornithological Bibliography. Bull. U. S. 

Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., vi, No. 4, Sept. 30, 1880, pp. 521-1066. 
Not published till after the 4th, above. Not separate, occupying the whole No. of 

294. " Behind the Veil." Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, No. 4, October, 1880, 

pp. 193-204. 

Gossip over letters and other relics of Wilson and Audubon. 

295. fMarsh's Palseornithology. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, No. 4, October, 

1880, pp. 234-236. 

Review of O. C. Marsh's " Odontornithes." 

296. Rural Bird Life | being | Essays on Ornithology | with instructions for pre- 

serving objects | relating to that science | by | Charles Dixon | with forty- 
five illustrations ; and a preface ( By Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. . . . 
Boston | Estes and Lauriat | 299 to 305 Washington Street. | [1880.] 1 
vol. sm. 8vo. Title and pp. i-xvi, 1-374, 45 illust. 
American Editor's preface, pp. iii-viii. 


297. A curious Colaptes [auratus x mexicanus] . Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 

No. 3, July, 1881, p. 183. 

298. A Correction [Trogonidse] . Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, No. 3, July, 

1881, p. 188. 

299. Probable Occurrence of Sarcorhamphus papa in Arizona. Bull. Nutt. Orn. 

Club, vi, No. 4, October, 1881, p. 248. 

300. New England Bird Life | being a | Manual | of | New England Ornithology 

| revised and edited from the Manuscript of | Winfrid A. Stearns | 
Member of the Nuttall Ornithological Club etc. | By | Dr. Elliott Coues 
U. S. A. | Member of the Academy etc. | Part I. Oscines | Boston 
Lee and Shepard Publishers | New York Charles T. Dillingham | 1881 
1 vol. 8vo. Title and pp. 1-324, figg. 1-56. 

University Press: John Wilson & Son, Cambridge, Mass. 




nrno r T^~CJ 1 Cl Jp*- T~ A "TTTOT A nn 

Jojo JL ljo <5& J-^j\. U JrC^fx JL 9 

301-305 Washington Street, opposite Old South, Boston, 

life-size, in one vol., elephant folio. With descriptive text; 8 vols. bound in 4. Together, 5 
vols., all bound uniform in heavy half Russia binding. New York, 1857. Reduced from 
$250.00 to $165.00. This grand work is now out of print and never can be produced again. 

This magnificent work is in one elephant folio volume, measuring three feet five inches long by two feet three inches 
wide ; containing upwards of three hundred and fifty beautifully colored figures of birds, portraying their action while in 
motion, all of which are life-size ; together with a large number of illustrations of the plants and trees most frequented by 
the birds ; a great variety of charming landscapes adding much to the beauty of the work. The descriptive text consists of 
eight volumes bound in four royal octavo volumes, giving the habits of the birds, anecdotes relating to them, by the great 
ornithologist who made this science the study of his long and useful life, with full descriptive text of all the birds, delinea- 
tions of American scenery, plants, trees, &c. ; also an account of many very exciting narratives of personal adventures, hair- 
breadth escapes, being the experience of Mr. Audubon himself while in pursuit of the birds, and it is, without exception, 
one of the most fascinating, valuable, entertaining, and remarkable works published. This set is bound in heavy Russia 
half binding, library style, and offered for sale at the above low price, a very great bargain and a rare opportunity. If 
ordered from a distance, will be carefully packed in a case made expressly. The present offers a rare chance to lovers of 
works of art to procure, at a small price, one of the most costly and valuable works ever issued. 

GY ; or, Natural History of the Birds of the 
United States. New and enlarged edition. 3 
vols. 8vo. With portrait of Wilson, and 103 
plates, exhibiting nearly 400 figures of birds, 
accurately engraved and beautifully printed in 
colors. New edition. London, 1877. 

Reduced from $25.00 to $12.50. 
This is by far the best edition of the American Ornithol- 
ogy, both on account of the beautiful plates, and the inter- 
esting notes of the editor ; and every ornithologist should, if 
possible, procure this edition. 


(History of the). By Jonathan Couch, F.L.S. 

Illustrated with 256 carefully colored plates. 

4 vols. Royal 8vo. Cloth. London, 1877. 

Reduced from $42.00 to $23.00. 

The author, who is well known as one of the first practi- 
cal authorities on British fishes, has for fifty years been 
observing, noting, and drawing with his own pencil, the 
various fish which live in British waters, avast labor, in 
which he has been assisted by scientific friends living in 
various portions of the United Kingdom. The drawings are 
beautifully colored to life, and some of the portraits (espec- 
ially of the dog-fish) are really marvellous, rendering the 
recognition of a fish a work of the greatest ease. 

scriptions of their Nests, Eggs, Habits, &c., &c. 
By H. G. and H. B. Adams. Illustrated with 
30 beautiful full page colored plates. Contain- 
ing hundreds of figures of birds and their eggs, 
well colored to nature. Small 4to, gilt edges. 
London, 1874. Reduced from $12.00 to $5.00. 

The present work is an effort to produce a book which 
Bhall give a concise yet sufficiently full description of the 
snialler British birds ; not a scientific work, but one essen- 
tially popular in its character, rendered attractive by lifelike 
portraits of the birds, drawn and colored as closely to nature 
as the eye and the hand of the artist can make them. 

BRITISH GRASSES (Natural History of). 

By E. J. Lowe, Esq. Illustrated with 74 "finely 

colored plates. 8vo. Cloth. 1874. 

Reduced from $10.00 to $6.00. 

This is a work not only valuable to the botanical student 
for its pictorial accuracy, but of use also to the landed pro- 
prietor and the farmer, pointing out to them those grasses 
which are useful and lucrative in husbandry, and teaching 
them the varied soils and positions upon which they thrive, 
and explaining their qualities and the several uses to which 
they are applied in many branches of manufacture and in- 


(Natural History of). By E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
Illustrated with 479 finely colored plates. 8 vols. 
Royal 8vo. Cloth. London, 1872. 

Reduced from $60.00 to $32.00. 

A book which should contain ample means of studying 
and identifying the Exotic species, accessible to persons of 
moderate means, has hitherto been a desideratum. This 
want the present work promises most hopefully to fill. It is 
admirably " got up ; " the plates are carefully and prettily exe- 
cuted ; there is a neat illustrative woodcut at the head of 
each description, and the letterpress is full and practical, 
without being deficient in scientific accuracy. It is really 
the cheapest work for its excellence we have ever seen, and 
should be ' in the hands of every gardener and every private 
person who cultivates these charming objects." 

tory of). Containing Species and Varieties not 
included in other works. By E. J. Lowe. Illus- 
trated with 72 colored plates and numerous wood- 
cuts. 8vo. Cloth. London, 1871. 

Reduced from $10.00 to $6.00. 

So many new ones have been introduced, that it has been 
deemed necessary to publish a separate volume. This work 
will be found to contain colored plates or woodcut illustra- 
tions of one hundred and fifty -one new species. 

BRITISH MOSSES. Their Homes, Aspects, 
Structure, and Uses. Containing a Colored Fig- 
ure of each species, etched from Nature. By 
F. E. Tripp. Illustrated with beautifully colored 
plates. 2 vols. Koyal 8vo. Cloth. London, 1874. 
Reduced from $25.00 to $13.00. 
It is a book to read, to ponder, to mark, learn, and in- 
wardly digest. . . . Let those who want to know the "moral" 
of mosses inquire within the covers of the volume. He will 
there find that these humble plants have their uses, their 
yirtues, and their mission. 

NATURAL HISTORY (Museum of): being 
a Popular Account of the Structure, Habits, and 
Classification of the various departments of the 
Animal Kingdom. By Sir John Richardson and 
others. With a History of the American Fauna, 
by Joseph B. Holder, M.D., Fellow of the New 
York Academy of Sciences. Illustrated Avith hun- 
dreds of steel engravings, also many finely col- 
ored plates, and numerous woodcuts. 4to. Cloth, 
gilt, extra. New York, 18SO. 

Reduced from $24.00 to $10.50. 
Not only written in a free, familiar, teaching style, but 
exquisitely illustrated and beautifully got up. Gives a large 
amount of information on the subject of animal life, and we 
commend these handsome volumes very heartily to all in- 
terested in natural history. 

AND SCOTICA; or, portraits of Forest 
Trees distinguished for their antiquity, magni- 
tude, or beauty. Drawn from Nature, and etched 
bv Jacob George Strutt. Imperial folio. Com- 
prising 50 very large and highly finished etchings. 
Half bound morocco, extra, gilt edges. London, 
1826. Reduced from $45.00 to $18.00. 

Some of the etchings resemble the paintings by Waterloo 

very strikingly ; but the whole are various, beautiful, and 


of). Accurately delineating every known Spe- 
cies, with the English as well as the Scientific 
Names, accompanied by full Descriptions, Date 
of Appearance, Lists of the Localities they haunt, 
their Food in the Caterpillar State, and other 
Features of their Habits and Modes of Existence, 
&c. By Rev. F. 0. Morris, B.A. The plates 
contain nearly 2,000 exquisitely colored speci- 
mens. In 4 vols. Royal 8vo. Cloth. London. 
Reduced from $60.00 to $32.00. 
Speaking of entomology, we should place Mr. Morris's 
" History of British Moths " at the head. It gives a colored 
figure of every known British moth, together with dates of 
appearance, localities, description, and food of caterpillar. It 
forms a handsome work for a library, and will, we should 
hope, lead many to commence the fascinating study of ento- 

OUR NATIVE FERNS; or, a History of 
the British Species and their Varieties. By E. 
J. Lowe. With 79 colored and 909 wood engrav- 
ings. 2 vols, 8vo. Cloth. London, 1874. 

Reduced from $20.00 to $12.00. 
The importance and value of this work may be inferred 
from the fact that it contains descriptions of 1,294 varieties 
of British ferns, with 79 colored plates of species and vari- 
eties, and 909 wood engravings, containing much interesting 
information. The localities are described, each synonyme 
given, and a description of the proper method of cultivation. 
There are 184 varieties figured. 

BRITISH SEA- WEEDS. Drawn from Pro- 
fessor Harvey's "Phycologia Britannica." With 
Descriptions, and Amateur's Synopsis, Rules for 
Laying on Sea-weeds, an Order for Arranging 
them "in the Herbarium, and an Appendix of 
New Species. By Mrs. Alfred Gatty. Illus- 
trated with 80 exquisitely colored plates, contain- 
ing 384 figures. 2 vols. 8vo. Cloth. London, 
1874. Reduced from $24.00 to $13.00. 

In her present work she has endeavored, and we think 
most successfuly, to translate the terms and phrases of 
science into the language of amateurs. Mrs. Gatty 's famil- 
iarity with the plants themselves has enabled her to do this 
office without falling into the errors to which a mere com- 
piler in separating from the beaten track would be liable. 

FLIES. By the Rev. F. O. Morris, B.A. 
Illustrated with 72 beautifully colored plates. 
Royal 8vo. Cloth. London, 1676. 

Reduced from $10.00 to $6.00. 

With colored illustrations of all the species, and separate 
figures of the male and female, where there is any obvious 
difference between them, and also of the under side, together 
with the caterpillar and chrysalis, and a full description of 
each, with copious accounts of their several habits, localities, 
and times of appearance, together with details as to their 
preservation, &c.,with newaud valuable information, the 
result of the author's experience for many years. 

ALPINE PLANTS. Descriptions and 200 
accurately colored figures (drawn and engraved 
expressly for this work) of some of the most 
striking and beautiful of the Alpine Flowers. 
Edited by David Wooster. 2 vols. Roval 8vo. 
Cloth. London. Reduced from $20.00 to $13.00. 
The manner in which " Alpine Plants " is produced is 
creditable alike to author ami artist. The literary portion 
is not the mere dry botanical description often found in Fuch 
works, but a popular description of the plant, instructions 
as to its culture and treatment, with any interesting infor- 
mation in connection with it that can be obtained. . . . We 
heartily commend this work to all lovers of flowers. 
OWEN (Richard). Comparative Anatomy and 
Physiology of Vertebrates. Vol. I. Fishes and 
Reptiles. Vol. II. Birds and Mammals. Vol. 
III. Mammals. 3 vols. 8vo. Cloth. Illus- 
trated with an immense number of beautiful 
woodcuts. London, Longmans, 1866-68. 

Reduced from $24.00 to $10.50. 
This work has long been the highest authority on this 
subject, and has received the praise of such men as Tyndall, 
Huxley, and others. Humboldt speaks of Owen as the great- 
est anatomist of his age, and he is generally called the Cuvier 
of England and the "Newton of natural history.'' 

popular illustrated Magazine of Natural Historv. 
Edited by A. S. Packard, Jr., E. S. Morse, A. 
Hyatt, and F. W. Putnam. Numerous illustra- 
tions, many full-paged. 10 vols. (Complete 
from commencement to 1878.) 8vo. Cloth. 
Salem, 1868-77. Reduced from $50.00 to $25.00. 
The Naturalist contains departments of Geography and 

Travel, Microscopy, and Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 

A digest of the contents of foreign scientific journals and 

transactions is also given, together with the latest home and 

foreign scientific news. 


report comprising the results of Exploration or- 
dered by the Legislature, by C. H. Hitchcock and 
J. H. Huntington. Illustrated with nearly 250 
illustrations, maps, diagrams (many of which are 
full-page). 3 vols. Royal 8vo. 1,200 pages. 
Half morocco. With large and valuable Atlas 
completing the work, forming the fourth volume. 
Concord, 1874. Reduced from $40.00 to $25.00. 
This great work, which is without a doubt the most valu- 
able report ever published, contains many articles of interest 
to the general reader, as well as the geologist, as many of the 
articles were prepared by gentlemen eminent in their spec- 
ialties, such as the Natural History and Botany, and a His- 
tory of the Explorations among the White Mountains, &c. 

DINE'S. By Sir William Jardine. 42 vols. 
Foolscap. 8vo. 1,200 colored plates. With 
numerous Portraits and Memoirs of Eminent 
Naturalists. Extra cloth, top edges, gilt. (Sold 
only in sets.) London, 1865. 

Reduced from $84.00 to $36.00. 
Contents : British Birds ; Sun Birds ; Humming Birds ; 
Game Birds ; Pigeons ; Parrots ; Flycatchers ; Peacocks ; 
Lions ; Tigers ; British Quadrupeds ; Dogs, 2 vols ; Rumi- 
nating Animals, vol. 1 (Deer, Antelopes, &c.); Ruminating 
Animals, vol. 2 (Goats, Sheep) ; Seals ; Whales, &c. ; Mon- 
keys ; British Butterflies ; British Moths, &c. ; Foreign 
Butterflies ; Foreign Moths ; Beetles ; Bees ; Introduction, 
and Foreign Fishes ; British Fishes, 2 vols. ; Perch, &c ; 
Fishes of Guiana, 2 vols. 

Sir William Jardine's coadjutors in this admirable series 
were Swainson, Selby, Macgillivray, Waterhouse, Duncan, 
Hamilton, Smith, and others. 

This book is, perhaps, the most interesting, the most 
beautiful, and the cheapest series ever offered to the public. 

I - 


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